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Why does Allah refer to Himself as ‘We’?

Why does Allah refer to Himself as We

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The Quran, the holy scripture of Islam, is replete with linguistic nuances and styles that not only enhance its literary beauty but also convey profound theological messages. One such linguistic feature that often raises questions is the use of the pronoun “We” by Allah to refer to Himself. This article delves into the significance of this linguistic style and addresses common misconceptions.


The Quran is not just a religious text but also a masterpiece of Arabic literature you can check the Quranic Arabic Course. Its linguistic styles, ranging from metaphors to various pronouns, serve specific purposes:

  • Emphasis: Certain styles are used to emphasize particular points or to convey the gravity of a message.
  • Respect and Majesty: The use of certain pronouns or phrases can denote respect, majesty, and grandeur.
  • Clarity: Different styles can be employed to make the message clear and unambiguous for the reader.

maybe you ask can I read the Quran in my head

In the case of the pronoun “We”, it’s a feature of Arabic literary style where a person, especially one of high stature or importance, may refer to himself using the plural form for respect or glorification.

The use of “We” in the Quran, especially when Allah refers to Himself, has led to various misconceptions:

  • Misconception of Plurality: Some believe that the use of “We” indicates a plurality in the divine entity, which is contrary to the core Islamic belief in the oneness of Allah (Tawheed).
  • Comparison with Other Scriptures: Others draw parallels with scriptures from other religions where the divine might refer to itself in the plural.
Misconception Clarification
Plurality in Divinity The use of “We” is a linguistic style for respect and doesn’t indicate multiple deities.
Comparison with Other Texts The Quran’s style is rooted in Arabic literary traditions and should be understood in that context.

Arabic Literary Style

Arabic, with its rich linguistic heritage, offers a plethora of styles and nuances that enhance the depth and beauty of its literature. One of the intriguing aspects of Arabic literature is the use of pronouns, which can convey respect, emphasis, and other sentiments you can also see the MSA Arabic Fusha Course.

The Pronoun “Nahnu” (‘We’) for Respect or Glorification

In Arabic literature, the pronoun “nahnu” (‘We’) is often employed as a form of respect or glorification. This style is not unique to the Quran but is prevalent in other Arabic texts, especially in poetry and formal prose. When a person of high stature or importance refers to themselves using “nahnu,” it’s a sign of majesty and grandeur rather than plurality.

For instance, monarchs and leaders might use “nahnu” when issuing decrees or making formal statements, underscoring their authority and stature.

Other Forms of Address in Arabic

Arabic literature also employs other pronouns, each with its significance:

  • “Ana” (‘I’): This is the singular form used to indicate one person. It’s a direct and personal form of address.
  • “Huwa” (‘He’): This third-person singular pronoun is often used in the Quran and other Arabic texts to refer to Allah, emphasizing His transcendence and otherness.
Pronoun Meaning Usage
Nahnu ‘We’ Respect or glorification
Ana ‘I’ Singular, personal address
Huwa ‘He’ Referring to Allah or another third person

Quranic Usage

The Quran, being the word of Allah, is replete with linguistic intricacies that serve to convey its profound messages. Among these intricacies are the pronouns Allah uses to refer to Himself. Understanding the context and implications of these pronouns is crucial for a comprehensive grasp of the Quran’s teachings.

Instances of Pronouns in the Quran

Throughout the Quran, Allah employs various pronouns to refer to Himself:

  • “We” (Nahnu): Often used in the context of divine actions, such as creation, revelation, and judgment. For instance, “Indeed, We sent it down during the Night of Decree.” (Quran, Surah Al-Qadr, 97:1)
  • “I” (Ana): Used in contexts where a personal assurance or promise is being given. For example, “Indeed, I am Allah. There is no deity except Me, so worship Me and establish prayer for My remembrance.” (Quran, Surah Taha, 20:14)
  • “He” (Huwa): Emphasizes the transcendence and majesty of Allah. “He is Allah, other than whom there is no deity, the Sovereign, the Pure, the Perfection…” (Quran, Surah Al-Hashr, 59:23)

Context and Implications

The choice of pronoun in various verses is not arbitrary but serves specific purposes:

  • Emphasis on Majesty and Authority: The use of “We” underscores the majesty, authority, and power of Allah, especially in verses detailing grand divine actions.
  • Personal Assurance and Intimacy: The use of “I” offers a sense of closeness, where Allah is directly addressing the believers, providing guidance, assurance, or admonition.
  • Transcendence and Otherness: The use of “He” serves to emphasize the transcendence of Allah, highlighting His otherness and distinction from creation.
Pronoun Context Implication
We Divine actions Majesty and Authority
I Personal address Assurance and Intimacy
He Descriptions of Allah Transcendence and Otherness

Distinction from Other Beliefs

The use of the pronoun “We” by Allah in the Quran has sometimes led to misconceptions, especially when viewed through the lens of other religious beliefs. It’s essential to clarify the Islamic stance and distinguish it from other theological perspectives.

“We” is Not Indicative of Plurality or a Trinity

In the Quran, when Allah refers to Himself as “We,” it is purely a linguistic style denoting respect and majesty. It’s crucial to understand that:

  • Monotheism (Tawheed): The foundational belief in Islam is the oneness of Allah. The Quran repeatedly emphasizes that there is no deity but Allah.
  • No Plurality: The use of “We” does not imply multiple deities or a division in Allah’s essence. It’s a form of address common in Arabic literature for someone of high stature or importance.
  • No Trinity: Unlike Christian theology, which posits a triune God (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit), Islam firmly believes in the absolute oneness of Allah. The use of “We” has no connection to the concept of the Trinity.

