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سُورَةُ البَقَرَةِ

2 : 8

بِسْمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحْمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ الٓمٓ

Alif. Lam. Mim.

Previous 65-66

2 : 9

ذَٰلِكَ ٱلْكِتَٰبُ لَا رَيْبَ ۛ فِيهِ ۛ هُدًۭى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ

THIS DIVINE WRIT – let there be no doubt about it is [meant to be] a guidance for all the God-conscious.

2 : 10

ٱلَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِٱلْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَٰهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ

Who believe in [the existence of] that which is beyond the reach of human perception, and are constant in prayer, and spend on others out of what We provide for them as sustenance;

2 : 11

وَٱلَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ وَبِٱلْءَاخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ

And who believe in that which has been bestowed from on high upon thee, [O Prophet,] as well as in that which was bestowed before thy time: for it is they who in their innermost are certain of the life to come!

2 : 12

أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ عَلَىٰ هُدًۭى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ ۖ وَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلْمُفْلِحُونَ

It is they who follow the guidance [which comes from their Sustainer; and it is they, they who’ shall attain to a happy state!

2 : 13

إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ سَوَآءٌ عَلَيْهِمْ ءَأَنذَرْتَهُمْ أَمْ لَمْ تُنذِرْهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ

BEHOLD, as for those who are bent on denying the truth – it is all one to them whether thou warnest them or dost not warn them: they will not believe.

2 : 14

خَتَمَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ وَعَلَىٰ سَمْعِهِمْ ۖ وَعَلَىٰٓ أَبْصَٰرِهِمْ غِشَٰوَةٌۭ ۖ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌۭ

God; has sealed their hearts and their hearing, and over their eyes is a veil; and awesome suffering awaits them.

2 : 15

وَمِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ ءَامَنَّا بِٱللَّهِ وَبِٱلْيَوْمِ ٱلْءَاخِرِ وَمَا هُم بِمُؤْمِنِينَ

And there are people who say, “We do believe in God and the Last Day,” the while they do not [really] believe.

2 : 16

يُخَٰدِعُونَ ٱللَّهَ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَمَا يَخْدَعُونَ إِلَّآ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ

They would deceive God and those who have attained to faith-the while they deceive none but themselves, and perceive it not.

2 : 17

فِى قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌۭ فَزَادَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ مَرَضًۭا ۖ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌۢ بِمَا كَانُوا۟ يَكْذِبُونَ

In their hearts is disease, and so God lets their disease increase; and grievous suffering awaits them because of their persistent lying.

2 : 18

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ لَا تُفْسِدُوا۟ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ قَالُوٓا۟ إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُصْلِحُونَ

And when they are told, “Do not spread corruption on earth,” they answer, “We are but improving things!”

2 : 19

أَلَآ إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ ٱلْمُفْسِدُونَ وَلَٰكِن لَّا يَشْعُرُونَ

Oh, verily, it is they, they who are spreading corruption but they perceive it not?

2 : 20

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ ءَامِنُوا۟ كَمَآ ءَامَنَ ٱلنَّاسُ قَالُوٓا۟ أَنُؤْمِنُ كَمَآ ءَامَنَ ٱلسُّفَهَآءُ ۗ أَلَآ إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ ٱلسُّفَهَآءُ وَلَٰكِن لَّا يَعْلَمُونَ

And when they are told, “Believe as other people believe,” they answer, “Shall we believe as the weak-minded believe?” Oh, verily, it is they, they who are weak-minded -but they know it not!

2 : 21

وَإِذَا لَقُوا۟ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ قَالُوٓا۟ ءَامَنَّا وَإِذَا خَلَوْا۟ إِلَىٰ شَيَٰطِينِهِمْ قَالُوٓا۟ إِنَّا مَعَكُمْ إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُسْتَهْزِءُونَ

And when they meet those who have attained to faith, they assert, “We believe [as you believe]”; but when they find themselves alone with their- evil impulses, they say, “Verily, we are with you; we were only mocking!”

2 : 22

ٱللَّهُ يَسْتَهْزِئُ بِهِمْ وَيَمُدُّهُمْ فِى طُغْيَٰنِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ

God will requite them for their mockery, and will leave them for a while in their overweening arrogance, blindly stumbling to and fro:

2 : 23

أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱشْتَرَوُا۟ ٱلضَّلَٰلَةَ بِٱلْهُدَىٰ فَمَا رَبِحَت تِّجَٰرَتُهُمْ وَمَا كَانُوا۟ مُهْتَدِينَ

[for] it is they who have taken error in exchange for guidance; and neither has their bargain brought them gain, nor have they found guidance [elsewhere].

2 : 24

مَثَلُهُمْ كَمَثَلِ ٱلَّذِى ٱسْتَوْقَدَ نَارًۭا فَلَمَّآ أَضَآءَتْ مَا حَوْلَهُۥ ذَهَبَ ٱللَّهُ بِنُورِهِمْ وَتَرَكَهُمْ فِى ظُلُمَٰتٍۢ لَّا يُبْصِرُونَ

Their parable is that of people who kindle a fire: but as soon as it has illumined all around them, God takes away their light and leaves them in utter darkness, wherein they cannot see:

2 : 25

صُمٌّۢ بُكْمٌ عُمْىٌۭ فَهُمْ لَا يَرْجِعُونَ

Deaf, dumb, blind – and they cannot turn back.

2 : 26

أَوْ كَصَيِّبٍۢ مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ فِيهِ ظُلُمَٰتٌۭ وَرَعْدٌۭ وَبَرْقٌۭ يَجْعَلُونَ أَصَٰبِعَهُمْ فِىٓ ءَاذَانِهِم مِّنَ ٱلصَّوَٰعِقِ حَذَرَ ٱلْمَوْتِ ۚ وَٱللَّهُ مُحِيطٌۢ بِٱلْكَٰفِرِينَ

Or [the parable] of a violent cloudburst in the sky, with utter darkness, thunder and lightning: they put their fingers into their ears to keep out the peals of thunder, in terror of death; but God encompasses [with His might] all who deny the truth.

2 : 27

يَكَادُ ٱلْبَرْقُ يَخْطَفُ أَبْصَٰرَهُمْ ۖ كُلَّمَآ أَضَآءَ لَهُم مَّشَوْا۟ فِيهِ وَإِذَآ أَظْلَمَ عَلَيْهِمْ قَامُوا۟ ۚ وَلَوْ شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ لَذَهَبَ بِسَمْعِهِمْ وَأَبْصَٰرِهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىْءٍۢ قَدِيرٌۭ

The lightning well-nigh takes away their sight; whenever it gives them light, they advance therein, and whenever darkness falls around them, they stand still. And if God so willed, He could indeed take away their hearing and their sight: for, verily, God has the power to will anything.

2 : 28

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ ٱعْبُدُوا۟ رَبَّكُمُ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَكُمْ وَٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

O MANKIND! Worship your Sustainer, who has created you and those who lived before you, so that you might remain conscious of Him

2 : 29

ٱلَّذِى جَعَلَ لَكُمُ ٱلْأَرْضَ فِرَٰشًۭا وَٱلسَّمَآءَ بِنَآءًۭ وَأَنزَلَ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءًۭ فَأَخْرَجَ بِهِۦ مِنَ ٱلثَّمَرَٰتِ رِزْقًۭا لَّكُمْ ۖ فَلَا تَجْعَلُوا۟ لِلَّهِ أَندَادًۭا وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

who has made the earth a resting-place for you and the sky a canopy, and has sent down water from the sky and thereby brought forth fruits for your sustenance: do not, then, claim that there is any power that could rival God, when you know [that He is One].

2 : 30

وَإِن كُنتُمْ فِى رَيْبٍۢ مِّمَّا نَزَّلْنَا عَلَىٰ عَبْدِنَا فَأْتُوا۟ بِسُورَةٍۢ مِّن مِّثْلِهِۦ وَٱدْعُوا۟ شُهَدَآءَكُم مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ إِن كُنتُمْ صَٰدِقِينَ

And if you doubt any part of what We have, bestowed from on high, step by step, upon Our servant [Muhammad], then produce a surah of similar merit, and call upon any other than God to bear witness for you -if what you say is true!

2 : 31

فَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلُوا۟ وَلَن تَفْعَلُوا۟ فَٱتَّقُوا۟ ٱلنَّارَ ٱلَّتِى وَقُودُهَا ٱلنَّاسُ وَٱلْحِجَارَةُ ۖ أُعِدَّتْ لِلْكَٰفِرِينَ

And if you cannot do it-and most certainly you cannot do it-then be conscious of the fire whose fuel is human beings and stones which awaits all who deny the truth!

2 : 32

وَبَشِّرِ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَعَمِلُوا۟ ٱلصَّٰلِحَٰتِ أَنَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّٰتٍۢ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا ٱلْأَنْهَٰرُ ۖ كُلَّمَا رُزِقُوا۟ مِنْهَا مِن ثَمَرَةٍۢ رِّزْقًۭا ۙ قَالُوا۟ هَٰذَا ٱلَّذِى رُزِقْنَا مِن قَبْلُ ۖ وَأُتُوا۟ بِهِۦ مُتَشَٰبِهًۭا ۖ وَلَهُمْ فِيهَآ أَزْوَٰجٌۭ مُّطَهَّرَةٌۭ ۖ وَهُمْ فِيهَا خَٰلِدُونَ

But unto those who have attained to faith and do good works give the glad tiding that theirs shall be gardens through which running waters flow. Whenever they are granted fruits there from as their appointed sustenance, they will say, “It is this that in days of yore was granted to us as our sustenance!”-for they shall be given something that will recall that [past]. And there shall they have spouses pure, and there shall they abide.

2 : 33

۞ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَسْتَحْىِۦٓ أَن يَضْرِبَ مَثَلًۭا مَّا بَعُوضَةًۭ فَمَا فَوْقَهَا ۚ فَأَمَّا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ فَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ ٱلْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ ۖ وَأَمَّا ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ فَيَقُولُونَ مَاذَآ أَرَادَ ٱللَّهُ بِهَٰذَا مَثَلًۭا ۘ يُضِلُّ بِهِۦ كَثِيرًۭا وَيَهْدِى بِهِۦ كَثِيرًۭا ۚ وَمَا يُضِلُّ بِهِۦٓ إِلَّا ٱلْفَٰسِقِينَ

Behold, God does not disdain to propound a parable of a gnat, or of something [even] less than that. Now, as for those who have attained to faith, they know that it is the truth from their Sustainer – whereas those who are bent on denying the truth say, “What could God mean by this parable?” In this way does He cause many a one to go astray, just as He guides many a one aright: but none does He cause thereby to go astray save the iniquitous,

2 : 34

ٱلَّذِينَ يَنقُضُونَ عَهْدَ ٱللَّهِ مِنۢ بَعْدِ مِيثَٰقِهِۦ وَيَقْطَعُونَ مَآ أَمَرَ ٱللَّهُ بِهِۦٓ أَن يُوصَلَ وَيُفْسِدُونَ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلْخَٰسِرُونَ

who break their bond with God after it has been established [in their nature], and cut asunder what God has bidden to be joined, and spread corruption on earth: these it is that shall be the losers.

2 : 35

كَيْفَ تَكْفُرُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَكُنتُمْ أَمْوَٰتًۭا فَأَحْيَٰكُمْ ۖ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ

How can you refuse to acknowledge God, seeing that you were lifeless and He gave you life, and that He will cause you to die and then will bring you again to life, whereupon unto Him you will be brought back?

2 : 36

هُوَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ لَكُم مَّا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًۭا ثُمَّ ٱسْتَوَىٰٓ إِلَى ٱلسَّمَآءِ فَسَوَّىٰهُنَّ سَبْعَ سَمَٰوَٰتٍۢ ۚ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلِيمٌۭ

He it is who has created for you all that is on earth, and has applied His design to the heavens and fashioned them into seven heavens; and He alone has full knowledge of everything.

2 : 37

وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَٰٓئِكَةِ إِنِّى جَاعِلٌۭ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةًۭ ۖ قَالُوٓا۟ أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ ٱلدِّمَآءَ وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ ۖ قَالَ إِنِّىٓ أَعْلَمُ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

AND LO! Thy Sustainer said unto the angels: “Behold, I am about to establish upon earth one who shall inherit it.” They said: “Wilt Thou place on it such as will spread corruption thereon and shed blood -whereas it is we who extol Thy limitless glory, and praise Thee, and hallow Thy name?” [God] answered: “Verily, I know that which you do not know.”

2 : 38

وَعَلَّمَ ءَادَمَ ٱلْأَسْمَآءَ كُلَّهَا ثُمَّ عَرَضَهُمْ عَلَى ٱلْمَلَٰٓئِكَةِ فَقَالَ أَنۢبِـُٔونِى بِأَسْمَآءِ هَٰٓؤُلَآءِ إِن كُنتُمْ صَٰدِقِينَ

And He imparted unto Adam the names of all things; then He brought them within the ken of the angels and said: “Declare unto Me the names of these [things], if what you say is true.”

2 : 39

قَالُوا۟ سُبْحَٰنَكَ لَا عِلْمَ لَنَآ إِلَّا مَا عَلَّمْتَنَآ ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ ٱلْعَلِيمُ ٱلْحَكِيمُ

They replied: “Limitless art Thou in Thy glory! No knowledge have we save that which Thou hast imparted unto us. Verily, Thou alone art all-knowing, truly wise.”

Explore the profound wisdom in Surah Baqarah Ayat 32, a verse that emphasizes humility and the pursuit of divine knowledge.

2 : 40

قَالَ يَٰٓـَٔادَمُ أَنۢبِئْهُم بِأَسْمَآئِهِمْ ۖ فَلَمَّآ أَنۢبَأَهُم بِأَسْمَآئِهِمْ قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُل لَّكُمْ إِنِّىٓ أَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ وَأَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ

Said He: “O Adam, convey unto them the names of these [things].” And as soon as [Adam] had conveyed unto them their names, [God] said: “Did I not say unto you, `Verily, I alone know the hidden reality of the heavens and the earth, and know all that you bring into the open and all. that you would conceal’?”

2 : 41

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَٰٓئِكَةِ ٱسْجُدُوا۟ لِءَادَمَ فَسَجَدُوٓا۟ إِلَّآ إِبْلِيسَ أَبَىٰ وَٱسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ ٱلْكَٰفِرِينَ

And when We told the angels, “Prostrate yourselves before Adam!” -they all prostrated themselves, save Iblis, who refused and gloried in his arrogance: and thus he became one of those who deny the truth.

2 : 42

وَقُلْنَا يَٰٓـَٔادَمُ ٱسْكُنْ أَنتَ وَزَوْجُكَ ٱلْجَنَّةَ وَكُلَا مِنْهَا رَغَدًا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَلَا تَقْرَبَا هَٰذِهِ ٱلشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ ٱلظَّٰلِمِينَ

And We said: “O Adam, dwell thou and thy wife in this garden, and eat freely thereof, both of you, whatever you may wish; but do not approach this one tree, lest you become wrongdoers.”

2 : 43

فَأَزَلَّهُمَا ٱلشَّيْطَٰنُ عَنْهَا فَأَخْرَجَهُمَا مِمَّا كَانَا فِيهِ ۖ وَقُلْنَا ٱهْبِطُوا۟ بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّۭ ۖ وَلَكُمْ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ مُسْتَقَرٌّۭ وَمَتَٰعٌ إِلَىٰ حِينٍۢ

But Satan caused them both to stumble therein, and thus brought about the loss of their erstwhile state. And so We said: “Down with you, [and be henceforth] enemies unto one another; and on earth you shall have your abode and your livelihood for a while!”

2 : 44

فَتَلَقَّىٰٓ ءَادَمُ مِن رَّبِّهِۦ كَلِمَٰتٍۢ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ هُوَ ٱلتَّوَّابُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ

Thereupon Adam received words [of guidance] from his Sustainer, and He accepted his repentance: for, verily, He alone is the-Acceptor of Repentance, the Dispenser of Grace.

2 : 45

قُلْنَا ٱهْبِطُوا۟ مِنْهَا جَمِيعًۭا ۖ فَإِمَّا يَأْتِيَنَّكُم مِّنِّى هُدًۭى فَمَن تَبِعَ هُدَاىَ فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

[For although] We did say, “Down with you all from this [state],” there shall, none the less, most certainly come unto you guidance from Me: and those who follow My guidance need have no fear, and neither shall they grieve;

2 : 46

وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ وَكَذَّبُوا۟ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَآ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ أَصْحَٰبُ ٱلنَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَٰلِدُونَ

but those who are bent on denying the truth and giving the lie to Our messages – they are destined for the fire, and therein shall they abide.

2 : 47

يَٰبَنِىٓ إِسْرَٰٓءِيلَ ٱذْكُرُوا۟ نِعْمَتِىَ ٱلَّتِىٓ أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَوْفُوا۟ بِعَهْدِىٓ أُوفِ بِعَهْدِكُمْ وَإِيَّٰىَ فَٱرْهَبُونِ

O CHILDREN of Israel! Remember those blessings of Mine with which I graced you, and fulfil your promise unto Me, [whereupon] I shall fulfil My promise unto you; and of Me, of Me stand in awe!

2 : 48

وَءَامِنُوا۟ بِمَآ أَنزَلْتُ مُصَدِّقًۭا لِّمَا مَعَكُمْ وَلَا تَكُونُوٓا۟ أَوَّلَ كَافِرٍۭ بِهِۦ ۖ وَلَا تَشْتَرُوا۟ بِـَٔايَٰتِى ثَمَنًۭا قَلِيلًۭا وَإِيَّٰىَ فَٱتَّقُونِ

Believe in that which I have [now] bestowed from on high, confirming the truth already in your possession, and be not foremost among those who deny its truth; and do not barter away My messages for a trifling gain; and of Me, of Me be conscious

2 : 49

وَلَا تَلْبِسُوا۟ ٱلْحَقَّ بِٱلْبَٰطِلِ وَتَكْتُمُوا۟ ٱلْحَقَّ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

And do not overlay the truth with falsehood, and do not knowingly suppress the truth;

2 : 50

وَأَقِيمُوا۟ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتُوا۟ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ وَٱرْكَعُوا۟ مَعَ ٱلرَّٰكِعِينَ

and be constant in prayer, and spend in charity, and bow down in prayer with all who thus bow down.

2 : 51

۞ أَتَأْمُرُونَ ٱلنَّاسَ بِٱلْبِرِّ وَتَنسَوْنَ أَنفُسَكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ تَتْلُونَ ٱلْكِتَٰبَ ۚ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ

Do you bid other people to be pious, the while you forget your own selves -and yet you recite the divine writ? Will you not, then, use your reason?;

2 : 52

وَٱسْتَعِينُوا۟ بِٱلصَّبْرِ وَٱلصَّلَوٰةِ ۚ وَإِنَّهَا لَكَبِيرَةٌ إِلَّا عَلَى ٱلْخَٰشِعِينَ

And seek aid in steadfast patience and prayer: and this, indeed, is a hard thing for all but the humble in spirit,

2 : 53

ٱلَّذِينَ يَظُنُّونَ أَنَّهُم مُّلَٰقُوا۟ رَبِّهِمْ وَأَنَّهُمْ إِلَيْهِ رَٰجِعُونَ

who know with certainty that they shall meet their Sustainer and that unto Him they shall return.

2 : 54

يَٰبَنِىٓ إِسْرَٰٓءِيلَ ٱذْكُرُوا۟ نِعْمَتِىَ ٱلَّتِىٓ أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَنِّى فَضَّلْتُكُمْ عَلَى ٱلْعَٰلَمِينَ

O children of Israel! Remember those blessings of Mine with which I graced you, and how I favoured you above all other people;

2 : 55

وَٱتَّقُوا۟ يَوْمًۭا لَّا تَجْزِى نَفْسٌ عَن نَّفْسٍۢ شَيْـًۭٔا وَلَا يُقْبَلُ مِنْهَا شَفَٰعَةٌۭ وَلَا يُؤْخَذُ مِنْهَا عَدْلٌۭ وَلَا هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ

and remain conscious of [the coming of] a Day when no human being shall in the least avail another, nor shall intercession be accepted from any of them, nor ransom taken from them, and none shall be succoured.

2 : 56

وَإِذْ نَجَّيْنَٰكُم مِّنْ ءَالِ فِرْعَوْنَ يَسُومُونَكُمْ سُوٓءَ ٱلْعَذَابِ يُذَبِّحُونَ أَبْنَآءَكُمْ وَيَسْتَحْيُونَ نِسَآءَكُمْ ۚ وَفِى ذَٰلِكُم بَلَآءٌۭ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ عَظِيمٌۭ

And [remember the time] when We saved you from Pharaoh’s people, who afflicted you with cruel suffering, slaughtering your sons and sparing [only] your women – which was an awesome trial from your Sustainer;

2 : 57

وَإِذْ فَرَقْنَا بِكُمُ ٱلْبَحْرَ فَأَنجَيْنَٰكُمْ وَأَغْرَقْنَآ ءَالَ فِرْعَوْنَ وَأَنتُمْ تَنظُرُونَ

and when We cleft the sea before you, and thus saved you and caused Pharaoh’s people to drown before your very eyes;

2 : 58

وَإِذْ وَٰعَدْنَا مُوسَىٰٓ أَرْبَعِينَ لَيْلَةًۭ ثُمَّ ٱتَّخَذْتُمُ ٱلْعِجْلَ مِنۢ بَعْدِهِۦ وَأَنتُمْ ظَٰلِمُونَ

and when We appointed for Moses forty nights [on Mount Sinai], and in his absence you took to worshipping the [golden] calf, and thus became evildoers:

2 : 59

ثُمَّ عَفَوْنَا عَنكُم مِّنۢ بَعْدِ ذَٰلِكَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

yet, even after that, We blotted out this your sin, so that you might have cause to be grateful.

2 : 60

وَإِذْ ءَاتَيْنَا مُوسَى ٱلْكِتَٰبَ وَٱلْفُرْقَانَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ

And [remember the time] when We vouchsafed unto Moses the divine writ-and [thus] a standard by which to discern the true from the false -so that you might be guided aright;

2 : 61

وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِقَوْمِهِۦ يَٰقَوْمِ إِنَّكُمْ ظَلَمْتُمْ أَنفُسَكُم بِٱتِّخَاذِكُمُ ٱلْعِجْلَ فَتُوبُوٓا۟ إِلَىٰ بَارِئِكُمْ فَٱقْتُلُوٓا۟ أَنفُسَكُمْ ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌۭ لَّكُمْ عِندَ بَارِئِكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ هُوَ ٱلتَّوَّابُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ

and when Moses said unto his people: “O my people! Verily, you have sinned against yourselves by worshipping the calf; turn, then. in repentance to your Maker and mortify yourselves; this will be the best for you in your Maker’s sight”. And thereupon He accepted your repentance: for, behold, He alone is the Acceptor of Repentance, the Dispenser of Grace.

2 : 62

وَإِذْ قُلْتُمْ يَٰمُوسَىٰ لَن نُّؤْمِنَ لَكَ حَتَّىٰ نَرَى ٱللَّهَ جَهْرَةًۭ فَأَخَذَتْكُمُ ٱلصَّٰعِقَةُ وَأَنتُمْ تَنظُرُونَ

And [remember] when you said, “O Moses. indeed we shall not believe thee unto we see God face to face!” – whereupon the thunderbolt of punishment overtook you before your very eyes.

2 : 63

ثُمَّ بَعَثْنَٰكُم مِّنۢ بَعْدِ مَوْتِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

But We raised you again after you had been as dead, so that you might have cause to be grateful.

2 : 64

وَظَلَّلْنَا عَلَيْكُمُ ٱلْغَمَامَ وَأَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكُمُ ٱلْمَنَّ وَٱلسَّلْوَىٰ ۖ كُلُوا۟ مِن طَيِّبَٰتِ مَا رَزَقْنَٰكُمْ ۖ وَمَا ظَلَمُونَا وَلَٰكِن كَانُوٓا۟ أَنفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ

And We caused the clouds to comfort you with their shade, and sent down unto you manna and quails. [saying,] “Partake of the good things which We have provided for you as sustenance.” And [by all their sinning] they did no harm unto Us-but [only] against their own selves did they sin.

2 : 65

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا ٱدْخُلُوا۟ هَٰذِهِ ٱلْقَرْيَةَ فَكُلُوا۟ مِنْهَا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمْ رَغَدًۭا وَٱدْخُلُوا۟ ٱلْبَابَ سُجَّدًۭا وَقُولُوا۟ حِطَّةٌۭ نَّغْفِرْ لَكُمْ خَطَٰيَٰكُمْ ۚ وَسَنَزِيدُ ٱلْمُحْسِنِينَ

And [remember the time] when We said: “Enter this land, and eat of its food as you may desire. abundantly; but enter the gate humbly and say, `Remove Thou from us the burden of our sins’, [whereupon] We shall forgive you your sins, and shall amply reward the doers of good.”

2 : 66

فَبَدَّلَ ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا۟ قَوْلًا غَيْرَ ٱلَّذِى قِيلَ لَهُمْ فَأَنزَلْنَا عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا۟ رِجْزًۭا مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ بِمَا كَانُوا۟ يَفْسُقُونَ

But those who were bent on evildoing substituted another saying for that which had been given them: and so We sent down upon those evildoers a plague from heaven in requital for all their iniquity.

