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What Are Lam Shamsiyya and Lam Qamariyya? – Full Guide with Examples

Lam Shamsiyya and Lam Qamariyya
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This article will discuss one of the most basic Arabic rules related to Tajweed Letters and the proper Quran recitation. In the following, we will clarify the meaning of Lam Shamsiyya and Lam Qamariyya. Besides, we will highlight the letters of Lam Shamsiyya and Lam Qamariyya and ways of their pronunciation with illustrated examples.

What Are Lam Shamsiyya and Lam Qamariyya In Arabic?

Lam Shasiyya and Lam Qamariyya are a rule related to a way of pronunciation of the Arabic definite article ‘Al’ that corresponds to the word ‘the’ in English. The Lam (Al) comes at the beginning of the word to define it. 

The definite article ‘Al’ may be pronounced as ‘Al’ or sometimes as ‘A’ skipping the letter Lam. This depends on the letter following the article ‘Al’; namely the very first letter of the word.

The definite article ‘Al’ is categorized into Lam Shamsiyya and Lam Qamarriyya. Each of them has a set of letters from the Arabic Alphabet. By knowing the letters of each group, you’d be able to decide how to pronounce ‘Al’ in the desired word.

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How To Pronounce Lam Shamsiyya and Lam Qamariyya?

Lam Shamsiyya is pronounced as ‘A’. This is done by mixing up the letter Lam in the next letter the first letter of the word) which leads to skipping the letter lam of ‘Al’ and Tashdeed (putting Shaddah) on the first letter of the word.

(i.e. Lam Shamsiyya is written as ‘Al’ but pronounced as ‘A’).

On the other hand, Lam Qamariyya is pronounced as ‘Al’ as it is written. The first letter of the word is pronounced normally without any Tashdeed/Shaddah.

(I.e. Lam Qamariyya is written as ‘Al’ and pronounced as ‘Al’ also)

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What Is The Meaning Of Lam Shamsiyya?

Lam Shamsiyya literally means the solar ‘Lam’ or ‘Al’. This name denotes the set of letters included in this category.

To further clarify this, you need to know that Shamsiyya (solar) is an adjective of Shams (Sun). When we define the word ‘shams’ by the definite article ‘Al’, it becomes ‘Al-Shams’ which is pronounced as ‘A-shshams’ applying the rule of Lam Shamsiyya.

Thus, by knowing that, it would be easy to remember how to pronounce the Lam Shamsiyya when knowing how to pronounce the word ‘Al-Shams’.

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What Is The Meaning Of Lam Qamariyya?

Lam Qamariyya literally means the lunar ‘Lam’ or ‘Al’. Its name denotes the set of letters included in this category and its way of pronunciation.

To understand this, you should know that Qamariyya (lunar) is an adjective of the word Qamar (moon). When associating ‘Al’ to ‘Qamar’, it is pronounced as it is written ‘Al-Qamar’. This makes it easier for learners to differentiate the rules of both lams by remembering how to pronounce ‘Ashshams’ and ‘Al-Qamar’ in the first place.

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What Are The Letters Of Lam Shamsiyya?

The letters of Lam Shamsiyya are 14 letters out of 28 letters of the Arabic Alphabet. These letters are: Taa ( ت ), Thaa ( ث ), Dal ( د), Dhal (ذ ), Raa (ر ), Zaa ( ز), Seen ( س), (Sheen ( ش), Saad (ص ), Daad ( ض), Taa (ط ), Dhaa (ظ ), Noon (ن ), Lam ( ل).

What Are The Letters Of Lam Qamariyya?

The letters of Lam Qamariyya are the remaining 14 letters of the Arabic Alphabet. These letters are: Alif ( أ), Baa (ب), Jeem (ج), Haa (ح), Khaa (خ), Ayn (ع), Ghayn (غ), Faa (ف), Qaaf (ق), Kaaf (ك), Meem (م), Haa (ه), Waw (و), Yaa (ي).

What Is The Difference Between Lam Shamsiyya and Lam Qamariyya?