Refuting Misconceptions

Misunderstandings arise when Quranic verses are interpreted without considering the linguistic and cultural context of Arabic:

  • Comparisons with Christian Beliefs: Some might draw parallels between the Quranic “We” and references to God in the plural in Christian scriptures. However, the two are rooted in different theological and linguistic contexts.
  • Misinterpretation: Without a proper understanding of Arabic literary styles, one might mistakenly infer a sense of plurality in the divine entity from the Quranic “We.”
Misconception Refutation
Quranic “We” and Christian Trinity The “We” in the Quran is a linguistic style, while the Trinity is a theological concept in Christianity.
Plurality in Divinity Islam emphasizes the absolute oneness of Allah, and the use of “We” is a form of respect, not plurality.

he Royal We in Other Cultures

The use of the plural pronoun to refer to oneself, particularly by individuals of high stature, is not unique to Arabic or the Quran. This linguistic phenomenon, known as “The Royal We,” has been observed in various cultures and languages throughout history.

The Concept of “The Royal We”

“The Royal We,” also known as “Majestic Plural,” is a pronoun used by a single person, especially a monarch, to denote their high position or to emphasize their role’s importance and authority. This form of address has been observed in:

  • English: Monarchs, especially in the UK, have historically used “We” to refer to themselves in official documents or proclamations.
  • Latin: The term “Nos” (We) was used by Roman emperors and later by the Catholic Pope in official documents.
  • Other Languages: Variations of “The Royal We” can be found in languages like French, Spanish, and Russian, among others.

Parallels with the Quranic Style

Drawing parallels between “The Royal We” and the Quranic style offers insights into the linguistic nuances of the Quran:

  • Respect and Majesty: Just as monarchs use “The Royal We” to denote respect and majesty, the Quran uses “We” for Allah to emphasize His grandeur and authority.
  • Not Indicative of Plurality: In both cases, the use of the plural pronoun does not indicate multiple entities but is a stylistic choice.
  • Cultural Understanding: Recognizing the presence of “The Royal We” in various cultures can help in understanding the Quranic style better and refuting misconceptions about it.
Cultural Usage Purpose Parallel with Quran
English Monarchs Denote authority and importance Emphasis on Allah’s majesty
Roman Emperors Highlight their elevated status Allah’s supreme authority
Other Cultures Respect and grandeur The oneness and grandeur of Allah

Emphasis on Tawheed (Monotheism)

Tawheed, or the belief in the absolute oneness of Allah, is the foundational tenet of Islam. The Quran, as the primary source of Islamic teachings, consistently emphasizes this core belief, ensuring that there’s no room for misconceptions or misinterpretations.

Quranic Verses Emphasizing the Oneness of Allah

The Quran is replete with verses that underscore the concept of Tawheed:

  • Declaration of Oneness: “Say, ‘He is Allah, [Who is] One,'” (Quran, Surah Al-Ikhlas, 112:1)
  • No Partners: “Allah does not take any son, nor is there any god with Him; for then each god would have taken what he created, and some of them would have risen up over others.” (Quran, Surah Al-Mu’minun, 23:91)
  • Unique and Incomparable: “There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the Hearing, the Seeing.” (Quran, Surah Ash-Shura, 42:11)

Clear Distinction between “We” and Tawheed

While the Quran uses the pronoun “We” as a form of respect and majesty, it never compromises on the message of Tawheed:

  • Linguistic Style vs. Theological Belief: The use of “We” is a linguistic style prevalent in Arabic literature, while Tawheed is a core theological belief in Islam.
  • Consistent Emphasis on Oneness: Despite the use of “We,” the Quran consistently emphasizes the oneness of Allah, ensuring that believers understand the distinction between style and belief.
  • Refuting Misconceptions: The Quran itself refutes any notions of plurality or partnership with Allah, making it clear that He is singular and unique.
Quranic Aspect Implication
Use of “We” Linguistic style denoting respect and majesty
Verses on Tawheed Clear emphasis on the absolute oneness of Allah
Refutation of Plurality Ensuring no misconceptions arise from the use of “We”

Philosophical Insights

The Quran, while being a guide for spiritual and moral conduct, also offers profound philosophical insights. Scholars and theologians over the centuries have delved deep into its verses, extracting layers of meaning and understanding. The use of the pronoun “We” by Allah has been a subject of such exploration, leading to rich philosophical interpretations.

Insights from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (as)

Imam Ja’far Sadiq, a revered figure in Islamic thought, provided insights into various Quranic nuances, including the use of “We”:

  • Emphasis on Divine Majesty: Imam Sadiq (as) posited that the use of “We” is a reflection of Allah’s grandeur and majesty. It’s a linguistic tool to convey the unparalleled status of the Divine.
  • Distinction from Creation: The Imam emphasized that while humans might use “I” out of a sense of ego or self, Allah’s use of “We” is a reminder of His distinction from His creation, emphasizing His unique and elevated status.

Deeper Spiritual and Philosophical Meanings

The choice of pronoun in the Quran is not arbitrary but carries deeper spiritual and philosophical implications:

  • Transcendence: The use of “We” serves to emphasize Allah’s transcendence, highlighting that He is beyond human comprehension and categorization.
  • Divine Multifacetedness: While Allah is One, His attributes and actions are multifaceted. The use of “We” can be seen as a reflection of this vastness and complexity of the Divine attributes.
  • Connection with Believers: On a spiritual level, the use of “We” can also be seen as a form of inclusivity, where Allah is emphasizing His closeness and connection with the believers, guiding and nurturing them.



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