2 : 67

۞ وَإِذِ ٱسْتَسْقَىٰ مُوسَىٰ لِقَوْمِهِۦ فَقُلْنَا ٱضْرِب بِّعَصَاكَ ٱلْحَجَرَ ۖ فَٱنفَجَرَتْ مِنْهُ ٱثْنَتَا عَشْرَةَ عَيْنًۭا ۖ قَدْ عَلِمَ كُلُّ أُنَاسٍۢ مَّشْرَبَهُمْ ۖ كُلُوا۟ وَٱشْرَبُوا۟ مِن رِّزْقِ ٱللَّهِ وَلَا تَعْثَوْا۟ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ مُفْسِدِينَ

And [remember] when Moses prayed for water for his people and We replied, “Strike the rock with thy staff!”-whereupon twelve springs gushed forth from it, so that all the people knew whence to drink. [And Moses said:] “Eat and drink the sustenance provided by God, and do not act wickedly on earth by spreading corruption.”

2 : 68

وَإِذْ قُلْتُمْ يَٰمُوسَىٰ لَن نَّصْبِرَ عَلَىٰ طَعَامٍۢ وَٰحِدٍۢ فَٱدْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُخْرِجْ لَنَا مِمَّا تُنۢبِتُ ٱلْأَرْضُ مِنۢ بَقْلِهَا وَقِثَّآئِهَا وَفُومِهَا وَعَدَسِهَا وَبَصَلِهَا ۖ قَالَ أَتَسْتَبْدِلُونَ ٱلَّذِى هُوَ أَدْنَىٰ بِٱلَّذِى هُوَ خَيْرٌ ۚ ٱهْبِطُوا۟ مِصْرًۭا فَإِنَّ لَكُم مَّا سَأَلْتُمْ ۗ وَضُرِبَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ ٱلذِّلَّةُ وَٱلْمَسْكَنَةُ وَبَآءُو بِغَضَبٍۢ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ ۗ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا۟ يَكْفُرُونَ بِـَٔايَٰتِ ٱللَّهِ وَيَقْتُلُونَ ٱلنَّبِيِّۦنَ بِغَيْرِ ٱلْحَقِّ ۗ ذَٰلِكَ بِمَا عَصَوا۟ وَّكَانُوا۟ يَعْتَدُونَ

And [remember] when you said: “O Moses, indeed we cannot endure but one kind of food; pray, then, to thy Sustainer that He bring forth for us aught of what grows from the earth – of its herbs, its cucumbers, its garlic, its lentils, its onions.” Said [Moses]: “Would you take a lesser thing in exchange for what is [so much] better? Go back in shame to Egypt, and then you can have what you are asking for!” And so, ignominy and humiliation overshadowed them, and they earned the burden of God’s condemnation: all this, because they persisted in denying the truth of God’s messages and in slaying the prophets against all right: all this, because they rebelled [against God], and persisted in transgressing the bounds of what is right.

2 : 69

إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَٱلَّذِينَ هَادُوا۟ وَٱلنَّصَٰرَىٰ وَٱلصَّٰبِـِٔينَ مَنْ ءَامَنَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلْيَوْمِ ٱلْءَاخِرِ وَعَمِلَ صَٰلِحًۭا فَلَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

VERILY, those who have attained to faith [in this divine writ], as well as those who follow the Jewish faith, and the Christians, and the Sabians -all who believe in God and the Last Day and do righteous deeds-shall have their reward with their Sustainer; and no fear need they have, and neither shall they grieve.

2 : 70

وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَٰقَكُمْ وَرَفَعْنَا فَوْقَكُمُ ٱلطُّورَ خُذُوا۟ مَآ ءَاتَيْنَٰكُم بِقُوَّةٍۢ وَٱذْكُرُوا۟ مَا فِيهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

AND LO! We accepted your solemn pledge, raising Mount Sinai high above you, [and saying;] “Hold fast with [all your] strength unto what We have vouchsafed you, and bear in mind all that is therein, so that you might remain conscious of God!”

2 : 71

ثُمَّ تَوَلَّيْتُم مِّنۢ بَعْدِ ذَٰلِكَ ۖ فَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَتُهُۥ لَكُنتُم مِّنَ ٱلْخَٰسِرِينَ

And you turned away after that-! And had it not been for God’s favour upon you and His grace, you would surely have found yourselves among the lost;

2 : 72

وَلَقَدْ عَلِمْتُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱعْتَدَوْا۟ مِنكُمْ فِى ٱلسَّبْتِ فَقُلْنَا لَهُمْ كُونُوا۟ قِرَدَةً خَٰسِـِٔينَ

for you are well aware of those from among you who profaned the Sabbath, whereupon We said unto them, “Be as apes despicable!”

2 : 73

فَجَعَلْنَٰهَا نَكَٰلًۭا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهَا وَمَا خَلْفَهَا وَمَوْعِظَةًۭ لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ

and set them up as a warning example for their time and for all times to come, as well as an admonition to all who are conscious of God.

2 : 74

وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِقَوْمِهِۦٓ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَن تَذْبَحُوا۟ بَقَرَةًۭ ۖ قَالُوٓا۟ أَتَتَّخِذُنَا هُزُوًۭا ۖ قَالَ أَعُوذُ بِٱللَّهِ أَنْ أَكُونَ مِنَ ٱلْجَٰهِلِينَ

AND LO! Moses said unto his people: “Behold, God bids you to sacrifice a cow.” They said: “Dost thou mock at us?” He answered: “I seek refuge with God against being so ignorant!”

2 : 75

قَالُوا۟ ٱدْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّن لَّنَا مَا هِىَ ۚ قَالَ إِنَّهُۥ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌۭ لَّا فَارِضٌۭ وَلَا بِكْرٌ عَوَانٌۢ بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ ۖ فَٱفْعَلُوا۟ مَا تُؤْمَرُونَ

Said they: “Pray on our behalf unto thy Sustainer that He make clear to us what she is to be like.” [Moses] replied: “Behold, He says it is to be a cow neither old nor immature, but of art age in-between. Do, then, what you have been bidden!”

2 : 76

قَالُوا۟ ٱدْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّن لَّنَا مَا لَوْنُهَا ۚ قَالَ إِنَّهُۥ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌۭ صَفْرَآءُ فَاقِعٌۭ لَّوْنُهَا تَسُرُّ ٱلنَّٰظِرِينَ

Said they: “Pray on our behalf unto thy Sustainer that He make clear to us what her colour should be. “[Mopes] answered: “Behold; He says it is to be a yellow cow, bright of hue, pleasing to the beholder.”

2 : 77

قَالُوا۟ ٱدْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّن لَّنَا مَا هِىَ إِنَّ ٱلْبَقَرَ تَشَٰبَهَ عَلَيْنَا وَإِنَّآ إِن شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ لَمُهْتَدُونَ

Said’ they: “Pray on our behalf unto thy Sustainer that He make clear to us what she is to be like, for to us all cows resemble one another; and then, if God so wills, we shall truly be guided aright!”

2 : 78

قَالَ إِنَّهُۥ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌۭ لَّا ذَلُولٌۭ تُثِيرُ ٱلْأَرْضَ وَلَا تَسْقِى ٱلْحَرْثَ مُسَلَّمَةٌۭ لَّا شِيَةَ فِيهَا ۚ قَالُوا۟ ٱلْـَٰٔنَ جِئْتَ بِٱلْحَقِّ ۚ فَذَبَحُوهَا وَمَا كَادُوا۟ يَفْعَلُونَ

[Moses] answered: “Behold, He says it is to be a cow not broken-in to plough the earth or to water the crops, free of fault, without markings of any other colour.”Said they: “At last thou hast brought out the truth!”-and thereupon they sacrificed her, although they had almost left it undone.

2 : 79

وَإِذْ قَتَلْتُمْ نَفْسًۭا فَٱدَّٰرَْٰٔتُمْ فِيهَا ۖ وَٱللَّهُ مُخْرِجٌۭ مَّا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ

For, O children of Israel, because you had slain a human being and then cast the blame for this [crime] upon one another -although God will bring to light what you would conceals

2 : 80

فَقُلْنَا ٱضْرِبُوهُ بِبَعْضِهَا ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يُحْىِ ٱللَّهُ ٱلْمَوْتَىٰ وَيُرِيكُمْ ءَايَٰتِهِۦ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ

We said: “Apply this [principle] to some of those [cases of unresolved murder]: in this way God saves lives from death and shows you His will, so that you might [learn to] use your reason.”

2 : 81

ثُمَّ قَسَتْ قُلُوبُكُم مِّنۢ بَعْدِ ذَٰلِكَ فَهِىَ كَٱلْحِجَارَةِ أَوْ أَشَدُّ قَسْوَةًۭ ۚ وَإِنَّ مِنَ ٱلْحِجَارَةِ لَمَا يَتَفَجَّرُ مِنْهُ ٱلْأَنْهَٰرُ ۚ وَإِنَّ مِنْهَا لَمَا يَشَّقَّقُ فَيَخْرُجُ مِنْهُ ٱلْمَآءُ ۚ وَإِنَّ مِنْهَا لَمَا يَهْبِطُ مِنْ خَشْيَةِ ٱللَّهِ ۗ وَمَا ٱللَّهُ بِغَٰفِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ

And yet, after all this, your hearts hardened and became like rocks, or even harder: for, behold, there are rocks from which streams gush forth; and, behold, there are some from which, when they are cleft, water issues; and, behold, there are some that fall down for awe of God And God is not unmindful of what you do!

2 : 82

۞ أَفَتَطْمَعُونَ أَن يُؤْمِنُوا۟ لَكُمْ وَقَدْ كَانَ فَرِيقٌۭ مِّنْهُمْ يَسْمَعُونَ كَلَٰمَ ٱللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُحَرِّفُونَهُۥ مِنۢ بَعْدِ مَا عَقَلُوهُ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ

CAN YOU, then, hope that they will believe in what you are preaching – seeing that a good many of them were wont to listen to the word of God and then, after having understood it, to pervert it knowingly?

2 : 83

وَإِذَا لَقُوا۟ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ قَالُوٓا۟ ءَامَنَّا وَإِذَا خَلَا بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَىٰ بَعْضٍۢ قَالُوٓا۟ أَتُحَدِّثُونَهُم بِمَا فَتَحَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيْكُمْ لِيُحَآجُّوكُم بِهِۦ عِندَ رَبِّكُمْ ۚ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ

For, when they meet those who have attained to faith. they say, “We believe [as you believe]” – but when they find themselves alone with one another, they say. “Do you inform them of what God has disclosed to you, so that they might use it in argument against you, quoting the words of your Sustainer? Will you not. then, use your reason?”

2 : 84

أَوَلَا يَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا يُسِرُّونَ وَمَا يُعْلِنُونَ

Do they not know, then, that God is aware of all that they would conceal as well as of all that they bring into the open?

2 : 85

وَمِنْهُمْ أُمِّيُّونَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ ٱلْكِتَٰبَ إِلَّآ أَمَانِىَّ وَإِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا يَظُنُّونَ

And there are among them unlettered people who have no real knowledge of the divine writ, [following] only wishful beliefs and depending on nothing but conjecture.

2 : 86

فَوَيْلٌۭ لِّلَّذِينَ يَكْتُبُونَ ٱلْكِتَٰبَ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ ثُمَّ يَقُولُونَ هَٰذَا مِنْ عِندِ ٱللَّهِ لِيَشْتَرُوا۟ بِهِۦ ثَمَنًۭا قَلِيلًۭا ۖ فَوَيْلٌۭ لَّهُم مِّمَّا كَتَبَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَوَيْلٌۭ لَّهُم مِّمَّا يَكْسِبُونَ

Woe, then, unto those who write down, with their own hands, [something which they claim to be] divine writ, and then say. “This is from God,” in order to acquire a trifling gain thereby; woe, then, unto them for what their hands have written, and woe unto them for all that they may have gained!

2 : 87

وَقَالُوا۟ لَن تَمَسَّنَا ٱلنَّارُ إِلَّآ أَيَّامًۭا مَّعْدُودَةًۭ ۚ قُلْ أَتَّخَذْتُمْ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ عَهْدًۭا فَلَن يُخْلِفَ ٱللَّهُ عَهْدَهُۥٓ ۖ أَمْ تَقُولُونَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

And they say, “The fire will most certainly not touch us for more than a limited number of days.” Say [unto them]: “Have you received a promise from God – for God never breaks His promise – or do you attribute to God something which you cannot know?”

2 : 88

بَلَىٰ مَن كَسَبَ سَيِّئَةًۭ وَأَحَٰطَتْ بِهِۦ خَطِيٓـَٔتُهُۥ فَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ أَصْحَٰبُ ٱلنَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَٰلِدُونَ

Yea! Those who earn evil and by their sinfulness are engulfed – they are destined for the fire. therein to abide;

2 : 89

وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَعَمِلُوا۟ ٱلصَّٰلِحَٰتِ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ أَصْحَٰبُ ٱلْجَنَّةِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَٰلِدُونَ

whereas those who attain to faith and do righteous deeds -they are destined for paradise, therein to abide.

2 : 90

وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَٰقَ بَنِىٓ إِسْرَٰٓءِيلَ لَا تَعْبُدُونَ إِلَّا ٱللَّهَ وَبِٱلْوَٰلِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًۭا وَذِى ٱلْقُرْبَىٰ وَٱلْيَتَٰمَىٰ وَٱلْمَسَٰكِينِ وَقُولُوا۟ لِلنَّاسِ حُسْنًۭا وَأَقِيمُوا۟ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتُوا۟ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ ثُمَّ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ إِلَّا قَلِيلًۭا مِّنكُمْ وَأَنتُم مُّعْرِضُونَ

AND LO! We accepted this solemn pledge from [you,] ‘ the children of Israel: “You shall worship none but God; and you shall do good unto your parents and kinsfolk, and the orphans, and the poor; and you shall speak unto all people in a kindly way; and you shall be constant in prayer; and you shall spend in charity.” And yet, save for a few of you, you turned away: for you are obstinate folk!

2 : 91

وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَٰقَكُمْ لَا تَسْفِكُونَ دِمَآءَكُمْ وَلَا تُخْرِجُونَ أَنفُسَكُم مِّن دِيَٰرِكُمْ ثُمَّ أَقْرَرْتُمْ وَأَنتُمْ تَشْهَدُونَ

And lo! We accepted your solemn pledge that you would not shed one another’s blood, and would not drive one another from your homelands – whereupon you acknowledged it; and thereto you bear witness [even now].

2 : 92

ثُمَّ أَنتُمْ هَٰٓؤُلَآءِ تَقْتُلُونَ أَنفُسَكُمْ وَتُخْرِجُونَ فَرِيقًۭا مِّنكُم مِّن دِيَٰرِهِمْ تَظَٰهَرُونَ عَلَيْهِم بِٱلْإِثْمِ وَٱلْعُدْوَٰنِ وَإِن يَأْتُوكُمْ أُسَٰرَىٰ تُفَٰدُوهُمْ وَهُوَ مُحَرَّمٌ عَلَيْكُمْ إِخْرَاجُهُمْ ۚ أَفَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِبَعْضِ ٱلْكِتَٰبِ وَتَكْفُرُونَ بِبَعْضٍۢ ۚ فَمَا جَزَآءُ مَن يَفْعَلُ ذَٰلِكَ مِنكُمْ إِلَّا خِزْىٌۭ فِى ٱلْحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنْيَا ۖ وَيَوْمَ ٱلْقِيَٰمَةِ يُرَدُّونَ إِلَىٰٓ أَشَدِّ ٱلْعَذَابِ ۗ وَمَا ٱللَّهُ بِغَٰفِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ

And yet, it is you who slay one another and drive some of your own people from their homelands, aiding one another against them in sin and hatred; but if they come to you as captives, you ransom them – although the very [act of] driving them away has been made unlawful to you!. Do you, then, believe in some parts of the divine writ and deny the truth of other parts? What, then, could be the reward of those among you who do such things but ignominy in the life of this world and, on the Day of Resurrection, commitment to most grievous suffering? For God is not unmindful of what you do.

2 : 93

أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱشْتَرَوُا۟ ٱلْحَيَوٰةَ ٱلدُّنْيَا بِٱلْءَاخِرَةِ ۖ فَلَا يُخَفَّفُ عَنْهُمُ ٱلْعَذَابُ وَلَا هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ

All who buy the life of this world at the price of the life to come – their suffering shall not be lightened, nor shall they be succoured!

2 : 94

وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَا مُوسَى ٱلْكِتَٰبَ وَقَفَّيْنَا مِنۢ بَعْدِهِۦ بِٱلرُّسُلِ ۖ وَءَاتَيْنَا عِيسَى ٱبْنَ مَرْيَمَ ٱلْبَيِّنَٰتِ وَأَيَّدْنَٰهُ بِرُوحِ ٱلْقُدُسِ ۗ أَفَكُلَّمَا جَآءَكُمْ رَسُولٌۢ بِمَا لَا تَهْوَىٰٓ أَنفُسُكُمُ ٱسْتَكْبَرْتُمْ فَفَرِيقًۭا كَذَّبْتُمْ وَفَرِيقًۭا تَقْتُلُونَ

For, indeed, We vouchsafed unto Moses the divine writ and caused apostle after apostle to follow him; and We vouchsafed unto Jesus, the son of Mary, all evidence of the truth, and strengthened him with holy inspiration. [Yet] is it not so that every time an apostle came unto you with something that was not to your liking, you gloried in your arrogance, and to some of them you gave the lie, while others you would slay?

2 : 95

وَقَالُوا۟ قُلُوبُنَا غُلْفٌۢ ۚ بَل لَّعَنَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَقَلِيلًۭا مَّا يُؤْمِنُونَ

But they say, “Our hearts are already full of knowledge.” Nay, but God has rejected them because of their refusal to acknowledge the truth: for, few are the things in which they believe.

2 : 96

وَلَمَّا جَآءَهُمْ كِتَٰبٌۭ مِّنْ عِندِ ٱللَّهِ مُصَدِّقٌۭ لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ وَكَانُوا۟ مِن قَبْلُ يَسْتَفْتِحُونَ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ فَلَمَّا جَآءَهُم مَّا عَرَفُوا۟ كَفَرُوا۟ بِهِۦ ۚ فَلَعْنَةُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَى ٱلْكَٰفِرِينَ

And whenever there came unto them a [new] revelation from God, confirming the truth already in their possession-and [bear in mind that] aforetime they used to pray for victory over those who were bent on denying the truth -: whenever there came unto them something which they recognized [as the truth], they would deny it. And God’s rejection is the due of all who deny the truth.

2 : 97

بِئْسَمَا ٱشْتَرَوْا۟ بِهِۦٓ أَنفُسَهُمْ أَن يَكْفُرُوا۟ بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ بَغْيًا أَن يُنَزِّلَ ٱللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِۦ عَلَىٰ مَن يَشَآءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِۦ ۖ فَبَآءُو بِغَضَبٍ عَلَىٰ غَضَبٍۢ ۚ وَلِلْكَٰفِرِينَ عَذَابٌۭ مُّهِينٌۭ

Vile is that [false pride] for which they have sold their own selves by denying the truth of what God has bestowed from on high, out of envy that God should bestow aught of His favour upon whomsoever He wills of His servants: and thus have they earned the burden of God’s condemnation, over and over. And for those who deny the truth there is shameful suffering in store.

2 : 98

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ ءَامِنُوا۟ بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ قَالُوا۟ نُؤْمِنُ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ عَلَيْنَا وَيَكْفُرُونَ بِمَا وَرَآءَهُۥ وَهُوَ ٱلْحَقُّ مُصَدِّقًۭا لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ ۗ قُلْ فَلِمَ تَقْتُلُونَ أَنۢبِيَآءَ ٱللَّهِ مِن قَبْلُ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

For when they are told, “Believe in what God has bestowed from on high,” they reply, “We believe [only] in what has been bestowed on us”-and they deny the truth of everything else, although it be a truth confirming the one already in their possession. Say “Why, then, did you slay God’s prophets aforetime, if you were (truly] believers?”

2 : 99

۞ وَلَقَدْ جَآءَكُم مُّوسَىٰ بِٱلْبَيِّنَٰتِ ثُمَّ ٱتَّخَذْتُمُ ٱلْعِجْلَ مِنۢ بَعْدِهِۦ وَأَنتُمْ ظَٰلِمُونَ

And indeed, there came unto you Moses with all evidence of the truth – and thereupon. in his absence, you took to worshipping the (golden] calf, and acted wickedly.

2 : 100

وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَٰقَكُمْ وَرَفَعْنَا فَوْقَكُمُ ٱلطُّورَ خُذُوا۟ مَآ ءَاتَيْنَٰكُم بِقُوَّةٍۢ وَٱسْمَعُوا۟ ۖ قَالُوا۟ سَمِعْنَا وَعَصَيْنَا وَأُشْرِبُوا۟ فِى قُلُوبِهِمُ ٱلْعِجْلَ بِكُفْرِهِمْ ۚ قُلْ بِئْسَمَا يَأْمُرُكُم بِهِۦٓ إِيمَٰنُكُمْ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

And, lo, We accepted your solemn pledge, raising Mount Sinai high above you, [saying,] “Hold fast with [all your] strength unto what We have vouchsafed you, and hearken unto it!” [But] they say, “We have heard, but we disobey” – for their hearts are filled to overflowing with love of the [golden] calf because of their refusal to acknowledge the truth. Say: “Vile is what this [false] belief of yours enjoins upon you-if indeed you are believers!”

2 : 101

قُلْ إِن كَانَتْ لَكُمُ ٱلدَّارُ ٱلْءَاخِرَةُ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ خَالِصَةًۭ مِّن دُونِ ٱلنَّاسِ فَتَمَنَّوُا۟ ٱلْمَوْتَ إِن كُنتُمْ صَٰدِقِينَ

Say: “If an afterlife with God is to be for you alone, to the exclusion of all other people, then. you should long for death-if what you say is true!”

2 : 102

وَلَن يَتَمَنَّوْهُ أَبَدًۢا بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌۢ بِٱلظَّٰلِمِينَ

But never will they long for it, because [they are aware] of what their hands have sent ahead in this world: and God has full knowledge of evildoers.

2 : 103

وَلَتَجِدَنَّهُمْ أَحْرَصَ ٱلنَّاسِ عَلَىٰ حَيَوٰةٍۢ وَمِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا۟ ۚ يَوَدُّ أَحَدُهُمْ لَوْ يُعَمَّرُ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍۢ وَمَا هُوَ بِمُزَحْزِحِهِۦ مِنَ ٱلْعَذَابِ أَن يُعَمَّرَ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ بَصِيرٌۢ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ

And thou wilt most certainly find that they cling to life more eagerly than any other people, even more than those who are bent on ascribing divinity to other beings beside God: every one of them would love to live a thousand years, although the grant of long life could not save him from suffering [in the hereafter]: for God sees all that they do.

2 : 104

قُلْ مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّۭا لِّجِبْرِيلَ فَإِنَّهُۥ نَزَّلَهُۥ عَلَىٰ قَلْبِكَ بِإِذْنِ ٱللَّهِ مُصَدِّقًۭا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَهُدًۭى وَبُشْرَىٰ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

SAY [O Prophet]: “Whosoever is an enemy of Gabriel” -who,, verily, by God’s leave, has brought down upon thy heart this [divine writ] which confirms the truth of whatever there still remains [of earlier revelations], and is a guidance and a glad tiding for the believers-:

2 : 105

مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّۭا لِّلَّهِ وَمَلَٰٓئِكَتِهِۦ وَرُسُلِهِۦ وَجِبْرِيلَ وَمِيكَىٰلَ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَدُوٌّۭ لِّلْكَٰفِرِينَ

“whosover is an enemy of God and His angels and His message-bearers, including Gabriel and Michael, [should know that,] verily, God is the enemy of all who deny the truth.”

2 : 106

وَلَقَدْ أَنزَلْنَآ إِلَيْكَ ءَايَٰتٍۭ بَيِّنَٰتٍۢ ۖ وَمَا يَكْفُرُ بِهَآ إِلَّا ٱلْفَٰسِقُونَ

For, clear messages indeed have We bestowed upon thee from on high; and none denies their truth save the iniquitous.

2 : 107

أَوَكُلَّمَا عَٰهَدُوا۟ عَهْدًۭا نَّبَذَهُۥ فَرِيقٌۭ مِّنْهُم ۚ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ

Is it not so that every time they made a promise [unto God], some of them cast it aside? Nay, indeed: most of them do not believe.

2 : 108

وَلَمَّا جَآءَهُمْ رَسُولٌۭ مِّنْ عِندِ ٱللَّهِ مُصَدِّقٌۭ لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ نَبَذَ فَرِيقٌۭ مِّنَ ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُوا۟ ٱلْكِتَٰبَ كِتَٰبَ ٱللَّهِ وَرَآءَ ظُهُورِهِمْ كَأَنَّهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

And [even now,] when there has come unto them an apostle from God, confirming the truth already in their possession, some of those who were granted revelation aforetime cast the divine writ behind their backs as though unaware [of what it says],

Explore the profound teachings in Surah Al Baqarah Ayat 102, shedding light on magic and divine wisdom.