In the following table, we will summarize and compare Lam Shamsiyya and Lam Qamariyya in terms of meaning, pronunciation, Tashdeed, and Letters. 

  Lam Qamariyya Lam Shamsiyya
Meaning The Lunar Lam ‘Al’ The Solar Lam ‘Al’
Pronunciation Pronounced as ‘Al’ Pronounced as ‘A’
Tashdeed The first letter of the word ISN’T Mushaddad The first letter of the word IS Mushaddad
Letters Alif ( أ), Baa (ب), Jeem (ج), Haa (ح), Khaa (خ), Ayn (ع), Ghayn (غ), Faa (ف), Qaaf (ق), Kaaf (ك), Meem (م), Haa (ه), Waw (و), Yaa (ي) Taa ( ت ), Thaa ( ث ), Dal ( د), Dhal (ذ ), Raa (ر ), Zaa ( ز), Seen ( س), (Sheen ( ش), Saad (ص ), Daad ( ض), Taa (ط ), Dhaa (ظ ), Noon (ن ), Lam ( ل)

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How To Memorize Letters Of  Lam Shamsiyya and Lam Qamariyya?

Memorizing Lam Shamsiyya and Lam Qamariyya would be easy if you categorize similar groups of letters together.

Lam Shamsiyya Letters There are seven groups of similar letters in Lam Shamsiyya:
1- Taa ( ت ), Thaa ( ث )2- Dal ( د), Dhal (ذ )3- Raa (ر ), Zaa ( ز)4- Seen ( س), (Sheen ( ش)5- Saad (ص ), Daad ( ض)6- Taa (ط ), Dhaa (ظ )7- Noon (ن ), Lam ( ل)
Lam Qamariyya Letters There are also similar groups of letters in Lam Qamariyya:
1- Alif ( أ), Baa (ب)2- Jeem (ج), Haa (ح), Khaa (خ)3- Ayn (ع), Ghayn (غ)4- Faa (ف), Qaaf (ق), Kaaf (ك)5- Meem (م)6- Haa (ه), Waw (و), Yaa (ي)

You can also use Mnemonics to make it easy. You should only identify the letters of one of the two Lams and the remaining letters would be of the other Lam.

The rules of Ikhfaa, including Ikhfaa Shafawi and Haqiqi, are integral to the proper recitation of the Quran. These rules govern the pronunciation of certain letters following specific conditions. Learn more about these rules in our detailed guide on Ikhfaa Letters And Rules – Ikhfaa Shafawi & Haqiqi With Examples

Examples Of Lam Shamsiyya and Lam Qamariyya?

In the following table, we will mention examples of Lam Shamsiyya and Lam Qamariyya from verses of the Quran. The meant words will be in bold.

  Lam Shamsiyya Lam Qamariyya
Examples: هُوَ الرَّحْمَـنُ الرَّحِيمُ
وَمِن كُلِّ الثَّمَراتِ جَعَلَ فيها زَوجَينِ
إِيلَافِهِمْ رِحْلَةَ الشِّتَاءِ وَالصَّيْفِ
وَيُحِلُّ لَهُمُ الطَّيِّباتِ
وَالنَّجْمُ وَالشَّجَرُ يَسْجُدَانِ
فَلْيَعْبُدُوا رَبَّ هَـذَا الْبَيْتِ
وَاللَّـهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ
هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَـهَ إِلَّا هُوَ عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ
كَأَنَّهُنَّ الْيَاقُوتُ وَالْمَرْجَانُ
وَيُحَرِّمُ عَلَيهِمُ الخَبائِثَ

Conclusion | Arabic Shamsi and Qamari Letters

Lam Shamsiyya and Lam Qamariyya letters are two groups of letters assigned to be pronounced differently when associated with ‘Al’. If you want to learn proper Quran recitation and Tajweed, you should learn them by heart.

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In this article, we summarized the rules of Lam Shamsiyya and Lam Qamariyya and gave examples of each of them.

 

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