2 : 109

وَٱتَّبَعُوا۟ مَا تَتْلُوا۟ ٱلشَّيَٰطِينُ عَلَىٰ مُلْكِ سُلَيْمَٰنَ ۖ وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَٰنُ وَلَٰكِنَّ ٱلشَّيَٰطِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ يُعَلِّمُونَ ٱلنَّاسَ ٱلسِّحْرَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ عَلَى ٱلْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ هَٰرُوتَ وَمَٰرُوتَ ۚ وَمَا يُعَلِّمَانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ حَتَّىٰ يَقُولَآ إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌۭ فَلَا تَكْفُرْ ۖ فَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مِنْهُمَا مَا يُفَرِّقُونَ بِهِۦ بَيْنَ ٱلْمَرْءِ وَزَوْجِهِۦ ۚ وَمَا هُم بِضَآرِّينَ بِهِۦ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ ٱللَّهِ ۚ وَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مَا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلَا يَنفَعُهُمْ ۚ وَلَقَدْ عَلِمُوا۟ لَمَنِ ٱشْتَرَىٰهُ مَا لَهُۥ فِى ٱلْءَاخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلَٰقٍۢ ۚ وَلَبِئْسَ مَا شَرَوْا۟ بِهِۦٓ أَنفُسَهُمْ ۚ لَوْ كَانُوا۟ يَعْلَمُونَ

and follow [instead] that which the evil ones used to practice during Solomon’s reign – for it was not Solomon who denied the truth, but those evil ones denied it by teaching people sorcery -; and [they follow] that which has come down through the two angels in Babylon, Hurut and Marut-although these two never taught it to anyone without first declaring, “We are but a temptation to evil: do not, then, deny [God’s] truth!” And they learn from these two how to create discord between a man and his wife; but whereas they can harm none thereby save by God’s leave, they acquire a knowledge that only harms themselves and does not benefit them – although they know; indeed, that he who acquires this [knowledge] shall have no share in the good of the life to come. For, vile indeed is that [art] for which they have sold their own selves -had they but known it!

2 : 110

وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَٱتَّقَوْا۟ لَمَثُوبَةٌۭ مِّنْ عِندِ ٱللَّهِ خَيْرٌۭ ۖ لَّوْ كَانُوا۟ يَعْلَمُونَ

And had they but believed and been conscious of Him, reward from God would indeed have brought them good-had they but known it!

2 : 111

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ لَا تَقُولُوا۟ رَٰعِنَا وَقُولُوا۟ ٱنظُرْنَا وَٱسْمَعُوا۟ ۗ وَلِلْكَٰفِرِينَ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌۭ

O YOU who have attained to faith! Do not say [to the Prophet], “Listen to us,” but rather say, “Have patience with us,” and hearken [unto him], since grievous suffering awaits those who deny the truth.

2 : 112

مَّا يَوَدُّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ مِنْ أَهْلِ ٱلْكِتَٰبِ وَلَا ٱلْمُشْرِكِينَ أَن يُنَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍۢ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ يَخْتَصُّ بِرَحْمَتِهِۦ مَن يَشَآءُ ۚ وَٱللَّهُ ذُو ٱلْفَضْلِ ٱلْعَظِيمِ

Neither those from among the followers of earlier revelation who are bent on denying the truth, nor those who ascribe divinity to other beings beside God, would like to see any good ever bestowed upon you from on high by your Sustainer; but God singles out for His grace whom He wills-for God is limitless in His great bounty.

2 : 113

۞ مَا نَنسَخْ مِنْ ءَايَةٍ أَوْ نُنسِهَا نَأْتِ بِخَيْرٍۢ مِّنْهَآ أَوْ مِثْلِهَآ ۗ أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىْءٍۢ قَدِيرٌ

Any message which, We annul or consign to oblivion We replace with a better or a similar one. Dost thou not know that God has the power to will anything?

2 : 114

أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَهُۥ مُلْكُ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ ۗ وَمَا لَكُم مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ مِن وَلِىٍّۢ وَلَا نَصِيرٍ

Dost thou not know that God’s is the dominion over the heavens and the earth, and that besides God you have none to protect you or bring you succour?

2 : 115

أَمْ تُرِيدُونَ أَن تَسْـَٔلُوا۟ رَسُولَكُمْ كَمَا سُئِلَ مُوسَىٰ مِن قَبْلُ ۗ وَمَن يَتَبَدَّلِ ٱلْكُفْرَ بِٱلْإِيمَٰنِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ سَوَآءَ ٱلسَّبِيلِ

Would you, perchance, ask of the Apostle who has been sent unto you what was asked aforetime of Moses? But whoever chooses to deny the [evidence of the] truth, instead of believing in it, has already strayed from the right path.

2 : 116

وَدَّ كَثِيرٌۭ مِّنْ أَهْلِ ٱلْكِتَٰبِ لَوْ يَرُدُّونَكُم مِّنۢ بَعْدِ إِيمَٰنِكُمْ كُفَّارًا حَسَدًۭا مِّنْ عِندِ أَنفُسِهِم مِّنۢ بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ ٱلْحَقُّ ۖ فَٱعْفُوا۟ وَٱصْفَحُوا۟ حَتَّىٰ يَأْتِىَ ٱللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِۦٓ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىْءٍۢ قَدِيرٌۭ

Out of their selfish envy, many among the followers of earlier revelation would like to bring you back to denying the truth after you have attained to faith – [even] after the truth has become clear unto them. None the less, forgive and forbear, until God shall make manifest His will: behold, God has the power to will anything.

2 : 117

وَأَقِيمُوا۟ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتُوا۟ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ ۚ وَمَا تُقَدِّمُوا۟ لِأَنفُسِكُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍۢ تَجِدُوهُ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌۭ

And be constant in prayer, and render the purifying dues; for, whatever good deed you send ahead for your own selves, you shall find it with God: behold, God sees all that you do.

2 : 118

وَقَالُوا۟ لَن يَدْخُلَ ٱلْجَنَّةَ إِلَّا مَن كَانَ هُودًا أَوْ نَصَٰرَىٰ ۗ تِلْكَ أَمَانِيُّهُمْ ۗ قُلْ هَاتُوا۟ بُرْهَٰنَكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ صَٰدِقِينَ

AND THEY claim, “None shall ever enter paradise unless he be a Jew” – or, “a Christian”. Such are their wishful beliefs! Say: “Produce an evidence for what you are claiming, if what you say is true!”

2 : 119

بَلَىٰ مَنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُۥ لِلَّهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌۭ فَلَهُۥٓ أَجْرُهُۥ عِندَ رَبِّهِۦ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

Yea, indeed: everyone who surrenders his whole being unto God, and is a doer of good withal, shall have his reward with his Sustainer; and all such need have no fear, and neither shall they grieve.

2 : 120

وَقَالَتِ ٱلْيَهُودُ لَيْسَتِ ٱلنَّصَٰرَىٰ عَلَىٰ شَىْءٍۢ وَقَالَتِ ٱلنَّصَٰرَىٰ لَيْسَتِ ٱلْيَهُودُ عَلَىٰ شَىْءٍۢ وَهُمْ يَتْلُونَ ٱلْكِتَٰبَ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ قَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ مِثْلَ قَوْلِهِمْ ۚ فَٱللَّهُ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ ٱلْقِيَٰمَةِ فِيمَا كَانُوا۟ فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ

Furthermore, the Jews assert, “The Christians have no valid ground for their beliefs,” while the Christians assert, “The Jews have no valid ground for their beliefs” – and both quote the divine writ! Even thus, like unto what they say, have [always] spoken those who were devoid of knowledge;” but it is God who will judge between them on Resurrection Day with regard to all on which they were wont to differ.

2 : 121

وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّن مَّنَعَ مَسَٰجِدَ ٱللَّهِ أَن يُذْكَرَ فِيهَا ٱسْمُهُۥ وَسَعَىٰ فِى خَرَابِهَآ ۚ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ مَا كَانَ لَهُمْ أَن يَدْخُلُوهَآ إِلَّا خَآئِفِينَ ۚ لَهُمْ فِى ٱلدُّنْيَا خِزْىٌۭ وَلَهُمْ فِى ٱلْءَاخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌۭ

Hence, who could be more wicked than those who bar the mention of God’s name from [any of] His houses of worship and strive for their ruin, [although] they have no right to enter them save in fear [of God]? For them, in this world, there is ignominy in store; and for them, in the life to come, awesome suffering.

2 : 122

وَلِلَّهِ ٱلْمَشْرِقُ وَٱلْمَغْرِبُ ۚ فَأَيْنَمَا تُوَلُّوا۟ فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ ٱللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ وَٰسِعٌ عَلِيمٌۭ

And God’s is the east and the west: and wherever you turn, there is God’s countenance. Behold, God is infinite, all-knowing.

2 : 123

وَقَالُوا۟ ٱتَّخَذَ ٱللَّهُ وَلَدًۭا ۗ سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ ۖ بَل لَّهُۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ ۖ كُلٌّۭ لَّهُۥ قَٰنِتُونَ

And yet some people assert, “God has taken unto Himself a son!” Limitless is He in His glory! Nay, but His is all that is in the heavens and on earth; all things devoutly obey His will.

2 : 124

بَدِيعُ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ ۖ وَإِذَا قَضَىٰٓ أَمْرًۭا فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُۥ كُن فَيَكُونُ

The Originator is He of the heavens and the earth: and when He wills a thing to be, He but says unto it, “Be” -and it is.

2 : 125

وَقَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ لَوْلَا يُكَلِّمُنَا ٱللَّهُ أَوْ تَأْتِينَآ ءَايَةٌۭ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ قَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِم مِّثْلَ قَوْلِهِمْ ۘ تَشَٰبَهَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ ۗ قَدْ بَيَّنَّا ٱلْءَايَٰتِ لِقَوْمٍۢ يُوقِنُونَ

AND [only] those who are devoid of knowledge say, “Why does God not speak unto us, nor is a [miraculous] sign shown to us?” Even thus, like unto what they, say, spoke those who lived before their time their hearts are all alike. Indeed, We have made all the signs manifest unto people who are endowed with inner certainty.

2 : 126

إِنَّآ أَرْسَلْنَٰكَ بِٱلْحَقِّ بَشِيرًۭا وَنَذِيرًۭا ۖ وَلَا تُسْـَٔلُ عَنْ أَصْحَٰبِ ٱلْجَحِيمِ

Verily, We have sent thee [O Prophet] with the truth, as a bearer of glad tidings and a warner: and thou shalt not be held accountable for those who are destined for the blazing fire.

Explore the profound meaning of Surah Al-Baqarah Ayat 120 at Quran House, emphasizing faith and divine guidance.

2 : 127

وَلَن تَرْضَىٰ عَنكَ ٱلْيَهُودُ وَلَا ٱلنَّصَٰرَىٰ حَتَّىٰ تَتَّبِعَ مِلَّتَهُمْ ۗ قُلْ إِنَّ هُدَى ٱللَّهِ هُوَ ٱلْهُدَىٰ ۗ وَلَئِنِ ٱتَّبَعْتَ أَهْوَآءَهُم بَعْدَ ٱلَّذِى جَآءَكَ مِنَ ٱلْعِلْمِ ۙ مَا لَكَ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ مِن وَلِىٍّۢ وَلَا نَصِيرٍ

For, never will the Jews be pleased with thee. nor yet the Christians, unless thou follow their own creeds. Say: “Behold, God’s guidance is the only true guidance.” And, indeed, if thou shouldst follow their errant views after all the knowledge that has come unto thee. thou wouldst have none to protect thee from God, and none to bring thee succour.

2 : 128

ٱلَّذِينَ ءَاتَيْنَٰهُمُ ٱلْكِتَٰبَ يَتْلُونَهُۥ حَقَّ تِلَاوَتِهِۦٓ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِۦ ۗ وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِهِۦ فَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلْخَٰسِرُونَ

Those unto whom We have vouchsafed the divine writ [and who] follow it as it ought to be followed -it is they who [truly] believe in it; whereas all who choose to deny its truth -it is they, they who are the losers!

2 : 129

يَٰبَنِىٓ إِسْرَٰٓءِيلَ ٱذْكُرُوا۟ نِعْمَتِىَ ٱلَّتِىٓ أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَنِّى فَضَّلْتُكُمْ عَلَى ٱلْعَٰلَمِينَ

O CHILDREN of Israel! Remember those blessings of Mine with which I graced you, and how I favoured you above all other people;

2 : 130

وَٱتَّقُوا۟ يَوْمًۭا لَّا تَجْزِى نَفْسٌ عَن نَّفْسٍۢ شَيْـًۭٔا وَلَا يُقْبَلُ مِنْهَا عَدْلٌۭ وَلَا تَنفَعُهَا شَفَٰعَةٌۭ وَلَا هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ

and remain conscious of [the coming of] a Day when no human being shall in the least avail another, nor shall ransom be accepted from any of them, nor shall intercession be of any use to them, and none shall be succoured.

2 : 131

۞ وَإِذِ ٱبْتَلَىٰٓ إِبْرَٰهِۦمَ رَبُّهُۥ بِكَلِمَٰتٍۢ فَأَتَمَّهُنَّ ۖ قَالَ إِنِّى جَاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًۭا ۖ قَالَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِى ۖ قَالَ لَا يَنَالُ عَهْدِى ٱلظَّٰلِمِينَ

And [remember this:] when his Sustainer tried Abraham by [His] commandments and the latter fulfilled them, He said: “Behold, I shall make thee a leader of men. “Abraham asked: “And [wilt Thou make leaders] of my offspring as well? “[God] answered: “My covenant does not embrace the evildoers.”

2 : 132

وَإِذْ جَعَلْنَا ٱلْبَيْتَ مَثَابَةًۭ لِّلنَّاسِ وَأَمْنًۭا وَٱتَّخِذُوا۟ مِن مَّقَامِ إِبْرَٰهِۦمَ مُصَلًّۭى ۖ وَعَهِدْنَآ إِلَىٰٓ إِبْرَٰهِۦمَ وَإِسْمَٰعِيلَ أَن طَهِّرَا بَيْتِىَ لِلطَّآئِفِينَ وَٱلْعَٰكِفِينَ وَٱلرُّكَّعِ ٱلسُّجُودِ

AND LO! We made the Temple a goal to which people might repair again and again, and a sanctuary: take then, the place whereon Abraham once stood as your place of prayer.” And thus did We command Abraham and Ishmael: “Purify My Temple for those who will walk around it, and those who will abide near it in meditation, and those who will bow down and prostrate themselves [in prayer].”

2 : 133

وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَٰهِۦمُ رَبِّ ٱجْعَلْ هَٰذَا بَلَدًا ءَامِنًۭا وَٱرْزُقْ أَهْلَهُۥ مِنَ ٱلثَّمَرَٰتِ مَنْ ءَامَنَ مِنْهُم بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلْيَوْمِ ٱلْءَاخِرِ ۖ قَالَ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَأُمَتِّعُهُۥ قَلِيلًۭا ثُمَّ أَضْطَرُّهُۥٓ إِلَىٰ عَذَابِ ٱلنَّارِ ۖ وَبِئْسَ ٱلْمَصِيرُ

And, lo, Abraham prayed: “O my Sustainer! Make this a land secure, and grant its people fruitful sustenance – such of them as believe in God and the Last Day.” [God] answered: “And whoever shall deny the truth, him will I let enjoy himself for a short while -but in the end I shall drive him to suffering through fire: and how vile a journey’s end!”

2 : 134

وَإِذْ يَرْفَعُ إِبْرَٰهِۦمُ ٱلْقَوَاعِدَ مِنَ ٱلْبَيْتِ وَإِسْمَٰعِيلُ رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّآ ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلْعَلِيمُ

And when Abraham and Ishmael were raising the foundations of the Temple, [they prayed:] “O our Sustainer! Accept Thou this from us: for, verily, Thou alone art all-hearing, all-knowing!

2 : 135

رَبَّنَا وَٱجْعَلْنَا مُسْلِمَيْنِ لَكَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِنَآ أُمَّةًۭ مُّسْلِمَةًۭ لَّكَ وَأَرِنَا مَنَاسِكَنَا وَتُبْ عَلَيْنَآ ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ ٱلتَّوَّابُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ

“O our Sustainer! Make us surrender ourselves unto Thee, and make out of our offspring a community that shall surrender itself unto Thee, and show us our ways of worship, and accept our repentance: for, verily, Thou alone art the Acceptor of Repentance, the Dispenser of Grace!

2 : 136

رَبَّنَا وَٱبْعَثْ فِيهِمْ رَسُولًۭا مِّنْهُمْ يَتْلُوا۟ عَلَيْهِمْ ءَايَٰتِكَ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ ٱلْكِتَٰبَ وَٱلْحِكْمَةَ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ ۚ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ ٱلْعَزِيزُ ٱلْحَكِيمُ

“O our Sustainer! Raise up from the midst of our off spring an apostle from among themselves, who shall convey unto them Thy messages, and impart unto them revelation as well as wisdom, and cause them to grow in purity: for, verily, Thou alone art almighty, truly wise!”

2 : 137

وَمَن يَرْغَبُ عَن مِّلَّةِ إِبْرَٰهِۦمَ إِلَّا مَن سَفِهَ نَفْسَهُۥ ۚ وَلَقَدِ ٱصْطَفَيْنَٰهُ فِى ٱلدُّنْيَا ۖ وَإِنَّهُۥ فِى ٱلْءَاخِرَةِ لَمِنَ ٱلصَّٰلِحِينَ

And who, unless he be weak of mind, would want to abandon Abraham’s creed, seeing that We have indeed raised him high in this world, and that, verily, in the life to come he shall be among the righteous?

2 : 138

إِذْ قَالَ لَهُۥ رَبُّهُۥٓ أَسْلِمْ ۖ قَالَ أَسْلَمْتُ لِرَبِّ ٱلْعَٰلَمِينَ

When his Sustainer said to him, “Surrender thyself unto Me!” – he answered, “I have surrendered myself unto [Thee,] the Sustainer of all the worlds.”

2 : 139

وَوَصَّىٰ بِهَآ إِبْرَٰهِۦمُ بَنِيهِ وَيَعْقُوبُ يَٰبَنِىَّ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ ٱصْطَفَىٰ لَكُمُ ٱلدِّينَ فَلَا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَأَنتُم مُّسْلِمُونَ

And this very thing did Abraham bequeath unto his children, and [so did] Jacob: “O my children! Behold, God has granted you the purest faith; so do not allow death to overtake you ere you have surrendered yourselves unto Him.”

2 : 140

أَمْ كُنتُمْ شُهَدَآءَ إِذْ حَضَرَ يَعْقُوبَ ٱلْمَوْتُ إِذْ قَالَ لِبَنِيهِ مَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِنۢ بَعْدِى قَالُوا۟ نَعْبُدُ إِلَٰهَكَ وَإِلَٰهَ ءَابَآئِكَ إِبْرَٰهِۦمَ وَإِسْمَٰعِيلَ وَإِسْحَٰقَ إِلَٰهًۭا وَٰحِدًۭا وَنَحْنُ لَهُۥ مُسْلِمُونَ

Nay, but you [yourselves, O children of Israel,] bear witness that when death was approaching Jacob, he said unto his sons: “Whom will you worship after I am gone?” They answered: “We will worship thy God, the God of thy forefathers Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac, the One God; and unto Him we surrender ourselves.”

2 : 141

تِلْكَ أُمَّةٌۭ قَدْ خَلَتْ ۖ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَلَكُم مَّا كَسَبْتُمْ ۖ وَلَا تُسْـَٔلُونَ عَمَّا كَانُوا۟ يَعْمَلُونَ

Now those people have passed away; unto them shall be accounted what they have earned, and unto you, what you have earned; and you will not be, judged on the strength of what they did.

2 : 142

وَقَالُوا۟ كُونُوا۟ هُودًا أَوْ نَصَٰرَىٰ تَهْتَدُوا۟ ۗ قُلْ بَلْ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَٰهِۦمَ حَنِيفًۭا ۖ وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ ٱلْمُشْرِكِينَ

AND THEY say, “Be Jews” – or, “Christians” – “and you shall be on the right path.” Say: “Nay, but [ours is] the creed of Abraham, who turned away from all that is false, and was not of those who ascribe divinity to aught beside God.”

2 : 143

قُولُوٓا۟ ءَامَنَّا بِٱللَّهِ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَىٰٓ إِبْرَٰهِۦمَ وَإِسْمَٰعِيلَ وَإِسْحَٰقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَٱلْأَسْبَاطِ وَمَآ أُوتِىَ مُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَمَآ أُوتِىَ ٱلنَّبِيُّونَ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍۢ مِّنْهُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُۥ مُسْلِمُونَ

Say: “We believe in God, and in that which has been bestowed from on high upon us, and that which has been bestowed upon Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and, their descendants, and that which has been vouchsafed to Moses and Jesus; and that which has been vouchsafed to all the [other] prophets by their Sustainer: we make no distinction between any of them. And it is unto Him that we surrender ourselves.”

2 : 144

فَإِنْ ءَامَنُوا۟ بِمِثْلِ مَآ ءَامَنتُم بِهِۦ فَقَدِ ٱهْتَدَوا۟ ۖ وَّإِن تَوَلَّوْا۟ فَإِنَّمَا هُمْ فِى شِقَاقٍۢ ۖ فَسَيَكْفِيكَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ ۚ وَهُوَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلْعَلِيمُ

And if [others] come to believe in the way you believe, they will indeed find themselves on the right path; and if they turn away, it is but they who will be deeply in the wrong, and God will protect thee from them: for He alone is all-hearing, all-knowing.

2 : 145

صِبْغَةَ ٱللَّهِ ۖ وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ صِبْغَةًۭ ۖ وَنَحْنُ لَهُۥ عَٰبِدُونَ

[Say: “Our life takes its] hue from God! And who could give a better hue [to life] than God, if we but truly worship Him?”

2 : 146

قُلْ أَتُحَآجُّونَنَا فِى ٱللَّهِ وَهُوَ رَبُّنَا وَرَبُّكُمْ وَلَنَآ أَعْمَٰلُنَا وَلَكُمْ أَعْمَٰلُكُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُۥ مُخْلِصُونَ

Say [to the Jews and the Christians]: “Do you argue with us about God? But He is our Sustainer as well as your Sustainer – and unto us shall be accounted our deeds, and unto you, your deeds; and it- is unto Him alone that we devote ourselves.

2 : 147

أَمْ تَقُولُونَ إِنَّ إِبْرَٰهِۦمَ وَإِسْمَٰعِيلَ وَإِسْحَٰقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَٱلْأَسْبَاطَ كَانُوا۟ هُودًا أَوْ نَصَٰرَىٰ ۗ قُلْ ءَأَنتُمْ أَعْلَمُ أَمِ ٱللَّهُ ۗ وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّن كَتَمَ شَهَٰدَةً عِندَهُۥ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ ۗ وَمَا ٱللَّهُ بِغَٰفِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ

“Do you claim that Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and their descendants were `Jews’ or `Christians’?” Say: “Do you know more than God does? And who could be more wicked than he who suppresses a testimony given to him by God? Yet God is not unmindful of what you do.

2 : 148

تِلْكَ أُمَّةٌۭ قَدْ خَلَتْ ۖ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَلَكُم مَّا كَسَبْتُمْ ۖ وَلَا تُسْـَٔلُونَ عَمَّا كَانُوا۟ يَعْمَلُونَ

“Now those people have passed away; unto them shall be accounted what they have earned, and unto you, what you have earned; and you will not be judged on the strength of what they did.”

2 : 149

۞ سَيَقُولُ ٱلسُّفَهَآءُ مِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ مَا وَلَّىٰهُمْ عَن قِبْلَتِهِمُ ٱلَّتِى كَانُوا۟ عَلَيْهَا ۚ قُل لِّلَّهِ ٱلْمَشْرِقُ وَٱلْمَغْرِبُ ۚ يَهْدِى مَن يَشَآءُ إِلَىٰ صِرَٰطٍۢ مُّسْتَقِيمٍۢ

THE WEAK-MINDED among people will say, “What has turned them away from the direction of prayer which they have hitherto observed?” Say: “God’s is the east and the west; He guides whom He wills onto a straight way.”

2 : 150

وَكَذَٰلِكَ جَعَلْنَٰكُمْ أُمَّةًۭ وَسَطًۭا لِّتَكُونُوا۟ شُهَدَآءَ عَلَى ٱلنَّاسِ وَيَكُونَ ٱلرَّسُولُ عَلَيْكُمْ شَهِيدًۭا ۗ وَمَا جَعَلْنَا ٱلْقِبْلَةَ ٱلَّتِى كُنتَ عَلَيْهَآ إِلَّا لِنَعْلَمَ مَن يَتَّبِعُ ٱلرَّسُولَ مِمَّن يَنقَلِبُ عَلَىٰ عَقِبَيْهِ ۚ وَإِن كَانَتْ لَكَبِيرَةً إِلَّا عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ هَدَى ٱللَّهُ ۗ وَمَا كَانَ ٱللَّهُ لِيُضِيعَ إِيمَٰنَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ بِٱلنَّاسِ لَرَءُوفٌۭ رَّحِيمٌۭ

And thus have We willed you to be a community of the middle way, so that [with your lives] you might bear witness to the truth before all mankind, and that the Apostle might bear witness to it before you. And it is only to the end that We might make a clear distinction between those who follow the Apostle and those who turn about on their heels that We have appointed [for this community] the direction of prayer which thou [O Prophet] hast formerly observed: for this was indeed a hard test for all but those whom God has guided aright. But God will surely not lose sight of your faith-for, behold, God is most compassionate towards man, a dispenser of grace.

2 : 151

قَدْ نَرَىٰ تَقَلُّبَ وَجْهِكَ فِى ٱلسَّمَآءِ ۖ فَلَنُوَلِّيَنَّكَ قِبْلَةًۭ تَرْضَىٰهَا ۚ فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ ٱلْمَسْجِدِ ٱلْحَرَامِ ۚ وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنتُمْ فَوَلُّوا۟ وُجُوهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُۥ ۗ وَإِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُوا۟ ٱلْكِتَٰبَ لَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ ٱلْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ ۗ وَمَا ٱللَّهُ بِغَٰفِلٍ عَمَّا يَعْمَلُونَ

We have seen thee [O Prophet] often turn thy face towards heaven [for guidance]: and now We shall indeed make thee turn in prayer in a direction which will fulfil thy desire. Turn, then, thy face towards the Inviolable House of Worship; and wherever you all may be, turn your faces towards it [in prayer]. And, verily, those who have been vouchsafed revelation aforetime know well that this [commandment] comes in truth from their Sustainer; and God is not unaware of what they do.

2 : 152

وَلَئِنْ أَتَيْتَ ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُوا۟ ٱلْكِتَٰبَ بِكُلِّ ءَايَةٍۢ مَّا تَبِعُوا۟ قِبْلَتَكَ ۚ وَمَآ أَنتَ بِتَابِعٍۢ قِبْلَتَهُمْ ۚ وَمَا بَعْضُهُم بِتَابِعٍۢ قِبْلَةَ بَعْضٍۢ ۚ وَلَئِنِ ٱتَّبَعْتَ أَهْوَآءَهُم مِّنۢ بَعْدِ مَا جَآءَكَ مِنَ ٱلْعِلْمِ ۙ إِنَّكَ إِذًۭا لَّمِنَ ٱلظَّٰلِمِينَ

And yet, even if thou wert to place all evidence before those who have been vouchsafed earlier revelation, they would not follow thy direction of prayer; and neither mayest thou follow their direction of prayer, nor even do they follow one another’s direction. And if thou shouldst follow their errant views after all the knowledge that has come unto thee thou wouldst surely be among the evildoers.

2 : 153

ٱلَّذِينَ ءَاتَيْنَٰهُمُ ٱلْكِتَٰبَ يَعْرِفُونَهُۥ كَمَا يَعْرِفُونَ أَبْنَآءَهُمْ ۖ وَإِنَّ فَرِيقًۭا مِّنْهُمْ لَيَكْتُمُونَ ٱلْحَقَّ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ

They unto whom We have vouchsafed revelation aforetime know it as they know their own children: but, behold, some of them knowingly suppress the truth –

2 : 154

ٱلْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكَ ۖ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ ٱلْمُمْتَرِينَ

the truth from thy Sustainer! Be not, then, among the doubters:

2 : 155

وَلِكُلٍّۢ وِجْهَةٌ هُوَ مُوَلِّيهَا ۖ فَٱسْتَبِقُوا۟ ٱلْخَيْرَٰتِ ۚ أَيْنَ مَا تَكُونُوا۟ يَأْتِ بِكُمُ ٱللَّهُ جَمِيعًا ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىْءٍۢ قَدِيرٌۭ

for, every community faces a direction of its own, of which He is the focal point. Vie, therefore, with one another in doing good works. Wherever you may be, God will gather you all unto Himself: for, verily, God has the power to will anything.

2 : 156

وَمِنْ حَيْثُ خَرَجْتَ فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ ٱلْمَسْجِدِ ٱلْحَرَامِ ۖ وَإِنَّهُۥ لَلْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكَ ۗ وَمَا ٱللَّهُ بِغَٰفِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ

Thus, from wherever thou mayest come forth, turn thy face [in prayer] towards the Inviolable House of Worship-for,. behold, this [commandment] comes in truth from thy Sustainer; and God is not unaware of what you do.

2 : 157

وَمِنْ حَيْثُ خَرَجْتَ فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ ٱلْمَسْجِدِ ٱلْحَرَامِ ۚ وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنتُمْ فَوَلُّوا۟ وُجُوهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُۥ لِئَلَّا يَكُونَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَيْكُمْ حُجَّةٌ إِلَّا ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا۟ مِنْهُمْ فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَٱخْشَوْنِى وَلِأُتِمَّ نِعْمَتِى عَلَيْكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ

Hence, from wherever thou mayest come forth, turn thy face [in prayer] towards the Inviolable House of Worship; and wherever you all may be, turn your faces towards it, so that people should have no argument against you unless they are bent upon wrongdoing. And hold not them in awe, but stand in awe of Me, and [obey Me,] so that I might bestow upon you the full measure of My blessings., and that you might follow the right path.

2 : 158

كَمَآ أَرْسَلْنَا فِيكُمْ رَسُولًۭا مِّنكُمْ يَتْلُوا۟ عَلَيْكُمْ ءَايَٰتِنَا وَيُزَكِّيكُمْ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمُ ٱلْكِتَٰبَ وَٱلْحِكْمَةَ وَيُعَلِّمُكُم مَّا لَمْ تَكُونُوا۟ تَعْلَمُونَ

Even as We have sent unto you an apostle from among yourselves to convey unto you Our messages, and to cause you to grow in purity, and to impart unto you revelation and wisdom, and to teach you that which you knew not:

2 : 159

فَٱذْكُرُونِىٓ أَذْكُرْكُمْ وَٱشْكُرُوا۟ لِى وَلَا تَكْفُرُونِ

so remember Me, and I shall remember you; and be grateful unto Me, and deny Me not.

2 : 160

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ ٱسْتَعِينُوا۟ بِٱلصَّبْرِ وَٱلصَّلَوٰةِ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ مَعَ ٱلصَّٰبِرِينَ

O YOU who have attained to faith! Seek aid in steadfast patience and prayer: for, behold, God is with those who are patient in adversity.

2 : 161

وَلَا تَقُولُوا۟ لِمَن يُقْتَلُ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ أَمْوَٰتٌۢ ۚ بَلْ أَحْيَآءٌۭ وَلَٰكِن لَّا تَشْعُرُونَ

And say not of those who are slain in God’s cause, “They are dead”: nay, they are alive, but you perceive it not.

2 : 162

وَلَنَبْلُوَنَّكُم بِشَىْءٍۢ مِّنَ ٱلْخَوْفِ وَٱلْجُوعِ وَنَقْصٍۢ مِّنَ ٱلْأَمْوَٰلِ وَٱلْأَنفُسِ وَٱلثَّمَرَٰتِ ۗ وَبَشِّرِ ٱلصَّٰبِرِينَ

And most certainly shall We try you by means of danger, and hunger, and loss of worldly goods, of lives and of [labour’s] fruits. But give glad tidings unto those who are patient in adversity

2 : 163

ٱلَّذِينَ إِذَآ أَصَٰبَتْهُم مُّصِيبَةٌۭ قَالُوٓا۟ إِنَّا لِلَّهِ وَإِنَّآ إِلَيْهِ رَٰجِعُونَ

who, when calamity befalls them, say, “Verily, unto God do we belong and, verily, unto Him we shall return.”

2 : 164

أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ صَلَوَٰتٌۭ مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ وَرَحْمَةٌۭ ۖ وَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلْمُهْتَدُونَ

It is they upon whom their Sustainer’s blessings and grace are bestowed, and it is they, they who are on the right path!

2 : 165

۞ إِنَّ ٱلصَّفَا وَٱلْمَرْوَةَ مِن شَعَآئِرِ ٱللَّهِ ۖ فَمَنْ حَجَّ ٱلْبَيْتَ أَوِ ٱعْتَمَرَ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِ أَن يَطَّوَّفَ بِهِمَا ۚ وَمَن تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًۭا فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ شَاكِرٌ عَلِيمٌ

[Hence,] behold, As-Safa and Al-Marwah are among the symbols set up by God; and thus, no wrong does he who, having come to the Temple on pilgrimage or on a pious visit, strides to and fro between these two: for, if one does more good than he is bound to do-behold, God is responsive to gratitude, all-knowing.

2 : 166

إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ يَكْتُمُونَ مَآ أَنزَلْنَا مِنَ ٱلْبَيِّنَٰتِ وَٱلْهُدَىٰ مِنۢ بَعْدِ مَا بَيَّنَّٰهُ لِلنَّاسِ فِى ٱلْكِتَٰبِ ۙ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ يَلْعَنُهُمُ ٱللَّهُ وَيَلْعَنُهُمُ ٱللَّٰعِنُونَ

BEHOLD, as for those who suppress aught of the evidence of the truth and of the guidance which We have bestowed from on high, after We have made it clear unto mankind through the divine writ – these it is whom God will reject, and whom all who can judge will reject.

2 : 167

إِلَّا ٱلَّذِينَ تَابُوا۟ وَأَصْلَحُوا۟ وَبَيَّنُوا۟ فَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ أَتُوبُ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ وَأَنَا ٱلتَّوَّابُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ

Excepted, however, shall be they that repent, and put themselves to rights, and make known the truth: and it is they whose repentance I shall accept-for I alone am the Acceptor of Repentance, the Dispenser of Grace.

2 : 168

إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ وَمَاتُوا۟ وَهُمْ كُفَّارٌ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ لَعْنَةُ ٱللَّهِ وَٱلْمَلَٰٓئِكَةِ وَٱلنَّاسِ أَجْمَعِينَ

Behold, as for those who are bent on denying the truth and die as deniers of the truth -their due is rejection by God, and by the angels,, and by all [righteous] men.

2 : 169

خَٰلِدِينَ فِيهَا ۖ لَا يُخَفَّفُ عَنْهُمُ ٱلْعَذَابُ وَلَا هُمْ يُنظَرُونَ

In this state shall they abide; [and] neither will their suffering, be lightened, nor will they be granted respite.

2 : 170

وَإِلَٰهُكُمْ إِلَٰهٌۭ وَٰحِدٌۭ ۖ لَّآ إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ٱلرَّحْمَٰنُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ

AND YOUR GOD is the One God: there is no deity save Him, the Most Gracious, the Dispenser of Grace.

2 : 171

إِنَّ فِى خَلْقِ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ وَٱخْتِلَٰفِ ٱلَّيْلِ وَٱلنَّهَارِ وَٱلْفُلْكِ ٱلَّتِى تَجْرِى فِى ٱلْبَحْرِ بِمَا يَنفَعُ ٱلنَّاسَ وَمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مِن مَّآءٍۢ فَأَحْيَا بِهِ ٱلْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا وَبَثَّ فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ دَآبَّةٍۢ وَتَصْرِيفِ ٱلرِّيَٰحِ وَٱلسَّحَابِ ٱلْمُسَخَّرِ بَيْنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ لَءَايَٰتٍۢ لِّقَوْمٍۢ يَعْقِلُونَ

Verily, in the creation of the heavens and of the earth, and the succession of night and day: and in the ships that speed through the sea with what is useful to man: and in the waters which God sends down from the sky, giving life thereby to the earth after it had, been lifeless, and causing all manner of living creatures to multiply thereon: and in the change of the winds, and the clouds that run their appointed courses between sky and earth: [in all this] there are messages indeed for people who use their reason.

2 : 172

وَمِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ مَن يَتَّخِذُ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ أَندَادًۭا يُحِبُّونَهُمْ كَحُبِّ ٱللَّهِ ۖ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓا۟ أَشَدُّ حُبًّۭا لِّلَّهِ ۗ وَلَوْ يَرَى ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوٓا۟ إِذْ يَرَوْنَ ٱلْعَذَابَ أَنَّ ٱلْقُوَّةَ لِلَّهِ جَمِيعًۭا وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ شَدِيدُ ٱلْعَذَابِ

And yet there are people who choose to believe in beings that allegedly rival God, loving them as [only] God should be loved: whereas those who have attained to faith love God more than all else. If they who are bent on evildoing could but see – as see they will when they are made to suffer [on Resurrection Day] -that all might belongs to God alone, and that God is severe in [meting out] punishment!

2 : 173

إِذْ تَبَرَّأَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱتُّبِعُوا۟ مِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّبَعُوا۟ وَرَأَوُا۟ ٱلْعَذَابَ وَتَقَطَّعَتْ بِهِمُ ٱلْأَسْبَابُ

[On that Day] it will come to pass that those who had been [falsely] adored shall disown their followers, and the latter shall see the suffering [that awaits them], with all their hopes cut to pieces!

2 : 174

وَقَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّبَعُوا۟ لَوْ أَنَّ لَنَا كَرَّةًۭ فَنَتَبَرَّأَ مِنْهُمْ كَمَا تَبَرَّءُوا۟ مِنَّا ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُرِيهِمُ ٱللَّهُ أَعْمَٰلَهُمْ حَسَرَٰتٍ عَلَيْهِمْ ۖ وَمَا هُم بِخَٰرِجِينَ مِنَ ٱلنَّارِ

And then those followers shall say: “Would that we had a second chance [in life], so that we could disown them as they have disowned us!” Thus will God show them their works [in a manner that will cause them] batter regrets; but they will not come out of the fire.

2 : 175

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ كُلُوا۟ مِمَّا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ حَلَٰلًۭا طَيِّبًۭا وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا۟ خُطُوَٰتِ ٱلشَّيْطَٰنِ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّۭ مُّبِينٌ

O MANKIND! Partake of what is lawful and good on earth, and follow not Satan’s footsteps: for, verily, he is your open foe,

2 : 176

إِنَّمَا يَأْمُرُكُم بِٱلسُّوٓءِ وَٱلْفَحْشَآءِ وَأَن تَقُولُوا۟ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

and bids you only to do evil, and to commit deeds of abomination, and to attribute unto God something of which you have no knowledge.

2 : 177

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمُ ٱتَّبِعُوا۟ مَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ قَالُوا۟ بَلْ نَتَّبِعُ مَآ أَلْفَيْنَا عَلَيْهِ ءَابَآءَنَآ ۗ أَوَلَوْ كَانَ ءَابَآؤُهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ شَيْـًۭٔا وَلَا يَهْتَدُونَ

But when they are told, “Follow what God has bestowed from on high,” some answer, “Nay, we shall follow [only] that which we found our forefathers believing in and doing.” Why, even if their forefathers did not use their reason at all, and were devoid of all guidance?

2 : 178

وَمَثَلُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ كَمَثَلِ ٱلَّذِى يَنْعِقُ بِمَا لَا يَسْمَعُ إِلَّا دُعَآءًۭ وَنِدَآءًۭ ۚ صُمٌّۢ بُكْمٌ عُمْىٌۭ فَهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ

And so, the parable of those who re bent on denying the truth is that of the beast which hears the shepherd’s cry, and hears in it nothing but the sound of a voice and a call. Deaf are they, and dumb, and blind: for they do not use their reason.

2 : 179

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ كُلُوا۟ مِن طَيِّبَٰتِ مَا رَزَقْنَٰكُمْ وَٱشْكُرُوا۟ لِلَّهِ إِن كُنتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ

O you who have attained to faith! Partake of the good things which We have provided for you as sustenance, and render thanks unto God, if it is [truly] Him that you worship.

2 : 180

إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمُ ٱلْمَيْتَةَ وَٱلدَّمَ وَلَحْمَ ٱلْخِنزِيرِ وَمَآ أُهِلَّ بِهِۦ لِغَيْرِ ٱللَّهِ ۖ فَمَنِ ٱضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍۢ وَلَا عَادٍۢ فَلَآ إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٌۭ رَّحِيمٌ

He has forbidden to you only carrion, and blood, and the flesh of swine, and that over which any name other than God’s has been invoked; but if one is driven by necessity – neither coveting it nor exceeding his immediate need -no sin shall be upon him: for, behold, God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.

2 : 181

إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ يَكْتُمُونَ مَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ مِنَ ٱلْكِتَٰبِ وَيَشْتَرُونَ بِهِۦ ثَمَنًۭا قَلِيلًا ۙ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ مَا يَأْكُلُونَ فِى بُطُونِهِمْ إِلَّا ٱلنَّارَ وَلَا يُكَلِّمُهُمُ ٱللَّهُ يَوْمَ ٱلْقِيَٰمَةِ وَلَا يُزَكِّيهِمْ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

VERILY, as for those who suppress aught of the revelation which God has bestowed from on high, and barter it away for a trifling gain – they but fill their bellies with fire. And God will not speak unto them on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He cleanse them [of their sins]; and grievous suffering awaits them.

2 : 182

أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱشْتَرَوُا۟ ٱلضَّلَٰلَةَ بِٱلْهُدَىٰ وَٱلْعَذَابَ بِٱلْمَغْفِرَةِ ۚ فَمَآ أَصْبَرَهُمْ عَلَى ٱلنَّارِ

It is they who take error in exchange for guidance, and suffering in exchange for forgiveness: yet how little do they seem to fear the fire!

2 : 183

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ نَزَّلَ ٱلْكِتَٰبَ بِٱلْحَقِّ ۗ وَإِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱخْتَلَفُوا۟ فِى ٱلْكِتَٰبِ لَفِى شِقَاقٍۭ بَعِيدٍۢ

Thus it is: since it is God who bestows the divine writ from on high, setting forth the truth, all those who set their own views against the divine writ are, verily, most deeply in the wrong.

2 : 184

۞ لَّيْسَ ٱلْبِرَّ أَن تُوَلُّوا۟ وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ ٱلْمَشْرِقِ وَٱلْمَغْرِبِ وَلَٰكِنَّ ٱلْبِرَّ مَنْ ءَامَنَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلْيَوْمِ ٱلْءَاخِرِ وَٱلْمَلَٰٓئِكَةِ وَٱلْكِتَٰبِ وَٱلنَّبِيِّۦنَ وَءَاتَى ٱلْمَالَ عَلَىٰ حُبِّهِۦ ذَوِى ٱلْقُرْبَىٰ وَٱلْيَتَٰمَىٰ وَٱلْمَسَٰكِينَ وَٱبْنَ ٱلسَّبِيلِ وَٱلسَّآئِلِينَ وَفِى ٱلرِّقَابِ وَأَقَامَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتَى ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ وَٱلْمُوفُونَ بِعَهْدِهِمْ إِذَا عَٰهَدُوا۟ ۖ وَٱلصَّٰبِرِينَ فِى ٱلْبَأْسَآءِ وَٱلضَّرَّآءِ وَحِينَ ٱلْبَأْسِ ۗ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا۟ ۖ وَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلْمُتَّقُونَ

True piety does not consist in turning your faces towards the east or the west – but truly pious is he who believes in God, and the Last Day; and the angels, and revelation, and the prophets; and spends his substance – however much he himself may cherish – it – upon his near of kin, and the orphans, and the needy, and the wayfarer, and the beggars, and for the freeing of human beings from bondage; and is constant in prayer, and renders the purifying dues; and [truly pious are] they who keep their promises whenever they promise, and are patient in misfortune and hardship and in time of peril: it is they that have proved themselves true, and it is they, they who are conscious of God.

2 : 185

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ ٱلْقِصَاصُ فِى ٱلْقَتْلَى ۖ ٱلْحُرُّ بِٱلْحُرِّ وَٱلْعَبْدُ بِٱلْعَبْدِ وَٱلْأُنثَىٰ بِٱلْأُنثَىٰ ۚ فَمَنْ عُفِىَ لَهُۥ مِنْ أَخِيهِ شَىْءٌۭ فَٱتِّبَاعٌۢ بِٱلْمَعْرُوفِ وَأَدَآءٌ إِلَيْهِ بِإِحْسَٰنٍۢ ۗ ذَٰلِكَ تَخْفِيفٌۭ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَرَحْمَةٌۭ ۗ فَمَنِ ٱعْتَدَىٰ بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ فَلَهُۥ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌۭ

O YOU who have attained to faith! Just retribution is ordained for you in cases of killing: the free for the free, and the slave for the slave, and the woman for the woman. And if something [of his guilt] is remitted to a guilty person by his brother, this [remission] shall be adhered to with fairness, and restitution to his fellow-man shall be made in a goodly manner. This is an alleviation from your Sustainer, and an act of His grace. And for him who, none the less, wilfully transgresses the bounds of what is right, there is grievous suffering in store:

2 : 186

وَلَكُمْ فِى ٱلْقِصَاصِ حَيَوٰةٌۭ يَٰٓأُو۟لِى ٱلْأَلْبَٰبِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

for, in [the law of] just retribution, O you who are endowed with insight, there is life for you, so that you might remain conscious of God!

2 : 187

كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذَا حَضَرَ أَحَدَكُمُ ٱلْمَوْتُ إِن تَرَكَ خَيْرًا ٱلْوَصِيَّةُ لِلْوَٰلِدَيْنِ وَٱلْأَقْرَبِينَ بِٱلْمَعْرُوفِ ۖ حَقًّا عَلَى ٱلْمُتَّقِينَ

IT IS ordained for you, when death approaches any of you and he is leaving behind much wealth, to make bequests in favour of his parents and [other] near of kin in accordance with what is fair: I this is binding on all who are conscious of God.

2 : 188

فَمَنۢ بَدَّلَهُۥ بَعْدَمَا سَمِعَهُۥ فَإِنَّمَآ إِثْمُهُۥ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ يُبَدِّلُونَهُۥٓ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌۭ

And if anyone alters such a provision – after having come to know it, the sin of acting thus shall fall only upon those who have altered it. Verily, God is all-hearing, all-knowing.

2 : 189

فَمَنْ خَافَ مِن مُّوصٍۢ جَنَفًا أَوْ إِثْمًۭا فَأَصْلَحَ بَيْنَهُمْ فَلَآ إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٌۭ رَّحِيمٌۭ

If, however, one has reason to fear that the testator has committed a mistake or a [deliberate] wrong, and thereupon brings about a settlement between the heirs, he will incur no sin [thereby]. Verily, God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.

2 : 190

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ ٱلصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

O YOU who have attained to faith! Fasting is ordained for you as it was ordained for those before you, so that you might remain conscious of God:

2 : 191

أَيَّامًۭا مَّعْدُودَٰتٍۢ ۚ فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍۢ فَعِدَّةٌۭ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ ۚ وَعَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُۥ فِدْيَةٌۭ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍۢ ۖ فَمَن تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًۭا فَهُوَ خَيْرٌۭ لَّهُۥ ۚ وَأَن تَصُومُوا۟ خَيْرٌۭ لَّكُمْ ۖ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

[fasting] during a certain number of days. But whoever of you is ill, or on a journey, [shall fast instead for the same] number of other days; and [in such cases] it is incumbent upon those who can afford it to make sacrifice by feeding a needy person. And whoever does more good than he is bound to do does good unto himself thereby; for to fast is to do good unto yourselves – if you but knew it.

2 : 192

شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ ٱلَّذِىٓ أُنزِلَ فِيهِ ٱلْقُرْءَانُ هُدًۭى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَٰتٍۢ مِّنَ ٱلْهُدَىٰ وَٱلْفُرْقَانِ ۚ فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ ٱلشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ ۖ وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍۢ فَعِدَّةٌۭ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ ۗ يُرِيدُ ٱللَّهُ بِكُمُ ٱلْيُسْرَ وَلَا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ ٱلْعُسْرَ وَلِتُكْمِلُوا۟ ٱلْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا هَدَىٰكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

It was the month of Ramadan in which the Qur’an was [first] bestowed from on high as a guidance unto man and a self-evident proof of that guidance, and as the standard by which to discern the true from the false. Hence, whoever of you lives to see this month shall fast throughout it; but he that is ill, or on a journey, [shall fast instead for the same] number of other days. God wills that you shall have ease, and does not will you to suffer hardship; but [He desires] that you complete the number [of days required], and that you extol God for His having guided you aright, and that you render your thanks [unto Him].

2 : 193

وَإِذَا سَأَلَكَ عِبَادِى عَنِّى فَإِنِّى قَرِيبٌ ۖ أُجِيبُ دَعْوَةَ ٱلدَّاعِ إِذَا دَعَانِ ۖ فَلْيَسْتَجِيبُوا۟ لِى وَلْيُؤْمِنُوا۟ بِى لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْشُدُونَ

AND IF My servants ask thee about Me – behold, I am near; I respond to the call of him who calls, whenever he calls unto Me: let them, then, respond unto Me, and believe in Me, so that they might follow the right way.

2 : 194

أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ لَيْلَةَ ٱلصِّيَامِ ٱلرَّفَثُ إِلَىٰ نِسَآئِكُمْ ۚ هُنَّ لِبَاسٌۭ لَّكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لِبَاسٌۭ لَّهُنَّ ۗ عَلِمَ ٱللَّهُ أَنَّكُمْ كُنتُمْ تَخْتَانُونَ أَنفُسَكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَعَفَا عَنكُمْ ۖ فَٱلْـَٰٔنَ بَٰشِرُوهُنَّ وَٱبْتَغُوا۟ مَا كَتَبَ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمْ ۚ وَكُلُوا۟ وَٱشْرَبُوا۟ حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ ٱلْخَيْطُ ٱلْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ ٱلْخَيْطِ ٱلْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ ٱلْفَجْرِ ۖ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا۟ ٱلصِّيَامَ إِلَى ٱلَّيْلِ ۚ وَلَا تُبَٰشِرُوهُنَّ وَأَنتُمْ عَٰكِفُونَ فِى ٱلْمَسَٰجِدِ ۗ تِلْكَ حُدُودُ ٱللَّهِ فَلَا تَقْرَبُوهَا ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ ٱللَّهُ ءَايَٰتِهِۦ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ

IT IS lawful for you to go in unto your wives during the night preceding the [day’s] fast: they are as a garment for you, and you are as a garment for them. God is aware that you would have deprived yourselves of this right, and so He has turned unto you in His mercy and removed this hardship from you. Now, then, you may lie with them skin to skin, and avail yourselves of that which God has ordained for you, and eat and drink until you can discern the white streak of dawn against the blackness of night, and then resume fasting until nightfall; but do not lie with them skin to skin when you are about to abide in meditation in houses of worship. These are the bounds set by God: do not, then, offend against them – [for] it is thus that God makes clear His messages unto mankind, so that they might remain conscious of Him.

2 : 195

وَلَا تَأْكُلُوٓا۟ أَمْوَٰلَكُم بَيْنَكُم بِٱلْبَٰطِلِ وَتُدْلُوا۟ بِهَآ إِلَى ٱلْحُكَّامِ لِتَأْكُلُوا۟ فَرِيقًۭا مِّنْ أَمْوَٰلِ ٱلنَّاسِ بِٱلْإِثْمِ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

AND DEVOUR NOT one another’s possessions wrongfully, and neither employ legal artifices with a view to devouring sinfully, and knowingly, anything that by right belongs to others.

2 : 196

۞ يَسْـَٔلُونَكَ عَنِ ٱلْأَهِلَّةِ ۖ قُلْ هِىَ مَوَٰقِيتُ لِلنَّاسِ وَٱلْحَجِّ ۗ وَلَيْسَ ٱلْبِرُّ بِأَن تَأْتُوا۟ ٱلْبُيُوتَ مِن ظُهُورِهَا وَلَٰكِنَّ ٱلْبِرَّ مَنِ ٱتَّقَىٰ ۗ وَأْتُوا۟ ٱلْبُيُوتَ مِنْ أَبْوَٰبِهَا ۚ وَٱتَّقُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

THEY WILL ASK thee about the new moons. Say: “They indicate the periods for [various doings of] mankind, including the pilgrimage.” However, piety does not consist in your entering houses from the rear, [as it were,] but truly pious is he who is conscious of God. Hence, enter houses through their doors, and remain conscious of God, so that you might attain to a happy state.

2 : 197

وَقَٰتِلُوا۟ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلَّذِينَ يُقَٰتِلُونَكُمْ وَلَا تَعْتَدُوٓا۟ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلْمُعْتَدِينَ

AND FIGHT in God’s cause against those who wage war against you, but do not commit aggression-for, verily, God does not love aggressors.

2 : 198

وَٱقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ ثَقِفْتُمُوهُمْ وَأَخْرِجُوهُم مِّنْ حَيْثُ أَخْرَجُوكُمْ ۚ وَٱلْفِتْنَةُ أَشَدُّ مِنَ ٱلْقَتْلِ ۚ وَلَا تُقَٰتِلُوهُمْ عِندَ ٱلْمَسْجِدِ ٱلْحَرَامِ حَتَّىٰ يُقَٰتِلُوكُمْ فِيهِ ۖ فَإِن قَٰتَلُوكُمْ فَٱقْتُلُوهُمْ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ جَزَآءُ ٱلْكَٰفِرِينَ

And slay them wherever you may come upon them, and drive them away from wherever they drove you away – for oppression is even worse than killing. And fight not against them near the Inviolable House of Worship unless they fight against you there first; but if they fight against you, slay them: such shall be the recompense of those who deny the truth.

2 : 199

فَإِنِ ٱنتَهَوْا۟ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٌۭ رَّحِيمٌۭ

But if they desist-behold, God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.

2 : 200

وَقَٰتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌۭ وَيَكُونَ ٱلدِّينُ لِلَّهِ ۖ فَإِنِ ٱنتَهَوْا۟ فَلَا عُدْوَٰنَ إِلَّا عَلَى ٱلظَّٰلِمِينَ

Hence, fight against them until there is no more oppression and all worship is devoted to God alone; but if they desist, then all hostility shall cease, save against those who [wilfully] do wrong.

2 : 201

ٱلشَّهْرُ ٱلْحَرَامُ بِٱلشَّهْرِ ٱلْحَرَامِ وَٱلْحُرُمَٰتُ قِصَاصٌۭ ۚ فَمَنِ ٱعْتَدَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ فَٱعْتَدُوا۟ عَلَيْهِ بِمِثْلِ مَا ٱعْتَدَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ ۚ وَٱتَّقُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَٱعْلَمُوٓا۟ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ مَعَ ٱلْمُتَّقِينَ

Fight during the sacred months if you are attacked: for a violation of sanctity is [subject to the law of] just retribution. Thus, if anyone commits aggression against you, attack him just as he has attacked you – but remain conscious of God, and know that God is with those who are conscious of Him.

2 : 202

وَأَنفِقُوا۟ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَلَا تُلْقُوا۟ بِأَيْدِيكُمْ إِلَى ٱلتَّهْلُكَةِ ۛ وَأَحْسِنُوٓا۟ ۛ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُحِبُّ ٱلْمُحْسِنِينَ

And spend [freely] in God’s cause, and let not your own hands throw you into destruction; and persevere in doing good: behold, God loves the doers of good.

2 : 203

وَأَتِمُّوا۟ ٱلْحَجَّ وَٱلْعُمْرَةَ لِلَّهِ ۚ فَإِنْ أُحْصِرْتُمْ فَمَا ٱسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ ٱلْهَدْىِ ۖ وَلَا تَحْلِقُوا۟ رُءُوسَكُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَبْلُغَ ٱلْهَدْىُ مَحِلَّهُۥ ۚ فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضًا أَوْ بِهِۦٓ أَذًۭى مِّن رَّأْسِهِۦ فَفِدْيَةٌۭ مِّن صِيَامٍ أَوْ صَدَقَةٍ أَوْ نُسُكٍۢ ۚ فَإِذَآ أَمِنتُمْ فَمَن تَمَتَّعَ بِٱلْعُمْرَةِ إِلَى ٱلْحَجِّ فَمَا ٱسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ ٱلْهَدْىِ ۚ فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلَٰثَةِ أَيَّامٍۢ فِى ٱلْحَجِّ وَسَبْعَةٍ إِذَا رَجَعْتُمْ ۗ تِلْكَ عَشَرَةٌۭ كَامِلَةٌۭ ۗ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَن لَّمْ يَكُنْ أَهْلُهُۥ حَاضِرِى ٱلْمَسْجِدِ ٱلْحَرَامِ ۚ وَٱتَّقُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَٱعْلَمُوٓا۟ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ شَدِيدُ ٱلْعِقَابِ

AND PERFORM the pilgrimage and the pious visit [to Mecca] in honour of God; and if you are held back, give instead whatever offering you can easily afford. And do not shave your heads until the offering has been sacrificed; but he from among you who is ill or suffers from an ailment of the head shall redeem himself by fasting, or alms, or [any other] act of worship. And if you are hale and secure, then he who takes advantage of a pious visit before the [time of] pilgrimage shall give whatever offering he can easily afford; whereas he who cannot afford it shall fast for three days during the pilgrimage and for seven days after your return: that is, ten full [days]. All this relates to him who does not live near the Inviolable House of Worship. And remain conscious of God, and know that God is severe in retribution.

2 : 204

ٱلْحَجُّ أَشْهُرٌۭ مَّعْلُومَٰتٌۭ ۚ فَمَن فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ ٱلْحَجَّ فَلَا رَفَثَ وَلَا فُسُوقَ وَلَا جِدَالَ فِى ٱلْحَجِّ ۗ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا۟ مِنْ خَيْرٍۢ يَعْلَمْهُ ٱللَّهُ ۗ وَتَزَوَّدُوا۟ فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ ٱلزَّادِ ٱلتَّقْوَىٰ ۚ وَٱتَّقُونِ يَٰٓأُو۟لِى ٱلْأَلْبَٰبِ

The pilgrimage shall take place in the months appointed for it. And whoever undertakes the pilgrimage in those [months] shall, while on pilgrimage, abstain from lewd speech, from all wicked conduct, and from quarrelling; and whatever good you may do, God is aware of it. And make provision for yourselves – but, verily, the best of all provisions is God-consciousness: remain, then, conscious of Me, O you who are endowed with insight!

2 : 205

لَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَبْتَغُوا۟ فَضْلًۭا مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ ۚ فَإِذَآ أَفَضْتُم مِّنْ عَرَفَٰتٍۢ فَٱذْكُرُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ عِندَ ٱلْمَشْعَرِ ٱلْحَرَامِ ۖ وَٱذْكُرُوهُ كَمَا هَدَىٰكُمْ وَإِن كُنتُم مِّن قَبْلِهِۦ لَمِنَ ٱلضَّآلِّينَ

[However,] you will be committing no sin if [during the pilgrimage] you seek to obtain any bounty from your Sustainer. And when you surge downward in multitudes from `Arafat, remember God at the holy place, and remember Him as the One who guided you after you had indeed been lost on your way;

2 : 206

ثُمَّ أَفِيضُوا۟ مِنْ حَيْثُ أَفَاضَ ٱلنَّاسُ وَٱسْتَغْفِرُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٌۭ رَّحِيمٌۭ

and surge onward together with the multitude of all the other people who surge onward, and ask God to forgive you your sins: for, verily, God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.

2 : 207

فَإِذَا قَضَيْتُم مَّنَٰسِكَكُمْ فَٱذْكُرُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ كَذِكْرِكُمْ ءَابَآءَكُمْ أَوْ أَشَدَّ ذِكْرًۭا ۗ فَمِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ رَبَّنَآ ءَاتِنَا فِى ٱلدُّنْيَا وَمَا لَهُۥ فِى ٱلْءَاخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلَٰقٍۢ

And when you have performed your acts of worship, [continue to] bear God in mind as you would bear your own fathers in mind-nay, with a yet keener remembrance! For there are people who [merely] pray, “O our Sustainer! Give us in this world” -and such shall not partake in the blessings of the life to come.

2 : 208

وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَقُولُ رَبَّنَآ ءَاتِنَا فِى ٱلدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةًۭ وَفِى ٱلْءَاخِرَةِ حَسَنَةًۭ وَقِنَا عَذَابَ ٱلنَّارِ

But there are among them such as pray, “O our Sustainer! Grant us good in this world and good in the life to come, and keep us safe from suffering through the fire”:

2 : 209

أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ لَهُمْ نَصِيبٌۭ مِّمَّا كَسَبُوا۟ ۚ وَٱللَّهُ سَرِيعُ ٱلْحِسَابِ

it is these. that shall have their portion [of happiness] in return for what they have earned. And God is swift in reckoning.

2 : 210

۞ وَٱذْكُرُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ فِىٓ أَيَّامٍۢ مَّعْدُودَٰتٍۢ ۚ فَمَن تَعَجَّلَ فِى يَوْمَيْنِ فَلَآ إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ وَمَن تَأَخَّرَ فَلَآ إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ ۚ لِمَنِ ٱتَّقَىٰ ۗ وَٱتَّقُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَٱعْلَمُوٓا۟ أَنَّكُمْ إِلَيْهِ تُحْشَرُونَ

And bear God in mind during the appointed days; but he who hurries away within two days shall incur no sin, and he who tarries longer shall incur no sin, provided that he is conscious of God. Hence, remain conscious of God, and know that unto Him you shall be gathered.

2 : 211

وَمِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ مَن يُعْجِبُكَ قَوْلُهُۥ فِى ٱلْحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنْيَا وَيُشْهِدُ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا فِى قَلْبِهِۦ وَهُوَ أَلَدُّ ٱلْخِصَامِ

NOW THERE IS a kind of man whose views on the life of this world may please thee greatly, and [the more so as] he cites God as witness to what is in his heart and is, moreover, exceedingly skillful in argument.

2 : 212

وَإِذَا تَوَلَّىٰ سَعَىٰ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ لِيُفْسِدَ فِيهَا وَيُهْلِكَ ٱلْحَرْثَ وَٱلنَّسْلَ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلْفَسَادَ

But whenever he prevails, he goes about the earth spreading corruption and destroying [man’s] tilth and progeny: and God does not love corruption.

2 : 213

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُ ٱتَّقِ ٱللَّهَ أَخَذَتْهُ ٱلْعِزَّةُ بِٱلْإِثْمِ ۚ فَحَسْبُهُۥ جَهَنَّمُ ۚ وَلَبِئْسَ ٱلْمِهَادُ

And whenever he is told, “Be conscious of God,” his false pride drives him into sin: wherefore hell will be his allotted portion-and how vile a resting-place!

2 : 214

وَمِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ مَن يَشْرِى نَفْسَهُ ٱبْتِغَآءَ مَرْضَاتِ ٱللَّهِ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ رَءُوفٌۢ بِٱلْعِبَادِ

But there is [also] a kind of man who would willingly sell his own self in order to please God: and God is most compassionate towards His servants.

2 : 215

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ ٱدْخُلُوا۟ فِى ٱلسِّلْمِ كَآفَّةًۭ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا۟ خُطُوَٰتِ ٱلشَّيْطَٰنِ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّۭ مُّبِينٌۭ

O you who have attained to faith! Surrender yourselves wholly unto God, and follow not Satan’s footsteps, for, verily, he is your open foe.

2 : 216

فَإِن زَلَلْتُم مِّنۢ بَعْدِ مَا جَآءَتْكُمُ ٱلْبَيِّنَٰتُ فَٱعْلَمُوٓا۟ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ

And if you should stumble after all evidence of the truth has come unto you, then know that, verily, God is almighty, wise.

2 : 217

هَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّآ أَن يَأْتِيَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ فِى ظُلَلٍۢ مِّنَ ٱلْغَمَامِ وَٱلْمَلَٰٓئِكَةُ وَقُضِىَ ٱلْأَمْرُ ۚ وَإِلَى ٱللَّهِ تُرْجَعُ ٱلْأُمُورُ

Are these people waiting, perchance, for God to reveal Himself unto them in the shadows of the clouds, together with the angels – although [by then] all will have been decided, and unto God all things will have been brought back?

2 : 218

سَلْ بَنِىٓ إِسْرَٰٓءِيلَ كَمْ ءَاتَيْنَٰهُم مِّنْ ءَايَةٍۭ بَيِّنَةٍۢ ۗ وَمَن يُبَدِّلْ نِعْمَةَ ٱللَّهِ مِنۢ بَعْدِ مَا جَآءَتْهُ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ شَدِيدُ ٱلْعِقَابِ

Ask the children of Israel how many a clear message We have given them! And if one alters God’s blessed message after it has reached him – verily, God is severe in retribution!

2 : 219

زُيِّنَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ ٱلْحَيَوٰةُ ٱلدُّنْيَا وَيَسْخَرُونَ مِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ ۘ وَٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّقَوْا۟ فَوْقَهُمْ يَوْمَ ٱلْقِيَٰمَةِ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ يَرْزُقُ مَن يَشَآءُ بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍۢ

Unto those who are bent on denying the truth the life of this world [alone] seems goodly; hence, they scoff at those who have attained to faith: but they who are conscious of God shall be above them on Resurrection Day. And God grants sustenance unto whom He wills, beyond all reckoning.

2 : 220

كَانَ ٱلنَّاسُ أُمَّةًۭ وَٰحِدَةًۭ فَبَعَثَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلنَّبِيِّۦنَ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ وَأَنزَلَ مَعَهُمُ ٱلْكِتَٰبَ بِٱلْحَقِّ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ ٱلنَّاسِ فِيمَا ٱخْتَلَفُوا۟ فِيهِ ۚ وَمَا ٱخْتَلَفَ فِيهِ إِلَّا ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُوهُ مِنۢ بَعْدِ مَا جَآءَتْهُمُ ٱلْبَيِّنَٰتُ بَغْيًۢا بَيْنَهُمْ ۖ فَهَدَى ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ لِمَا ٱخْتَلَفُوا۟ فِيهِ مِنَ ٱلْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِهِۦ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ يَهْدِى مَن يَشَآءُ إِلَىٰ صِرَٰطٍۢ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ

ALL MANKIND were once one single community; [then they began to differ -] whereupon God raised up the prophets as heralds of glad tidings and as warners, and through them bestowed revelation from on high, setting forth the truth, so that it might decide between people with regard to all on which they had come to hold divergent views. Yet none other than the selfsame people who had been granted this [revelation] began, out of mutual jealousy, to disagree about its meaning after all evidence of the truth had come unto them. But God guided the believers unto the truth about which, by His leave, they had disagreed: for God guides onto a straight way him that wills [to be guided].

2 : 221

أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ أَن تَدْخُلُوا۟ ٱلْجَنَّةَ وَلَمَّا يَأْتِكُم مَّثَلُ ٱلَّذِينَ خَلَوْا۟ مِن قَبْلِكُم ۖ مَّسَّتْهُمُ ٱلْبَأْسَآءُ وَٱلضَّرَّآءُ وَزُلْزِلُوا۟ حَتَّىٰ يَقُولَ ٱلرَّسُولُ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ مَعَهُۥ مَتَىٰ نَصْرُ ٱللَّهِ ۗ أَلَآ إِنَّ نَصْرَ ٱللَّهِ قَرِيبٌۭ

[But] do you think that you could enter para-dise without having suffered like those [believers] who passed away before you? Misfortune and hardship befell them, and so shaken were they that the apostle, and the believers with him, would exclaim, “When will God’s succour come?” Oh, verily, God’s succour is [always] near!

2 : 222

يَسْـَٔلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنفِقُونَ ۖ قُلْ مَآ أَنفَقْتُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍۢ فَلِلْوَٰلِدَيْنِ وَٱلْأَقْرَبِينَ وَٱلْيَتَٰمَىٰ وَٱلْمَسَٰكِينِ وَٱبْنِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ ۗ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا۟ مِنْ خَيْرٍۢ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ بِهِۦ عَلِيمٌۭ

THEY WILL ASK thee as to what they should spend on others. Say: “Whatever of your wealth you spend shall [first] be for your parents, and for the near of kin, and the orphans, and the needy, and the wayfarer; and whatever good you do, verily, God has full knowledge thereof.”

2 : 223

كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ ٱلْقِتَالُ وَهُوَ كُرْهٌۭ لَّكُمْ ۖ وَعَسَىٰٓ أَن تَكْرَهُوا۟ شَيْـًۭٔا وَهُوَ خَيْرٌۭ لَّكُمْ ۖ وَعَسَىٰٓ أَن تُحِبُّوا۟ شَيْـًۭٔا وَهُوَ شَرٌّۭ لَّكُمْ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

FIGHTING is ordained for you, even though it be hateful to you; but it may well be that you hate a thing the while it is good for you, and it may well be that you love a thing the while it is bad for you: and God knows, whereas you do not know.

2 : 224

يَسْـَٔلُونَكَ عَنِ ٱلشَّهْرِ ٱلْحَرَامِ قِتَالٍۢ فِيهِ ۖ قُلْ قِتَالٌۭ فِيهِ كَبِيرٌۭ ۖ وَصَدٌّ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَكُفْرٌۢ بِهِۦ وَٱلْمَسْجِدِ ٱلْحَرَامِ وَإِخْرَاجُ أَهْلِهِۦ مِنْهُ أَكْبَرُ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ ۚ وَٱلْفِتْنَةُ أَكْبَرُ مِنَ ٱلْقَتْلِ ۗ وَلَا يَزَالُونَ يُقَٰتِلُونَكُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَرُدُّوكُمْ عَن دِينِكُمْ إِنِ ٱسْتَطَٰعُوا۟ ۚ وَمَن يَرْتَدِدْ مِنكُمْ عَن دِينِهِۦ فَيَمُتْ وَهُوَ كَافِرٌۭ فَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَٰلُهُمْ فِى ٱلدُّنْيَا وَٱلْءَاخِرَةِ ۖ وَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ أَصْحَٰبُ ٱلنَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَٰلِدُونَ

They will ask thee about fighting in the sacred month. Say: “Fighting in it is an awesome thing (grave transgression); but turning men away from the path of God and denying Him, and [turning them away from] the Inviolable House of Worship and expelling its people there from – [all this] is yet more awesome (greater transgression) in the sight of God, since oppression is more awesome (greater transgression) than killing.” [Your enemies] will not cease to fight against you till they have turned you away from your faith, if they can. But if any of you should turn away from his faith and die as a denier of the truth – these it is whose works will go for nought in this world and in the life to come; and these it is who are destined for the fire, therein to abide.

2 : 225

إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَٱلَّذِينَ هَاجَرُوا۟ وَجَٰهَدُوا۟ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ يَرْجُونَ رَحْمَتَ ٱللَّهِ ۚ وَٱللَّهُ غَفُورٌۭ رَّحِيمٌۭ

Verily, they who have attained to faith, and they who have forsaken the domain of evil and are striving hard in God’s cause – these it is who may look forward to God’s grace: for God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.

2 : 226

۞ يَسْـَٔلُونَكَ عَنِ ٱلْخَمْرِ وَٱلْمَيْسِرِ ۖ قُلْ فِيهِمَآ إِثْمٌۭ كَبِيرٌۭ وَمَنَٰفِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَإِثْمُهُمَآ أَكْبَرُ مِن نَّفْعِهِمَا ۗ وَيَسْـَٔلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنفِقُونَ قُلِ ٱلْعَفْوَ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمُ ٱلْءَايَٰتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَفَكَّرُونَ

THEY WILL ASK thee about intoxicants and games of chance. Say: “In both there is great evil as well as some benefit for man; but the evil which they cause is greater than the benefit which they bring.” And they will ask thee as to what they should spend [in God’s cause]. Say: “Whatever you can spare.” In this way God makes clear unto you His messages, so that you might reflect

2 : 227

فِى ٱلدُّنْيَا وَٱلْءَاخِرَةِ ۗ وَيَسْـَٔلُونَكَ عَنِ ٱلْيَتَٰمَىٰ ۖ قُلْ إِصْلَاحٌۭ لَّهُمْ خَيْرٌۭ ۖ وَإِن تُخَالِطُوهُمْ فَإِخْوَٰنُكُمْ ۚ وَٱللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ ٱلْمُفْسِدَ مِنَ ٱلْمُصْلِحِ ۚ وَلَوْ شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ لَأَعْنَتَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌۭ

on this world and on the life to come. And they will ask thee about [how to deal with] orphans. Say: “To improve their condition is best.” And if you share their life, [remember that] they are your brethren: for God distinguishes between him who spoils things and him who improves. And had God so willed, He would indeed have imposed on you hardships which you would not have been able to bear: [but,] behold, God is almighty, wise!

2 : 228

وَلَا تَنكِحُوا۟ ٱلْمُشْرِكَٰتِ حَتَّىٰ يُؤْمِنَّ ۚ وَلَأَمَةٌۭ مُّؤْمِنَةٌ خَيْرٌۭ مِّن مُّشْرِكَةٍۢ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَتْكُمْ ۗ وَلَا تُنكِحُوا۟ ٱلْمُشْرِكِينَ حَتَّىٰ يُؤْمِنُوا۟ ۚ وَلَعَبْدٌۭ مُّؤْمِنٌ خَيْرٌۭ مِّن مُّشْرِكٍۢ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَكُمْ ۗ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى ٱلنَّارِ ۖ وَٱللَّهُ يَدْعُوٓا۟ إِلَى ٱلْجَنَّةِ وَٱلْمَغْفِرَةِ بِإِذْنِهِۦ ۖ وَيُبَيِّنُ ءَايَٰتِهِۦ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ

AND DO NOT marry women who ascribe divinity to aught beside God ere they attain to [true] belief: for any believing bondwoman [of God] is certainly better than a woman who ascribes divinity to aught beside God, even though she please you greatly. And do not give your women in marriage to men who ascribe divinity to aught beside God ere they attain to [true] belief: for- any believing bondman [of God] is certainly better than a man who ascribes divinity to aught beside God, even though he please you greatly. [Such as] these invite unto the fire, whereas God invites unto paradise, and unto [the achievement of] forgiveness by His leave; and He makes clear His messages unto mankind, so that they might bear them in mind.

2 : 229

وَيَسْـَٔلُونَكَ عَنِ ٱلْمَحِيضِ ۖ قُلْ هُوَ أَذًۭى فَٱعْتَزِلُوا۟ ٱلنِّسَآءَ فِى ٱلْمَحِيضِ ۖ وَلَا تَقْرَبُوهُنَّ حَتَّىٰ يَطْهُرْنَ ۖ فَإِذَا تَطَهَّرْنَ فَأْتُوهُنَّ مِنْ حَيْثُ أَمَرَكُمُ ٱللَّهُ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُحِبُّ ٱلتَّوَّٰبِينَ وَيُحِبُّ ٱلْمُتَطَهِّرِينَ

AND THEY will ask thee about [woman’s] monthly courses. Say: “It is a vulnerable condition. Keep, therefore, aloof from women during their monthly courses, and do not draw near unto them until they are cleansed; and when they are cleansed, go in unto them as God has bidden you to do.” Verily, God loves those who turn unto Him in repentance and He loves those who keep themselves pure.

2 : 230

نِسَآؤُكُمْ حَرْثٌۭ لَّكُمْ فَأْتُوا۟ حَرْثَكُمْ أَنَّىٰ شِئْتُمْ ۖ وَقَدِّمُوا۟ لِأَنفُسِكُمْ ۚ وَٱتَّقُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَٱعْلَمُوٓا۟ أَنَّكُم مُّلَٰقُوهُ ۗ وَبَشِّرِ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

Your wives are your tilth; go, then, unto your tilth as you may desire, but first provide something for your souls, and remain conscious of God, and know that you are destined to meet Him. And give glad tidings unto those who believe.

2 : 231

وَلَا تَجْعَلُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ عُرْضَةًۭ لِّأَيْمَٰنِكُمْ أَن تَبَرُّوا۟ وَتَتَّقُوا۟ وَتُصْلِحُوا۟ بَيْنَ ٱلنَّاسِ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌۭ

AND DO NOT allow your oaths in the name of God to become an obstacle to virtue and God-consciousness and the promotion of peace between men: for God is all-hearing, all-knowing.

2 : 232

لَّا يُؤَاخِذُكُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِٱللَّغْوِ فِىٓ أَيْمَٰنِكُمْ وَلَٰكِن يُؤَاخِذُكُم بِمَا كَسَبَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌۭ

God will not take you to task for oaths which you may have uttered without thought, but will take you to task [only] for what your hearts have conceived [in earnest]: for God is much-forgiving, forbearing.

Explore the profound insights of Surah Al-Baqarah Ayat 226 on Quran House Online, addressing the sacred vow in matrimonial life

2 : 233

لِّلَّذِينَ يُؤْلُونَ مِن نِّسَآئِهِمْ تَرَبُّصُ أَرْبَعَةِ أَشْهُرٍۢ ۖ فَإِن فَآءُو فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٌۭ رَّحِيمٌۭ

Those who take an oath that they will not approach their wives shall have four months of grace; and if they go back [on their oath] -behold, God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.

2 : 234

وَإِنْ عَزَمُوا۟ ٱلطَّلَٰقَ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌۭ

But if they are resolved on divorce -behold, God is all-hearing, all-knowing.

2 : 235

وَٱلْمُطَلَّقَٰتُ يَتَرَبَّصْنَ بِأَنفُسِهِنَّ ثَلَٰثَةَ قُرُوٓءٍۢ ۚ وَلَا يَحِلُّ لَهُنَّ أَن يَكْتُمْنَ مَا خَلَقَ ٱللَّهُ فِىٓ أَرْحَامِهِنَّ إِن كُنَّ يُؤْمِنَّ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلْيَوْمِ ٱلْءَاخِرِ ۚ وَبُعُولَتُهُنَّ أَحَقُّ بِرَدِّهِنَّ فِى ذَٰلِكَ إِنْ أَرَادُوٓا۟ إِصْلَٰحًۭا ۚ وَلَهُنَّ مِثْلُ ٱلَّذِى عَلَيْهِنَّ بِٱلْمَعْرُوفِ ۚ وَلِلرِّجَالِ عَلَيْهِنَّ دَرَجَةٌۭ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ

And the divorced women shall undergo, without remarrying, a waiting-period of three monthly courses: for it is not lawful for them to conceal what God may have created in their wombs, if they believe in God and the Last Day. And during this period their husbands are fully entitled to take them back, if they desire reconciliation; but, in accordance with justice, the rights of the wives [with regard to their husbands] are equal to the [husbands’] rights with regard to them, although men have precedence over them [in this respect]. And God is almighty, wise.

2 : 236

ٱلطَّلَٰقُ مَرَّتَانِ ۖ فَإِمْسَاكٌۢ بِمَعْرُوفٍ أَوْ تَسْرِيحٌۢ بِإِحْسَٰنٍۢ ۗ وَلَا يَحِلُّ لَكُمْ أَن تَأْخُذُوا۟ مِمَّآ ءَاتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ شَيْـًٔا إِلَّآ أَن يَخَافَآ أَلَّا يُقِيمَا حُدُودَ ٱللَّهِ ۖ فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلَّا يُقِيمَا حُدُودَ ٱللَّهِ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا فِيمَا ٱفْتَدَتْ بِهِۦ ۗ تِلْكَ حُدُودُ ٱللَّهِ فَلَا تَعْتَدُوهَا ۚ وَمَن يَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَ ٱللَّهِ فَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلظَّٰلِمُونَ

A divorce may be [revoked] twice, whereupon the marriage must either be resumed in fairness or dissolved in a goodly manner. And it is not lawful for you to take back anything of what you have ever given to your wives unless both [partners] have cause to fear that they may not be able to keep within the bounds set by God: hence, if you have cause to fear that the two may not be able to keep within the bounds set by God, there shall be no sin upon either of them for what the wife may give up [to her husband] in order to free herself. These are the bounds set by God; do not, then, transgress them: for they who transgress the bounds set by God-it is they, they who are evildoers!

2 : 237

فَإِن طَلَّقَهَا فَلَا تَحِلُّ لَهُۥ مِنۢ بَعْدُ حَتَّىٰ تَنكِحَ زَوْجًا غَيْرَهُۥ ۗ فَإِن طَلَّقَهَا فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَآ أَن يَتَرَاجَعَآ إِن ظَنَّآ أَن يُقِيمَا حُدُودَ ٱللَّهِ ۗ وَتِلْكَ حُدُودُ ٱللَّهِ يُبَيِّنُهَا لِقَوْمٍۢ يَعْلَمُونَ

And if he divorces her [finally], she shall thereafter not be lawful unto him unless she first takes another man for husband; then, if the latter divorces her, there shall be no sin upon either of the two if they return to one another-provided that both of them think that they will be able to keep within the bounds set by God: for these are the bounds of God which He makes clear unto people of [innate] knowledge.

2 : 238

وَإِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ ٱلنِّسَآءَ فَبَلَغْنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ فَأَمْسِكُوهُنَّ بِمَعْرُوفٍ أَوْ سَرِّحُوهُنَّ بِمَعْرُوفٍۢ ۚ وَلَا تُمْسِكُوهُنَّ ضِرَارًۭا لِّتَعْتَدُوا۟ ۚ وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ فَقَدْ ظَلَمَ نَفْسَهُۥ ۚ وَلَا تَتَّخِذُوٓا۟ ءَايَٰتِ ٱللَّهِ هُزُوًۭا ۚ وَٱذْكُرُوا۟ نِعْمَتَ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَمَآ أَنزَلَ عَلَيْكُم مِّنَ ٱلْكِتَٰبِ وَٱلْحِكْمَةِ يَعِظُكُم بِهِۦ ۚ وَٱتَّقُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَٱعْلَمُوٓا۟ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلِيمٌۭ

And so, when you divorce women and they are about to reach the end of their waiting-term, then either retain them in a fair manner or let them go in a fair manner. But do not retain them against their will in order to hurt [them]: for he who does so sins indeed against himself. And do not take [these] messages of God in a frivolous spirit; and remember the blessings with which God has graced you, and all the revelation and the wisdom which He has bestowed on you from on high in order to admonish you thereby; and remain conscious of God, and know that God has full knowledge of everything.

2 : 239

وَإِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ ٱلنِّسَآءَ فَبَلَغْنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ فَلَا تَعْضُلُوهُنَّ أَن يَنكِحْنَ أَزْوَٰجَهُنَّ إِذَا تَرَٰضَوْا۟ بَيْنَهُم بِٱلْمَعْرُوفِ ۗ ذَٰلِكَ يُوعَظُ بِهِۦ مَن كَانَ مِنكُمْ يُؤْمِنُ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلْيَوْمِ ٱلْءَاخِرِ ۗ ذَٰلِكُمْ أَزْكَىٰ لَكُمْ وَأَطْهَرُ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

And when you divorce women, and they have come to the end of their waiting-term, hinder them not from marrying other men if they have agreed with each other in a fair manner. This is an admonition unto every one of you who believes in God and the Last Day; it is the most virtuous [way] for you, and the cleanest. And God knows, whereas you do not know.

2 : 240

۞ وَٱلْوَٰلِدَٰتُ يُرْضِعْنَ أَوْلَٰدَهُنَّ حَوْلَيْنِ كَامِلَيْنِ ۖ لِمَنْ أَرَادَ أَن يُتِمَّ ٱلرَّضَاعَةَ ۚ وَعَلَى ٱلْمَوْلُودِ لَهُۥ رِزْقُهُنَّ وَكِسْوَتُهُنَّ بِٱلْمَعْرُوفِ ۚ لَا تُكَلَّفُ نَفْسٌ إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا ۚ لَا تُضَآرَّ وَٰلِدَةٌۢ بِوَلَدِهَا وَلَا مَوْلُودٌۭ لَّهُۥ بِوَلَدِهِۦ ۚ وَعَلَى ٱلْوَارِثِ مِثْلُ ذَٰلِكَ ۗ فَإِنْ أَرَادَا فِصَالًا عَن تَرَاضٍۢ مِّنْهُمَا وَتَشَاوُرٍۢ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا ۗ وَإِنْ أَرَدتُّمْ أَن تَسْتَرْضِعُوٓا۟ أَوْلَٰدَكُمْ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذَا سَلَّمْتُم مَّآ ءَاتَيْتُم بِٱلْمَعْرُوفِ ۗ وَٱتَّقُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَٱعْلَمُوٓا۟ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌۭ

And the [divorced] mothers may nurse their children for two whole years, if they wish to complete the period of nursing; and it is incumbent upon him who has begotten the child to provide in a fair manner for their sustenance and clothing. No human being shall be burdened with more than he is well able to bear: neither shall a mother be made to suffer because of her child, nor, because of his child, he who has begotten it. And the same duty rests upon the [father’s] heir. And if both [parents] decide, by mutual consent and counsel, upon separation [of mother and child], they will incur no sin [thereby]; and if you decide to entrust your children to foster-mothers, you will incur no sin provided you ensure, in a fair manner, the safety of the child which you are handing over. But remain conscious of God, and know that God sees all that you do.

2 : 241

وَٱلَّذِينَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنكُمْ وَيَذَرُونَ أَزْوَٰجًۭا يَتَرَبَّصْنَ بِأَنفُسِهِنَّ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍۢ وَعَشْرًۭا ۖ فَإِذَا بَلَغْنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيمَا فَعَلْنَ فِىٓ أَنفُسِهِنَّ بِٱلْمَعْرُوفِ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌۭ

And if any of you die and leave wives behind, they shall undergo, without remarrying, a waiting-period of four months and ten days; whereupon, when they have reached the end of their waiting-term, there shall be no sin in whatever they may do with their persons in a lawful manner. And God is aware of all that you do.

2 : 242

وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيمَا عَرَّضْتُم بِهِۦ مِنْ خِطْبَةِ ٱلنِّسَآءِ أَوْ أَكْنَنتُمْ فِىٓ أَنفُسِكُمْ ۚ عَلِمَ ٱللَّهُ أَنَّكُمْ سَتَذْكُرُونَهُنَّ وَلَٰكِن لَّا تُوَاعِدُوهُنَّ سِرًّا إِلَّآ أَن تَقُولُوا۟ قَوْلًۭا مَّعْرُوفًۭا ۚ وَلَا تَعْزِمُوا۟ عُقْدَةَ ٱلنِّكَاحِ حَتَّىٰ يَبْلُغَ ٱلْكِتَٰبُ أَجَلَهُۥ ۚ وَٱعْلَمُوٓا۟ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِىٓ أَنفُسِكُمْ فَٱحْذَرُوهُ ۚ وَٱعْلَمُوٓا۟ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌۭ

But you will incur no sin if you give a hint of [an intended] marriage-offer to [any of] these women, or if you conceive such an intention without making it obvious: [for] God knows that you intend to ask them in marriage. Do not, however, plight your troth with them in secret, but speak only in a decent manner; and do not proceed with tying the marriage-knot ere the ordained [term of waiting] has come to its end. And know that God knows what is in your minds, and therefore remain conscious of Him; and know, too, that God is much-forgiving, forbearing.

2 : 243

لَّا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِن طَلَّقْتُمُ ٱلنِّسَآءَ مَا لَمْ تَمَسُّوهُنَّ أَوْ تَفْرِضُوا۟ لَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةًۭ ۚ وَمَتِّعُوهُنَّ عَلَى ٱلْمُوسِعِ قَدَرُهُۥ وَعَلَى ٱلْمُقْتِرِ قَدَرُهُۥ مَتَٰعًۢا بِٱلْمَعْرُوفِ ۖ حَقًّا عَلَى ٱلْمُحْسِنِينَ

You will incur no sin if you divorce women while you have not yet touched them nor settled a dower upon them; but [even in such a case] make provision for them – the affluent according to his means, and the straitened according to his means – a provision in an equitable manner: this is a duty upon all who would do good.

2 : 244

وَإِن طَلَّقْتُمُوهُنَّ مِن قَبْلِ أَن تَمَسُّوهُنَّ وَقَدْ فَرَضْتُمْ لَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةًۭ فَنِصْفُ مَا فَرَضْتُمْ إِلَّآ أَن يَعْفُونَ أَوْ يَعْفُوَا۟ ٱلَّذِى بِيَدِهِۦ عُقْدَةُ ٱلنِّكَاحِ ۚ وَأَن تَعْفُوٓا۟ أَقْرَبُ لِلتَّقْوَىٰ ۚ وَلَا تَنسَوُا۟ ٱلْفَضْلَ بَيْنَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ

And if you divorce them before having touched them, but after having settled a dower upon them, then [give them] half of what you have settled – unless it be that they forgo their claim or he in whose hand is the marriage-tie forgoes his claim [to half of the dower]: and to forgo what is due to you is more in accord with God-consciousness. And forget not [that you are to act with] grace towards one another: verily, God sees all that you do.

2 : 245

حَٰفِظُوا۟ عَلَى ٱلصَّلَوَٰتِ وَٱلصَّلَوٰةِ ٱلْوُسْطَىٰ وَقُومُوا۟ لِلَّهِ قَٰنِتِينَ

BE EVER mindful of prayers, and of praying in the most excellent way; and stand before God in devout obedience.

2 : 246

فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ فَرِجَالًا أَوْ رُكْبَانًۭا ۖ فَإِذَآ أَمِنتُمْ فَٱذْكُرُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ كَمَا عَلَّمَكُم مَّا لَمْ تَكُونُوا۟ تَعْلَمُونَ

But if you are in danger, [pray] walking or riding; and when you are again secure, bear God in mind – since it is He who taught you what you did not previously know.

2 : 247

وَٱلَّذِينَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنكُمْ وَيَذَرُونَ أَزْوَٰجًۭا وَصِيَّةًۭ لِّأَزْوَٰجِهِم مَّتَٰعًا إِلَى ٱلْحَوْلِ غَيْرَ إِخْرَاجٍۢ ۚ فَإِنْ خَرَجْنَ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِى مَا فَعَلْنَ فِىٓ أَنفُسِهِنَّ مِن مَّعْرُوفٍۢ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌۭ

AND IF any of you die and leave wives behind, they bequeath thereby to their widows [the right to] one year’s maintenance without their being obliged to leave [the dead husband’s home]. If, however, they leave [of their own accord], there shall be no sin in whatever they may do with themselves in a lawful manner. And God is almighty, wise.

2 : 248

وَلِلْمُطَلَّقَٰتِ مَتَٰعٌۢ بِٱلْمَعْرُوفِ ۖ حَقًّا عَلَى ٱلْمُتَّقِينَ

And the divorced women, too, shall have [a right to] maintenance in a goodly manner: this is a duty for all who are conscious of God.

2 : 249

كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمْ ءَايَٰتِهِۦ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ

In this way God makes clear unto you His messages, so that you might [learn to] use your reason.

2 : 250

۞ أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ خَرَجُوا۟ مِن دِيَٰرِهِمْ وَهُمْ أُلُوفٌ حَذَرَ ٱلْمَوْتِ فَقَالَ لَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ مُوتُوا۟ ثُمَّ أَحْيَٰهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى ٱلنَّاسِ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ ٱلنَّاسِ لَا يَشْكُرُونَ

ART THOU NOT aware of those who forsook their homelands in their thousands for fear of death-whereupon God said unto them, “Die,” and later brought them back to life? Behold, God is indeed limitless in His bounty unto man -but most people are ungrateful.

2 : 251

وَقَٰتِلُوا۟ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَٱعْلَمُوٓا۟ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌۭ

Fight, then, in God’s cause, and know that God is all-hearing, all-knowing.

2 : 252

مَّن ذَا ٱلَّذِى يُقْرِضُ ٱللَّهَ قَرْضًا حَسَنًۭا فَيُضَٰعِفَهُۥ لَهُۥٓ أَضْعَافًۭا كَثِيرَةًۭ ۚ وَٱللَّهُ يَقْبِضُ وَيَبْصُۜطُ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ

Who is it that will offer up unto God a goodly loan, which He will amply repay, with manifold increase? For, God takes away, and He gives abundantly; and it is unto Him that you shall be brought back.

2 : 253

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى ٱلْمَلَإِ مِنۢ بَنِىٓ إِسْرَٰٓءِيلَ مِنۢ بَعْدِ مُوسَىٰٓ إِذْ قَالُوا۟ لِنَبِىٍّۢ لَّهُمُ ٱبْعَثْ لَنَا مَلِكًۭا نُّقَٰتِلْ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ ۖ قَالَ هَلْ عَسَيْتُمْ إِن كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ ٱلْقِتَالُ أَلَّا تُقَٰتِلُوا۟ ۖ قَالُوا۟ وَمَا لَنَآ أَلَّا نُقَٰتِلَ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَقَدْ أُخْرِجْنَا مِن دِيَٰرِنَا وَأَبْنَآئِنَا ۖ فَلَمَّا كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِمُ ٱلْقِتَالُ تَوَلَّوْا۟ إِلَّا قَلِيلًۭا مِّنْهُمْ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌۢ بِٱلظَّٰلِمِينَ

Art thou not aware of those elders of the children of Israel, after the time of Moses, how they said unto a prophet of theirs, “Raise up a king for us, [and] we shall fight in God’s cause”? Said he: “Would you, perchance, refrain from fighting if fighting is ordained for you?” They answered: “And why should we not fight in God’s cause when we and our children have been driven from our homelands?” Yet, when fighting was ordained for them, they did turn back, save for a few of them; but God had full knowledge of the evildoers.

2 : 254

وَقَالَ لَهُمْ نَبِيُّهُمْ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ قَدْ بَعَثَ لَكُمْ طَالُوتَ مَلِكًۭا ۚ قَالُوٓا۟ أَنَّىٰ يَكُونُ لَهُ ٱلْمُلْكُ عَلَيْنَا وَنَحْنُ أَحَقُّ بِٱلْمُلْكِ مِنْهُ وَلَمْ يُؤْتَ سَعَةًۭ مِّنَ ٱلْمَالِ ۚ قَالَ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ ٱصْطَفَىٰهُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَزَادَهُۥ بَسْطَةًۭ فِى ٱلْعِلْمِ وَٱلْجِسْمِ ۖ وَٱللَّهُ يُؤْتِى مُلْكَهُۥ مَن يَشَآءُ ۚ وَٱللَّهُ وَٰسِعٌ عَلِيمٌۭ

And their prophet said unto those elders: “Behold, now God has raised up Saul to be your king.” They said: “How can he have dominion over us when we have a better claim to dominion than he, and he has not [even] been endowed with abundant wealth?” [The prophet] replied: “Behold, God has exalted him above you, and endowed him abundantly with knowledge and bodily perfection. And God bestows His dominion upon whom He wills: for God is infinite, all-knowing.”

2 : 255

وَقَالَ لَهُمْ نَبِيُّهُمْ إِنَّ ءَايَةَ مُلْكِهِۦٓ أَن يَأْتِيَكُمُ ٱلتَّابُوتُ فِيهِ سَكِينَةٌۭ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَبَقِيَّةٌۭ مِّمَّا تَرَكَ ءَالُ مُوسَىٰ وَءَالُ هَٰرُونَ تَحْمِلُهُ ٱلْمَلَٰٓئِكَةُ ۚ إِنَّ فِى ذَٰلِكَ لَءَايَةًۭ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

And their prophet said unto them: “Behold, it shall be a sign of his [rightful] dominion that you will be granted a heart endowed by your Sustainer with inner peace and with all that is enduring in the angel-borne heritage left behind by the House of Moses and the House of Aaron. Herein, behold, there shall indeed be a sign for you if you are [truly] believers.”

2 : 256

فَلَمَّا فَصَلَ طَالُوتُ بِٱلْجُنُودِ قَالَ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ مُبْتَلِيكُم بِنَهَرٍۢ فَمَن شَرِبَ مِنْهُ فَلَيْسَ مِنِّى وَمَن لَّمْ يَطْعَمْهُ فَإِنَّهُۥ مِنِّىٓ إِلَّا مَنِ ٱغْتَرَفَ غُرْفَةًۢ بِيَدِهِۦ ۚ فَشَرِبُوا۟ مِنْهُ إِلَّا قَلِيلًۭا مِّنْهُمْ ۚ فَلَمَّا جَاوَزَهُۥ هُوَ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ مَعَهُۥ قَالُوا۟ لَا طَاقَةَ لَنَا ٱلْيَوْمَ بِجَالُوتَ وَجُنُودِهِۦ ۚ قَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ يَظُنُّونَ أَنَّهُم مُّلَٰقُوا۟ ٱللَّهِ كَم مِّن فِئَةٍۢ قَلِيلَةٍ غَلَبَتْ فِئَةًۭ كَثِيرَةًۢ بِإِذْنِ ٱللَّهِ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ مَعَ ٱلصَّٰبِرِينَ

And when Saul set out with his forces, he said: “Behold, God will now try you by a river: he who shall drink of it will not belong to me, whereas he who shall refrain from tasting it – he, indeed, will belong to me; but forgiven shall be he who shall scoop up but a single handful.” However, save for a few of them, they all drank [their fill] of it. And as soon as he and those who had kept faith with him had crossed the river, the others said: “No strength have we today [to stand up] against Goliath and his forces!” [Yet] those who knew with certainty that they were destined to meet God, replied: “How often has a small host overcome a great host by God’s leave! For God is with those who are patient in adversity.”

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وَلَمَّا بَرَزُوا۟ لِجَالُوتَ وَجُنُودِهِۦ قَالُوا۟ رَبَّنَآ أَفْرِغْ عَلَيْنَا صَبْرًۭا وَثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَنَا وَٱنصُرْنَا عَلَى ٱلْقَوْمِ ٱلْكَٰفِرِينَ

And when they came face to face with Goliath and his forces, they prayed: “O our Sustainer! Shower us with patience in adversity, and make firm our steps, and succour us against the people who deny the truth!”

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فَهَزَمُوهُم بِإِذْنِ ٱللَّهِ وَقَتَلَ دَاوُۥدُ جَالُوتَ وَءَاتَىٰهُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلْمُلْكَ وَٱلْحِكْمَةَ وَعَلَّمَهُۥ مِمَّا يَشَآءُ ۗ وَلَوْلَا دَفْعُ ٱللَّهِ ٱلنَّاسَ بَعْضَهُم بِبَعْضٍۢ لَّفَسَدَتِ ٱلْأَرْضُ وَلَٰكِنَّ ٱللَّهَ ذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى ٱلْعَٰلَمِينَ

And thereupon, by God’s leave, they routed them. And David slew Goliath; and God bestowed upon him dominion, and wisdom, and imparted to him the knowledge of whatever He willed. And if God had not enabled people to defend themselves against one another, corruption would surely overwhelm the earth: but God is limitless in His bounty unto all the worlds.

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تِلْكَ ءَايَٰتُ ٱللَّهِ نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِٱلْحَقِّ ۚ وَإِنَّكَ لَمِنَ ٱلْمُرْسَلِينَ

THESE are God’s messages: We convey them unto thee, [O Prophet,] setting forth the truth-for, verily, thou art among those who have been entrusted with a message.

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۞ تِلْكَ ٱلرُّسُلُ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍۢ ۘ مِّنْهُم مَّن كَلَّمَ ٱللَّهُ ۖ وَرَفَعَ بَعْضَهُمْ دَرَجَٰتٍۢ ۚ وَءَاتَيْنَا عِيسَى ٱبْنَ مَرْيَمَ ٱلْبَيِّنَٰتِ وَأَيَّدْنَٰهُ بِرُوحِ ٱلْقُدُسِ ۗ وَلَوْ شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ مَا ٱقْتَتَلَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِنۢ بَعْدِهِم مِّنۢ بَعْدِ مَا جَآءَتْهُمُ ٱلْبَيِّنَٰتُ وَلَٰكِنِ ٱخْتَلَفُوا۟ فَمِنْهُم مَّنْ ءَامَنَ وَمِنْهُم مَّن كَفَرَ ۚ وَلَوْ شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ مَا ٱقْتَتَلُوا۟ وَلَٰكِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَفْعَلُ مَا يُرِيدُ

Some of these apostles have We endowed more highly than others: among them were such as were spoken to by God [Himself], and some He has raised yet higher.’ And We vouchsafed unto Jesus, the son of Mary, all evidence of the truth, and strengthened him with holy inspiration. And if God had so willed, they who succeeded those [apostles] would not have contended with one another after all evidence of the truth had come to them; but [as it was,] they did take to divergent views, and some of them attained to faith, while some of them came to deny the truth. Yet if God had so willed, they would not have contended with one another: but God does whatever He wills.

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يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓا۟ أَنفِقُوا۟ مِمَّا رَزَقْنَٰكُم مِّن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِىَ يَوْمٌۭ لَّا بَيْعٌۭ فِيهِ وَلَا خُلَّةٌۭ وَلَا شَفَٰعَةٌۭ ۗ وَٱلْكَٰفِرُونَ هُمُ ٱلظَّٰلِمُونَ

O YOU who have attained to faith! Spend [in Our way] out of what We have granted you as sustenance ere there come a Day when there will be no bargaining, and no friendship, and no intercession. And they who deny the truth -it is they who are evildoers!

2 : 262

ٱللَّهُ لَآ إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ٱلْحَىُّ ٱلْقَيُّومُ ۚ لَا تَأْخُذُهُۥ سِنَةٌۭ وَلَا نَوْمٌۭ ۚ لَّهُۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ ۗ مَن ذَا ٱلَّذِى يَشْفَعُ عِندَهُۥٓ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِۦ ۚ يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ ۖ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَىْءٍۢ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِۦٓ إِلَّا بِمَا شَآءَ ۚ وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضَ ۖ وَلَا يَـُٔودُهُۥ حِفْظُهُمَا ۚ وَهُوَ ٱلْعَلِىُّ ٱلْعَظِيمُ

GOD – there is no deity save Him, the Ever-Living, the Self-Subsistent Fount of All Being. Neither slumber overtakes Him, nor sleep. His is all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth. Who is there that could intercede with Him, unless it be by His leave? He knows all that lies open before men and all that is hidden from them, whereas they cannot attain to aught of His knowledge save that which He wills [them to attain]. His eternal power overspreads the heavens and the earth, and their upholding wearies Him not. And he alone is truly exalted, tremendous.

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لَآ إِكْرَاهَ فِى ٱلدِّينِ ۖ قَد تَّبَيَّنَ ٱلرُّشْدُ مِنَ ٱلْغَىِّ ۚ فَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِٱلطَّٰغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِنۢ بِٱللَّهِ فَقَدِ ٱسْتَمْسَكَ بِٱلْعُرْوَةِ ٱلْوُثْقَىٰ لَا ٱنفِصَامَ لَهَا ۗ وَٱللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

THERE SHALL BE no coercion in matters of faith. Distinct has now become the right way from [the way of] error: hence, he who rejects the powers of evil and believes in God has indeed taken hold of a support most unfailing, which shall never give way: for God is all-hearing, all-knowing.

2 : 264

ٱللَّهُ وَلِىُّ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ يُخْرِجُهُم مِّنَ ٱلظُّلُمَٰتِ إِلَى ٱلنُّورِ ۖ وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓا۟ أَوْلِيَآؤُهُمُ ٱلطَّٰغُوتُ يُخْرِجُونَهُم مِّنَ ٱلنُّورِ إِلَى ٱلظُّلُمَٰتِ ۗ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ أَصْحَٰبُ ٱلنَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَٰلِدُونَ

God is near unto those who have faith, taking them out of deep darkness into the light – whereas near unto those who are bent on denying the truth are the powers of evil that take them out of the light into darkness deep: it is they who are destined for the fire, therein to abide.

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أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى ٱلَّذِى حَآجَّ إِبْرَٰهِۦمَ فِى رَبِّهِۦٓ أَنْ ءَاتَىٰهُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلْمُلْكَ إِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَٰهِۦمُ رَبِّىَ ٱلَّذِى يُحْىِۦ وَيُمِيتُ قَالَ أَنَا۠ أُحْىِۦ وَأُمِيتُ ۖ قَالَ إِبْرَٰهِۦمُ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَأْتِى بِٱلشَّمْسِ مِنَ ٱلْمَشْرِقِ فَأْتِ بِهَا مِنَ ٱلْمَغْرِبِ فَبُهِتَ ٱلَّذِى كَفَرَ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِى ٱلْقَوْمَ ٱلظَّٰلِمِينَ

ART THOU NOT aware of that [king] who argued with Abraham about his Sustainer, (simply] because God had granted him kingship? Lo! Abraham said: “My Sustainer is He who grants life and deals death.” [The king] replied: “I [too] grant life and deal death!” Said Abraham: “Verily, God causes the sun to rise in the east; cause it, then, to rise in the west!” Thereupon he who was bent on denying the truth remained dumbfounded: for God does not guide people who [deliberately] do wrong.

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أَوْ كَٱلَّذِى مَرَّ عَلَىٰ قَرْيَةٍۢ وَهِىَ خَاوِيَةٌ عَلَىٰ عُرُوشِهَا قَالَ أَنَّىٰ يُحْىِۦ هَٰذِهِ ٱللَّهُ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا ۖ فَأَمَاتَهُ ٱللَّهُ مِا۟ئَةَ عَامٍۢ ثُمَّ بَعَثَهُۥ ۖ قَالَ كَمْ لَبِثْتَ ۖ قَالَ لَبِثْتُ يَوْمًا أَوْ بَعْضَ يَوْمٍۢ ۖ قَالَ بَل لَّبِثْتَ مِا۟ئَةَ عَامٍۢ فَٱنظُرْ إِلَىٰ طَعَامِكَ وَشَرَابِكَ لَمْ يَتَسَنَّهْ ۖ وَٱنظُرْ إِلَىٰ حِمَارِكَ وَلِنَجْعَلَكَ ءَايَةًۭ لِّلنَّاسِ ۖ وَٱنظُرْ إِلَى ٱلْعِظَامِ كَيْفَ نُنشِزُهَا ثُمَّ نَكْسُوهَا لَحْمًۭا ۚ فَلَمَّا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُۥ قَالَ أَعْلَمُ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىْءٍۢ قَدِيرٌۭ

Or [art thou, O man, of the same mind] as he who passed by a town deserted by its people, with its roofs caved in, [and] said, “How could God bring all this back to life after its death?” Thereupon God caused him to be dead for a hundred years; where after He brought him back to life [and] said: “How long hast thou remained thus?” He answered: “I have remained thus a day, or part of a day.” Said [God]: “Nay, but thou hast remained thus for a hundred years! But look at thy food and thy drink-untouched is it by the passing of years – and look at thine ass! And [We did all this so that We might make thee a symbol unto men. And look at the bones [of animals and men] – how We put them together and then clothe them with flesh!” And when [all this] became clear to him, he said: “I know [now] that God has the power to will anything!”

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وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَٰهِۦمُ رَبِّ أَرِنِى كَيْفَ تُحْىِ ٱلْمَوْتَىٰ ۖ قَالَ أَوَلَمْ تُؤْمِن ۖ قَالَ بَلَىٰ وَلَٰكِن لِّيَطْمَئِنَّ قَلْبِى ۖ قَالَ فَخُذْ أَرْبَعَةًۭ مِّنَ ٱلطَّيْرِ فَصُرْهُنَّ إِلَيْكَ ثُمَّ ٱجْعَلْ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ جَبَلٍۢ مِّنْهُنَّ جُزْءًۭا ثُمَّ ٱدْعُهُنَّ يَأْتِينَكَ سَعْيًۭا ۚ وَٱعْلَمْ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌۭ

And, lo, Abraham said: “O my Sustainer! Show me how Thou givest life unto the dead!” Said He: “Hast thou, then, no faith?” (Abraham) answered: “Yea, but [let me see it] so that my heart may be set fully at rest.” Said He: “Take, then, four birds and teach them to obey thee; then place them separately on every hill [around thee]; then summon them: they will come flying to thee. And know that God is almighty, wise.”

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مَّثَلُ ٱلَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَٰلَهُمْ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ كَمَثَلِ حَبَّةٍ أَنۢبَتَتْ سَبْعَ سَنَابِلَ فِى كُلِّ سُنۢبُلَةٍۢ مِّا۟ئَةُ حَبَّةٍۢ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ يُضَٰعِفُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ وَٰسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ

THE PARABLE of those who spend their possessions for the sake of God is that of a grain out of which grow seven ears, in every ear a hundred grains: for God grants manifold increase unto whom He wills; and God is infinite, all-knowing.

2 : 269

ٱلَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَٰلَهُمْ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ ثُمَّ لَا يُتْبِعُونَ مَآ أَنفَقُوا۟ مَنًّۭا وَلَآ أَذًۭى ۙ لَّهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

They who spend their possessions for the sake of God and do not thereafter mar their spending by stressing their own benevolence and hurting [the feelings of the needy] shall have their reward with ‘their Sustainer, and no fear need they have, and neither shall they grieve.

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۞ قَوْلٌۭ مَّعْرُوفٌۭ وَمَغْفِرَةٌ خَيْرٌۭ مِّن صَدَقَةٍۢ يَتْبَعُهَآ أَذًۭى ۗ وَٱللَّهُ غَنِىٌّ حَلِيمٌۭ

A kind word and the veiling of another’s want is better than a charitable deed followed by hurt; and God is self-sufficient, forbearing.

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يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ لَا تُبْطِلُوا۟ صَدَقَٰتِكُم بِٱلْمَنِّ وَٱلْأَذَىٰ كَٱلَّذِى يُنفِقُ مَالَهُۥ رِئَآءَ ٱلنَّاسِ وَلَا يُؤْمِنُ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلْيَوْمِ ٱلْءَاخِرِ ۖ فَمَثَلُهُۥ كَمَثَلِ صَفْوَانٍ عَلَيْهِ تُرَابٌۭ فَأَصَابَهُۥ وَابِلٌۭ فَتَرَكَهُۥ صَلْدًۭا ۖ لَّا يَقْدِرُونَ عَلَىٰ شَىْءٍۢ مِّمَّا كَسَبُوا۟ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِى ٱلْقَوْمَ ٱلْكَٰفِرِينَ

O you who have attained to faith! Do not deprive your charitable deeds of all worth by stressing your own benevolence and hurting [the feelings of the needy], as does he who spends his wealth only to be seen and praised by men, and believes not in God and the Last Day: for his parable is that of a smooth rock with [a little] earth upon it – and then a rainstorm smites it and leaves it hard and bare. Such as these shall have no gain whatever from all their [good] works: for God does not guide people who refuse to acknowledge the truth.

2 : 272

وَمَثَلُ ٱلَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَٰلَهُمُ ٱبْتِغَآءَ مَرْضَاتِ ٱللَّهِ وَتَثْبِيتًۭا مِّنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ كَمَثَلِ جَنَّةٍۭ بِرَبْوَةٍ أَصَابَهَا وَابِلٌۭ فَـَٔاتَتْ أُكُلَهَا ضِعْفَيْنِ فَإِن لَّمْ يُصِبْهَا وَابِلٌۭ فَطَلٌّۭ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ

And the parable of those who spend their possessions out of a longing to please God, and out of their own inner certainty, is that of a garden on high, fertile ground: a rainstorm smites it, and thereupon it brings forth its fruit twofold; and if no rainstorm smites it, soft rain [falls upon it]. And God sees all that you do.

2 : 273

أَيَوَدُّ أَحَدُكُمْ أَن تَكُونَ لَهُۥ جَنَّةٌۭ مِّن نَّخِيلٍۢ وَأَعْنَابٍۢ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا ٱلْأَنْهَٰرُ لَهُۥ فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ ٱلثَّمَرَٰتِ وَأَصَابَهُ ٱلْكِبَرُ وَلَهُۥ ذُرِّيَّةٌۭ ضُعَفَآءُ فَأَصَابَهَآ إِعْصَارٌۭ فِيهِ نَارٌۭ فَٱحْتَرَقَتْ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمُ ٱلْءَايَٰتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَفَكَّرُونَ

Would any of you like to have a garden of date-palms and vines, through which running waters flow, and have all manner of fruit therein – and then be overtaken by old age, with only weak children to [look after] him-and then [see] it smitten by a fiery whirlwind and utterly scorched? In this way God makes clear His messages unto you, so that you might take thought.

2 : 274

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓا۟ أَنفِقُوا۟ مِن طَيِّبَٰتِ مَا كَسَبْتُمْ وَمِمَّآ أَخْرَجْنَا لَكُم مِّنَ ٱلْأَرْضِ ۖ وَلَا تَيَمَّمُوا۟ ٱلْخَبِيثَ مِنْهُ تُنفِقُونَ وَلَسْتُم بِـَٔاخِذِيهِ إِلَّآ أَن تُغْمِضُوا۟ فِيهِ ۚ وَٱعْلَمُوٓا۟ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَنِىٌّ حَمِيدٌ

O you who have attained to faith! Spend on others out of the good things which you may have acquired, and out of that which We bring forth for you from the earth; and choose not for your spending the bad things which you yourselves would not accept without averting your eyes in disdain. And know that God is self-sufficient, ever to be praised.

2 : 275

ٱلشَّيْطَٰنُ يَعِدُكُمُ ٱلْفَقْرَ وَيَأْمُرُكُم بِٱلْفَحْشَآءِ ۖ وَٱللَّهُ يَعِدُكُم مَّغْفِرَةًۭ مِّنْهُ وَفَضْلًۭا ۗ وَٱللَّهُ وَٰسِعٌ عَلِيمٌۭ

Satan threatens you with the prospect of poverty and bids you to be niggardly, whereas God promises you His forgiveness and bounty; and God is infinite, all-knowing,

2 : 276

يُؤْتِى ٱلْحِكْمَةَ مَن يَشَآءُ ۚ وَمَن يُؤْتَ ٱلْحِكْمَةَ فَقَدْ أُوتِىَ خَيْرًۭا كَثِيرًۭا ۗ وَمَا يَذَّكَّرُ إِلَّآ أُو۟لُوا۟ ٱلْأَلْبَٰبِ

granting wisdom unto whom He wills: and whoever is granted wisdom has indeed been granted wealth abundant. But none bears this in mind save those who are endowed with insight.

2 : 277

وَمَآ أَنفَقْتُم مِّن نَّفَقَةٍ أَوْ نَذَرْتُم مِّن نَّذْرٍۢ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَعْلَمُهُۥ ۗ وَمَا لِلظَّٰلِمِينَ مِنْ أَنصَارٍ

For, whatever you may spend on others, or whatever you may vow [to spend], verily, God knows it; and those who do wrong [by withholding charity] shall have none to succour them.

2 : 278

إِن تُبْدُوا۟ ٱلصَّدَقَٰتِ فَنِعِمَّا هِىَ ۖ وَإِن تُخْفُوهَا وَتُؤْتُوهَا ٱلْفُقَرَآءَ فَهُوَ خَيْرٌۭ لَّكُمْ ۚ وَيُكَفِّرُ عَنكُم مِّن سَيِّـَٔاتِكُمْ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌۭ

If you do deeds of charity openly, it is well; but if you bestow it upon the needy in secret, it will be even better for you, and it will atone for some of your bad deeds. And God is aware of all that you do.

2 : 279

۞ لَّيْسَ عَلَيْكَ هُدَىٰهُمْ وَلَٰكِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَهْدِى مَن يَشَآءُ ۗ وَمَا تُنفِقُوا۟ مِنْ خَيْرٍۢ فَلِأَنفُسِكُمْ ۚ وَمَا تُنفِقُونَ إِلَّا ٱبْتِغَآءَ وَجْهِ ٱللَّهِ ۚ وَمَا تُنفِقُوا۟ مِنْ خَيْرٍۢ يُوَفَّ إِلَيْكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تُظْلَمُونَ

It is not for thee [O Prophet] to make people follow the right path, since it is God [alone] who guides whom He wills. And whatever good you may spend on others is for your own good, provided that you spend only out of a longing for God’s countenance: for, whatever good you may spend will be repaid unto you in full, and you shall not be wronged.

2 : 280

لِلْفُقَرَآءِ ٱلَّذِينَ أُحْصِرُوا۟ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ لَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ ضَرْبًۭا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ يَحْسَبُهُمُ ٱلْجَاهِلُ أَغْنِيَآءَ مِنَ ٱلتَّعَفُّفِ تَعْرِفُهُم بِسِيمَٰهُمْ لَا يَسْـَٔلُونَ ٱلنَّاسَ إِلْحَافًۭا ۗ وَمَا تُنفِقُوا۟ مِنْ خَيْرٍۢ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ بِهِۦ عَلِيمٌ

[And give] unto [such of] the needy who, being wholly wrapped up in God’s cause, are unable to go about the earth [in search of livelihood]. He who is unaware [of their condition] might think that they are wealthy, because they abstain [from begging]; [but] thou canst recognize them by their special mark: they do not beg of men with importunity. And whatever good you may spend [on them], verily, God knows it all.

2 : 281

ٱلَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَٰلَهُم بِٱلَّيْلِ وَٱلنَّهَارِ سِرًّۭا وَعَلَانِيَةًۭ فَلَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

Those who spend their possessions [for the sake of God] by night and by day, secretly and openly, shall have their reward with their Sustainer; and no fear need they have, and neither shall they grieve.

Explore the ethical guidance in Surah Baqarah Ayat 275, a profound verse that forbids interest and emphasizes lawful trade in Islam.

2 : 282

ٱلَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ ٱلرِّبَوٰا۟ لَا يَقُومُونَ إِلَّا كَمَا يَقُومُ ٱلَّذِى يَتَخَبَّطُهُ ٱلشَّيْطَٰنُ مِنَ ٱلْمَسِّ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُوٓا۟ إِنَّمَا ٱلْبَيْعُ مِثْلُ ٱلرِّبَوٰا۟ ۗ وَأَحَلَّ ٱللَّهُ ٱلْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ ٱلرِّبَوٰا۟ ۚ فَمَن جَآءَهُۥ مَوْعِظَةٌۭ مِّن رَّبِّهِۦ فَٱنتَهَىٰ فَلَهُۥ مَا سَلَفَ وَأَمْرُهُۥٓ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ ۖ وَمَنْ عَادَ فَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ أَصْحَٰبُ ٱلنَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَٰلِدُونَ

THOSE who gorge themselves on usury behave but as he might behave whom Satan has confounded with his touch; for they say, “Buying and selling is but a kind of usury” – the while God has made buying and selling lawful and usury unlawful. Hence, whoever becomes aware of his Sustainer’s admonition, and thereupon desists [from usury], may keep his past gains, and it will be for God to judge him; but as for those who return to it -they are destined for the fire, therein to abide!

2 : 283

يَمْحَقُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلرِّبَوٰا۟ وَيُرْبِى ٱلصَّدَقَٰتِ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ كُلَّ كَفَّارٍ أَثِيمٍ

God deprives usurious gains of all blessing, whereas He blesses charitable deeds with manifold increase. And God does not love anyone who is stubbornly ingrate and persists in sinful ways.

2 : 284

إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَعَمِلُوا۟ ٱلصَّٰلِحَٰتِ وَأَقَامُوا۟ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتَوُا۟ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ لَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

Verily, those who have attained to faith and do good works, and are constant in prayer, and dispense charity – they shall have their reward with their Sustainer, and no fear need they have, and neither shall they grieve.

2 : 285

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ ٱتَّقُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَذَرُوا۟ مَا بَقِىَ مِنَ ٱلرِّبَوٰٓا۟ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

O you who have attained to faith! Remain conscious of God. and give up all outstanding gains from usury, if you are [truly] believers;

2 : 286

فَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلُوا۟ فَأْذَنُوا۟ بِحَرْبٍۢ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ ۖ وَإِن تُبْتُمْ فَلَكُمْ رُءُوسُ أَمْوَٰلِكُمْ لَا تَظْلِمُونَ وَلَا تُظْلَمُونَ

for if you do it not, then know that you are at war with God and His Apostle. But if you repent, then you shall be entitled to [the return of] your principal: you will do no wrong, and neither will you be wronged.

2 : 287

وَإِن كَانَ ذُو عُسْرَةٍۢ فَنَظِرَةٌ إِلَىٰ مَيْسَرَةٍۢ ۚ وَأَن تَصَدَّقُوا۟ خَيْرٌۭ لَّكُمْ ۖ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

If, however, [the debtor] is in straitened circumstances, [grant him] a delay until a time of ease; and it would be for your own good -if you but knew it -to remit [the debt entirely] by way of charity.

2 : 288

وَٱتَّقُوا۟ يَوْمًۭا تُرْجَعُونَ فِيهِ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ ۖ ثُمَّ تُوَفَّىٰ كُلُّ نَفْسٍۢ مَّا كَسَبَتْ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ

And be conscious of the Day on which you shall be brought back unto God, whereupon every human being shall be repaid in full for what he has earned, and none shall be wronged.

2 : 289

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓا۟ إِذَا تَدَايَنتُم بِدَيْنٍ إِلَىٰٓ أَجَلٍۢ مُّسَمًّۭى فَٱكْتُبُوهُ ۚ وَلْيَكْتُب بَّيْنَكُمْ كَاتِبٌۢ بِٱلْعَدْلِ ۚ وَلَا يَأْبَ كَاتِبٌ أَن يَكْتُبَ كَمَا عَلَّمَهُ ٱللَّهُ ۚ فَلْيَكْتُبْ وَلْيُمْلِلِ ٱلَّذِى عَلَيْهِ ٱلْحَقُّ وَلْيَتَّقِ ٱللَّهَ رَبَّهُۥ وَلَا يَبْخَسْ مِنْهُ شَيْـًۭٔا ۚ فَإِن كَانَ ٱلَّذِى عَلَيْهِ ٱلْحَقُّ سَفِيهًا أَوْ ضَعِيفًا أَوْ لَا يَسْتَطِيعُ أَن يُمِلَّ هُوَ فَلْيُمْلِلْ وَلِيُّهُۥ بِٱلْعَدْلِ ۚ وَٱسْتَشْهِدُوا۟ شَهِيدَيْنِ مِن رِّجَالِكُمْ ۖ فَإِن لَّمْ يَكُونَا رَجُلَيْنِ فَرَجُلٌۭ وَٱمْرَأَتَانِ مِمَّن تَرْضَوْنَ مِنَ ٱلشُّهَدَآءِ أَن تَضِلَّ إِحْدَىٰهُمَا فَتُذَكِّرَ إِحْدَىٰهُمَا ٱلْأُخْرَىٰ ۚ وَلَا يَأْبَ ٱلشُّهَدَآءُ إِذَا مَا دُعُوا۟ ۚ وَلَا تَسْـَٔمُوٓا۟ أَن تَكْتُبُوهُ صَغِيرًا أَوْ كَبِيرًا إِلَىٰٓ أَجَلِهِۦ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ أَقْسَطُ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ وَأَقْوَمُ لِلشَّهَٰدَةِ وَأَدْنَىٰٓ أَلَّا تَرْتَابُوٓا۟ ۖ إِلَّآ أَن تَكُونَ تِجَٰرَةً حَاضِرَةًۭ تُدِيرُونَهَا بَيْنَكُمْ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَلَّا تَكْتُبُوهَا ۗ وَأَشْهِدُوٓا۟ إِذَا تَبَايَعْتُمْ ۚ وَلَا يُضَآرَّ كَاتِبٌۭ وَلَا شَهِيدٌۭ ۚ وَإِن تَفْعَلُوا۟ فَإِنَّهُۥ فُسُوقٌۢ بِكُمْ ۗ وَٱتَّقُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ ۖ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمُ ٱللَّهُ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلِيمٌۭ

O YOU who have attained to faith! Whenever you give or take credit for a stated term, set it down in writing. And let a scribe write it down equitably between you; and no scribe shall refuse to write as God has taught him: thus shall he write. And let him who contracts the debt dictate; and let him be conscious of God, his Sustainer, and not weaken anything of his undertaking. And if he who contracts the debt is weak of mind or body, or, is not able to dictate himself, then let him who watches over his interests dictate equitably. And call upon two of your men to act as witnesses; and if two men are not available, then a man and two women from among such as are acceptable to you as witnesses, so that if one of them should make a mistake, the other could remind her. And the witnesses must not refuse [to give evidence] whenever they are called upon. And be not loath to write down every contractual provision, be it small or great, together with the time at which it falls due; this is more equitable in the sight of God, more reliable as evidence, and more likely to prevent you from having doubts [later]. If, however, [the transaction] concerns ready merchandise which you transfer directly unto one another, you will incur no sin if you do not write it down. And have witnesses whenever you trade with one another, but neither scribe nor witness must suffer harm; for if you do [them harm], behold, it will be sinful conduct on your part. And remain conscious of God, since it is God who teaches you [herewith] – and God has full knowledge of everything.

2 : 290

۞ وَإِن كُنتُمْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍۢ وَلَمْ تَجِدُوا۟ كَاتِبًۭا فَرِهَٰنٌۭ مَّقْبُوضَةٌۭ ۖ فَإِنْ أَمِنَ بَعْضُكُم بَعْضًۭا فَلْيُؤَدِّ ٱلَّذِى ٱؤْتُمِنَ أَمَٰنَتَهُۥ وَلْيَتَّقِ ٱللَّهَ رَبَّهُۥ ۗ وَلَا تَكْتُمُوا۟ ٱلشَّهَٰدَةَ ۚ وَمَن يَكْتُمْهَا فَإِنَّهُۥٓ ءَاثِمٌۭ قَلْبُهُۥ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ عَلِيمٌۭ

And if you are on a journey and cannot find a scribe, pledges [may be taken] in hand: but if you trust one another, then let him who is trusted fulfil his trust, and let him be conscious of God, his Sustainer. And do not conceal what you have witnessed – for, verily, he who conceals it is sinful at heart; and God has full knowledge of all that you do.

2 : 291

لِّلَّهِ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ ۗ وَإِن تُبْدُوا۟ مَا فِىٓ أَنفُسِكُمْ أَوْ تُخْفُوهُ يُحَاسِبْكُم بِهِ ٱللَّهُ ۖ فَيَغْفِرُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَآءُ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىْءٍۢ قَدِيرٌ

Unto God belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth. And whether you bring into the open what is in your minds or conceal it, God will call you to account for it; and then He will forgive whom He wills, and will chastise whom He wills: for God has the power to will anything.

2 : 292

ءَامَنَ ٱلرَّسُولُ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مِن رَّبِّهِۦ وَٱلْمُؤْمِنُونَ ۚ كُلٌّ ءَامَنَ بِٱللَّهِ وَمَلَٰٓئِكَتِهِۦ وَكُتُبِهِۦ وَرُسُلِهِۦ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍۢ مِّن رُّسُلِهِۦ ۚ وَقَالُوا۟ سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا ۖ غُفْرَانَكَ رَبَّنَا وَإِلَيْكَ ٱلْمَصِيرُ

THE APOSTLE, and the believers with him, believe in what has been bestowed upon him from on high by his Sustainer: they all believe in God, and His angels, and His revelations, and His apostles, making no distinction between any of His apostles; and they say: We have heard, and we pay heed. Grant us Thy forgiveness, O our Sustainer, for with Thee is all journeys’ end!

2 : 293

لَا يُكَلِّفُ ٱللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا ۚ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا مَا ٱكْتَسَبَتْ ۗ رَبَّنَا لَا تُؤَاخِذْنَآ إِن نَّسِينَآ أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا ۚ رَبَّنَا وَلَا تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْنَآ إِصْرًۭا كَمَا حَمَلْتَهُۥ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِنَا ۚ رَبَّنَا وَلَا تُحَمِّلْنَا مَا لَا طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِۦ ۖ وَٱعْفُ عَنَّا وَٱغْفِرْ لَنَا وَٱرْحَمْنَآ ۚ أَنتَ مَوْلَىٰنَا فَٱنصُرْنَا عَلَى ٱلْقَوْمِ ٱلْكَٰفِرِينَ

God does not burden any human being with more than he is well able to bear: in his favour shall be whatever good he does, and against him whatever evil he does. O our Sustainer! Take us not to task if we forget or unwittingly do wrong! “O our Sustainer! Lay not upon us a burden such as Thou didst lay upon those who lived before us! O our Sustainer! Make us not bear burdens which we have no strength to bear! “And efface Thou our sins, and grant us forgiveness, and bestow Thy mercy upon us! Thou art our Lord Supreme: succour us, then, against people who deny the truth!”

Tafsir Surah Al-Baqarah (the Cow) Tafsir Ibn Kathir

The Virtues of Surah Al-Baqarah

In Musnad Ahmad, Sahih Muslim, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i, it is recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said,

لَا تَجْعَلُوا بُيُوتَكُمْ قُبُورًا فَإِنَّ الْبَيْتَ الَّذِي تُقْرَأُ فِيهِ سُورَةُ الْبَقَرَةِ لَا يَدْخُلُهُ الشَّيْطَان

Do not turn your houses into graves. Verily, Shaytan does not enter the house where Surah Al-Baqarah is recited.

At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih”.

Also, Abdullah bin Mas`ud said,

“Shaytan flees from the house where Surah Al-Baqarah is heard.”

This Hadith was collected by An-Nasa’i in Al-Yawm wal-Laylah, and Al-Hakim recorded it in his Mustadrak, and then said that its chain of narration is authentic, although the Two Sahihs did not collect it.

In his Musnad, Ad-Darimi recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said,

“Shaytan departs the house where Surah Al-Baqarah is being recited, and as he leaves, he passes gas.”

Ad-Darimi also recorded that Ash-Shabi said that Abdullah bin Masud said,

“Whoever recites ten Ayat from Surah Al-Baqarah in a night, then Shaytan will not enter his house that night. These ten Ayat are;

four from the beginning,

Ayat Al-Kursi (255),

the following two Ayat (256-257) and

the last three Ayat.”

In another narration, Ibn Mas`ud said,

“Then Shaytan will not come near him or his family, nor will he be touched by anything that he dislikes. Also, if these Ayat were to be recited over a senile person, they would wake him up.”

Further, Sahl bin Sa`d said that the Messenger of Allah said,

إِنَّ لِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ سَنَامًا، وَإِنَّ سَنَامَ الْقُرْآنِ الْبَقَرَةُ، وَإِنَّ مَنْ قَرَأَهَا فِي بَيْتِهِ لَيْلَةً لَمْ يَدْخُلْهُ الشَّيْطَانُ ثَلَاثَ لَيَالٍ، وَمَنْ قَرَأَهَا فِي بَيْتِهِ نَهَارًا لَمْ يَدْخُلْهُ الشَّيْطَانُ ثَلَاثَةَ أَيَّام

Everything has a hump (or, high peek), and Al-Baqarah is the high peek of the Qur’an. Whoever recites Al-Baqarah at night in his house, then Shaytan will not enter that house for three nights. Whoever recites it during a day in his house, then Shaytan will not enter that house for three days.

This Hadith was collected by Abu Al-Qasim At-Tabarani, Abu Hatim Ibn Hibban in his Sahih and Ibn Marduwyah.

At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah recorded that Abu Hurayrah said,

“The Messenger of Allah sent an expedition force comprising of many men and asked each about what they memorized of the Qur’an. The Prophet came to one of the youngest men among them and asked him, `What have you memorized (of the Qur’an) young man?’

He said, `I memorized such and such Surahs and also Al-Baqarah.’

The Prophet said, `You memorized Surah Al-Baqarah.’

He said, `Yes.’

The Prophet said, `Then you are their commander.’

One of the noted men (or chiefs) commented, `By Allah! I did not learn Surah Al-Baqarah, for fear that I would not be able to implement it.

Dive into the profound insights of Surah Al-Baqarah Ayat 1-5, exploring the Arabic text, translation, and transliteration for spiritual growth and understanding.

The Messenger of Allah said,

تَعَلَّمُوا القُرْآنَ وَاقْرَءُوهُ، فَإِنَّ مَثَلَ الْقُرْآنِ لِمَنْ تَعَلَّمَهُ فَقَرَأَ وَقَامَ بِهِ كَمَثَلِ جِرَابٍ مَحْشُوَ مِسْكًا يَفُوحُ رِيحُهُ فِي كُلِّ مَكَانٍ،

Learn Al-Qur’an and recite it, for the example of whoever learns the Qur’an, recites it and adheres to it, is the example of a bag that is full of musk whose scent fills the air.

وَمَثَلُ مَنْ تَعَلَّمَهُ فَيَرْقُدُ وَهُوَ فِي جَوْفِهِ كَمَثَلِ جِرَابٍ أُوكِيَ عَلى مِسْك

The example of whoever learns the Qur’an and then sleeps (i.e. lazy) while the Qur’an is in his memory, is the example of a bag that has musk, but is closed tight.

This is the wording collected by At-Tirmidhi, who said that this Hadith is Hasan.

In another narration, At-Tirmidhi recorded this same Hadith in a Mursal manner, so Allah knows best.

Also, Al-Bukhari recorded that;

Usayd bin Hudayr said that he was once reciting Surah Al-Baqarah while his horse was tied next to him. The horse started to make some noise. When Usayd stopped reciting, the horse stopped moving about. When he resumed reading, the horse started moving about again. When he stopped reciting, the horse stopped moving, and when he resumed reading, the horse started to move again. Meanwhile, his son Yahya was close to the horse, and he feared that the horse might step on him. When he moved his son back, he looked up to the sky and saw a cloud radiating with light that looked like lamps. In the morning, he went to the Prophet and told him what had happened and then said, “O Messenger of Allah! My son Yahya was close to the horse and I feared that she might step on him. When I attended to him and raised my head to the sky, I saw a cloud with lights like lamps. So I went, but I couldn’t see it.”

The Prophet said, “Do you know what that was?”

He said, “No.”

The Prophet said,

تِلْكَ الْمَلَائِكَةُ دَنَتْ لِصَوْتِكَ وَلَو قَرَأْتَ لَأَصْبَحْتَ يَنْظُرُ النَّاسُ إِلَيْهَا، لَا تَتَوارَى مِنْهُم

They were the angels, they came close hearing your voice (reciting Surah Al-Baqarah), and if you had kept reading, the people would have been able to see the angels when the morning came, and the angels would not be hidden from their eyes.

This is the narration reported by Imam Abu Ubayd Al-Qasim bin Salam in his book Fada’il Al-Qur’an.

Virtues of Surah Al-Baqarah and Surah Al Imran

Imam Ahmad said that Abu Nu`aym narrated to them that Bishr bin Muhajir said that Abdullah bin Buraydah narrated to him from his father,

“I was sitting with the Prophet and I heard him say,

تَعَلَّمُوا سُورَةَ الْبَقَرَةِ فَإِنَّ أَخْذَهَا بَرَكَةٌ، وَتَرْكَهَا حَسْرَةٌ، وَلَا تَسْتَطِيعُهَا الْبَطَلَة

Learn Surah Al-Baqarah, because in learning it there is blessing, in ignoring it there is sorrow, and the sorceresses cannot memorize it.

He kept silent for a while and then said,

تَعَلَّمُوا سُورَةَ الْبَقَرَةِ وَآلَ عِمْرَانَ فَإِنَّهُمَا الزَّهْرَاوَانِ، يُظِلَّانِ صَاحِبَهُمَا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ كَأَنَّهُمَا غَمَامَتَانِ أَوْ غَيَايَتَانِ أَوْ فِرْقَانِ مِنْ طَيْرٍ صَوَافَّ،

Learn Surah Al-Baqarah and Al Imran because they are two lights and they shade their people on the Day of Resurrection, just as two clouds, two spaces of shade or two lines of (flying) birds.

وَإِنَّ الْقُرآنَ يَلْقى صَاحِبَهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ حِينَ يَنْشَقُّ عَنْهُ قَبْرُهُ كَالرَّجُلِ الشَّاحِبِ فَيَقُولُ لَهُ: هَلْ تَعْرِفُنِي ؟

The Qur’an will meet its companion in the shape of a pale-faced man on the Day of Resurrection when his grave is opened. The Qur’an will ask him, ‘Do you know me?’

فَيَقُولُ: مَا أَعْرِفُكَ.

The man will say, ‘I do not know you.’

فَيَقُولُ: أَنَا صَاحِبُكَ الْقُرْآنُ الَّذِي أَظْمَأْتُكَ فِي الْهَوَاجِرِ وَأَسْهَرْتُ لَيْلَكَ وَإِنَّ كُلَّ تَاجِرٍ مِنْ وَرَاءِ تِجَارَتِهِ، وَإِنَّكَ الْيَوْمَ مِنْ وَرَاءِ كُلِّ تِجَارَةٍ

The Qur’an will say, ‘I am your companion, the Qur’an, which has brought you thirst during the heat and made you stay up during the night. Every merchant has his certain trade. But, this Day, you are behind all types of trade.’

فَيُعْطَى الْمُلْكَ بِيَمِينِهِ وَالْخُلْدَ بِشِمَالِهِ وَيُوضَعُ عَلَى رَأْسِهِ تَاجُ الْوَقَارِ،

Kingship will then be given to him in his right hand, eternal life in his left hand and the crown of grace will be placed on his head.

وَيُكْسَى وَالِدَاهُ حُلَّتَانِ لَا يَقُومُ لَهُمَا أَهْلُ الدُّنْيَا،

His parents will also be granted two garments that the people of this life could never afford.

فَيَقُولَانِ: بِمَا كُسِينَا هَذَا؟

They will say, ‘Why were we granted these garments?’

فَيُقَالُ: بِأَخْذِ وَلَدِكُمَا الْقُرْآنَ

It will be said, ‘Because your son was carrying the Qur’an.’

ثُمَّ يُقَالُ: اقْرَأْ وَاصْعَدْ فِي دَرَجِ الْجَنَّةِ وَغُرَفِهَا،

It will be said (to the reader of the Qur’an), ‘Read and ascend through the levels of Paradise.’

فَهُوَ فِي صُعُودٍ مَا دَامَ يَقْرأُ هَذًّا كَانَ أَوْ تَرْتِيلًا

He will go on ascending as long as he recites, whether reciting slowly or quickly.”

Ibn Majah also recorded part of this Hadith from Bishr bin Al-Muhajir, and this chain of narrators is Hasan, according to the criteria of Imam Muslim.

A part of this Hadith is also supported by other Hadiths.

For instance, Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Umamah Al-Bahili said that he heard the Messenger of Allah say,

اقْرَأُوا الْقُرْآنَ فَإِنَّهُ شَافِعٌ لِأَهْلِهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ

Read the Qur’an, because it will intercede on behalf of its people on the Day of Resurrection.

اقْرَأُوا الزَّهْرَاوَيْنِ، الْبَقَرَةَ وَآلَ عِمْرَانَ، فَإِنَّهُمَا يَأْتِيَانِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ كَأَنَّهُمَا غَمَامَتَانِ، أَوْ كَأَنَّهُمَا غَيَايَتَانِ أَوْ كَأَنَّهُمَا فِرْقَانِ مِنْ طَيْرٍ صَوَافَّ، يُحَاجَّانِ عَنْ أَهْلِهِمَا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَة

Read the two lights, Al-Baqarah and Al Imran, because they will come in the shape of two clouds, two shades or two lines of birds on the Day of Resurrection and will argue on behalf of their people on that Day.

The Prophet then said,

اقْرَأُوا الْبَقَرَةَ فَإِنَّ أَخْذَهَا بَرَكَةٌ وَتَرْكَهَا حَسْرَةٌ وَلَا تَسْتَطِيعُهَا الْبَطَلَة

Read Al-Baqarah, because in having it there is blessing, and in ignoring there is a sorrow and the sorceresses cannot memorize it.

Explore Surah Al Baqarah Ayat 1-10 to understand the guidance in the Quran, contrasting the characteristics of the guided with those who disbelieve

Also, Imam Muslim narrated this Hadith in the Book of Prayer.

Imam Ahmad narrated that An-Nawwas bin Sam`an said that the Prophet said,

يُؤْتَى بِالقُرْآنِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَأَهْلِهِ الَّذِينَ كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ بِهِ تَقْدَمُهُم سُورَةُ الْبَقَرَةِ وَآلُ عِمْرَان

On the Day of Resurrection the Qur’an and its people who used to implement it will be brought forth, preceded by Surah Al-Baqarah and Al Imran.

An-Nawwas said,

“The Prophet set three examples for these two Surahs and I did not forget these examples ever since. He said,

كَأَنَّهُمَا غَمَامَتَانِ، أَوْ ظُلَّتَانِ سَودَاوَانِ بَيْنَهُمَا شَرْقٌ، أَوْ كَأَنَّهُمَا فِرْقَانِ مِنْ طَيْرٍ صَوَافَّ، يُحَاجَّانِ عَنْ صَاحِبِهِمَا

They will come like two clouds, two dark shades or two lines of birds arguing on behalf of their people.

It was also recorded in Sahih Muslim and At-Tirmidhi narrated this Hadith, which he rendered Hasan Gharib.

Surah Al-Baqarah was revealed in Al-Madinah

There is no disagreement over the view that Surah Al-Baqarah was revealed in its entirety in Al-Madinah. Moreover, Al-Baqarah was one of the first Surahs to be revealed in Al-Madinah, while, Allah’s statement, وَاتَّقُواْ يَوْمًا تُرْجَعُونَ فِيهِ إِلَى اللّهِ (And be afraid of the Day when you shall be brought back to Allah). (2:281) was the last Ayah to be revealed from the Qur’an.

Also, the Ayat about usury were among the last Ayat to be revealed.

Khalid bin Ma`dan used to call Al-Baqarah the Fustat (tent) of the Qur’an.

Some of the scholars said that it contains a thousand news incidents, a thousand commands and a thousand prohibitions. Those who count said that the number of Al-Baqarah’s Ayat is two hundred and eighty-seven, and its words are six thousand two hundred and twenty-one words. Further, its letters are twenty-five thousand five hundred. Allah knows best.

Ibn Jurayj narrated that Ata said that Ibn Abbas said,

“Surah Al-Baqarah was revealed in Al-Madinah.”

Also, Khasif said from Mujahid that Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr said;

“Surah Al-Baqarah was revealed in Al-Madinah.”

Several Imams and scholars of Tafsir issued similar statements, and there is no difference of opinion over this as we have stated.

The Two Sahihs recorded that;

Ibn Masud kept the Kabah on his left side and Mina on his right side and threw seven pebbles (at the Jamrah) and said,

“The one to whom Surah Al-Baqarah was revealed (i.e. the Prophet) performed Rami (the Hajj rite of throwing pebbles) similarly.”

The Two Sahihs recorded this Hadith.

Further, Ibn Marduwyah reported a Hadith of Shu`bah from Aqil bin Talhah from Utbah bin Marthad;

“The Prophet saw that his Companions were not in the first lines and he said,

يَا أَصْحَابَ سُورَةِ الْبَقَرَة

O Companions of Surah Al-Baqarah.

I think that this incident occurred during the battle of Hunayn when the Companions retreated. Then, the Prophet commanded Al-Abbas (his uncle) to yell out,

يَا أَصْحَابَ الشَّجَرَة

O Companions of the tree!

meaning, the Companions who participated in the pledge of Ar-Ridwan (under the tree).

In another narration, Al- Abbas cried,

“O Companions of Surah Al-Baqarah!”

encouraging them to come back, so they returned from every direction.

Also, during the battle of Al-Yamamah, against the army of Musaylimah the Liar, the Companions first retreated because of the huge number of soldiers in Musaylimah’s army. The Muhajirun and the Ansar called out for each other, saying; “O people of Surah Al-Baqarah!” Allah then gave them victory over their enemy, may Allah be pleased with all of the companions of all the Messengers of Allah.

Hint: Help your kids connect with their faith with the Online Quran Classes for Kids, a program that makes learning the Quran accessible and enjoyable for young learners.

Al Baqarah

بِسْمِ اللّهِ الرَّحْمـَنِ الرَّحِيم

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

الم

2:1 Alif Lam Mim.

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The Discussion of the Individual Letters

Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful says;

الم ﴿١﴾

Alif Lam Mim.

The individual letters in the beginning of some Surahs are among those things whose knowledge Allah has kept only for Himself. This was reported from Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali and Ibn Mas`ud.

It was said that these letters are the names of some of the Surahs.

It was also said that they are the beginnings that Allah chose to start the Surahs of the Qur’an with.

Khasif stated that Mujahid said,

“The beginnings of the Surahs, such as Qaf, Sad, Ta Sin Mim and Alif Lam Ra, are just some letters of the alphabet.”

Some linguists also stated that;

they are letters of the alphabet and that Allah simply did not cite the entire alphabet of twenty-eight letters.

For instance, they said, one might say, “My son recites Alif, Ba, Ta, Tha…” he means the entire alphabet although he stops before mentioning the rest of it.

This opinion was mentioned by Ibn Jarir.

The Letters at the Beginning of Surahs

If one removes the repetitive letters, then the number of letters mentioned at the beginning of the Surahs is fourteen:

Alif,

Lam,

Mim,

Sad,

Ra,

Kaf,

Ha,

Ya,

Ayn,

Ta,

Sin,

Ha,

Qaf,

Nun.

So glorious is He Who made everything subtly reflect His wisdom.

Moreover, the scholars said,

“There is no doubt that Allah did not reveal these letters for jest and play.”

Some ignorant people said that;

some of the Qur’an does not mean anything, (meaning, such as these letters) thus committing a major mistake.

On the contrary, these letters carry a specific meaning. Further, if we find an authentic narration leading to the Prophet that explains these letters, we will embrace the Prophet’s statement. Otherwise, we will stop where we were made to stop and will proclaim, آمَنَّا بِهِ كُلٌّ مِّنْ عِندِ رَبِّنَا (We believe in it; all of it (clear and unclear verses) is from our Lord), (3:7).

The scholars did not agree on one opinion or explanation regarding this subject. Therefore, whoever thinks that one scholar’s opinion is correct, he is obliged to follow it, otherwise it is better to refrain from making any judgment on this matter. Allah knows best.

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ذَلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ

2:2 This is the Book, wherein there is no doubt, a guidance for the Muttaqin.

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There is no Doubt in the Qur’an

Allah says;

ذَلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ …

This is the Book, wherein there is no doubt,

The Book, is the Qur’an, and Rayb means doubt.

As-Suddi said that Abu Malik and Abu Salih narrated from Ibn Abbas, and Murrah Al-Hamadani narrated from Ibn Mas`ud and several other Companions of the Messenger of Allah that, لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ (In which there is no Rayb),

means about which there is no doubt.

Abu Ad-Darda, Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Said bin Jubayr, Abu Malik, Nafi Ata, Abu Al-Aliyah, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, Muqatil bin Hayyan, As-Suddi, Qatadah and Ismail bin Abi Khalid said similarly.

In addition, Ibn Abi Hatim said,

“I do not know of any disagreement over this explanation.”

The meaning of this is that;

the Book, the Qur’an, is without a doubt revealed from Allah.

Similarly, Allah said in Surah As- Sajdah,

تَنزِيلُ الْكِتَابِ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ مِن رَّبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

The revelation of the Book (this Qur’an) in which there is no doubt, is from the Lord of all that exists. (32:2)

Some scholars stated that this Ayah – 2:2 – contains a prohibition meaning,

“Do not doubt the Qur’an.”

Furthermore, some of the reciters of the Qur’an pause upon reading, لاَ رَيْبَ (there is no doubt) and they then continue; فِيهِ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ (in which there is guidance for the Muttaqin (the pious and righteous persons)).

However, it is better to pause at, لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ (in which there is no doubt) because in this case, هُدًى (guidance) becomes an attribute of the Qur’an and carries a better meaning than, فِيهِ هُدًى (in which there is guidance).

Guidance is granted to Those Who have Taqwa

Allah said,

… هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ ﴿٢﴾

guidance for the Muttaqin.

that it means, “They are the believers.”

Hidayah – correct guidance – is only granted to those who have Taqwa – fear of Allah.

Allah said,

قُلْ هُوَ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ هُدًى وَشِفَآءٌ وَالَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ فِى ءَاذَانِهِمْ وَقْرٌ وَهُوَ عَلَيْهِمْ عَمًى أُوْلَـئِكَ يُنَادَوْنَ مِن مَّكَانٍ بَعِيدٍ

Say: It is for those who believe, a guide and a healing. And as for those who disbelieve, there is heaviness (deafness) in their ears, and it (the Qur’an) is blindness for them. They are those who are called from a place far away (so they neither listen nor understand). (41:44)

and,

وَنُنَزِّلُ مِنَ الْقُرْءَانِ مَا هُوَ شِفَآءٌ وَرَحْمَةٌ لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَلاَ يَزِيدُ الظَّـلِمِينَ إَلاَّ خَسَارًا

And We send down of the Qur’an that which is a healing and a mercy to those who believe (in Islamic Monotheism and act on it), and it increases the Zalimin (wrongdoers) in nothing but loss. (17:82)

This is a sample of the numerous Ayat indicating that the believers, in particular, benefit from the Qur’an. That is because the Qur’an is itself a form of guidance, but the guidance in it is only granted to the righteous, just as Allah said,

يَأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ قَدْ جَآءَتْكُمْ مَّوْعِظَةٌ مَّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَشِفَآءٌ لِّمَا فِى الصُّدُورِ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةٌ لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

O mankind! There has come to you a good advice from your Lord (i. e. the Qur’an, enjoining all that is good and forbidding all that is evil), and a healing for that (disease of ignorance, doubt, hypocrisy and differences) which is in your breasts, ـ a guidance and a mercy (explaining lawful and unlawful things) for the believers. (10:57)

Ibn Abbas and Ibn Mas`ud and other Companions of the Messenger of Allah said, هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ (guidance for the Muttaqin (the pious and righteous persons),

means, a light for those who have Taqwa.

The Meaning of Al-Muttaqin

Ibn Abbas said about, هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ (guidance for the Muttaqin) that it means,

“They are the believers who avoid Shirk with Allah and who work in His obedience.”

Ibn Abbas also said that Al-Muttaqin means,

“Those who fear Allah’s punishment, which would result if they abandoned the true guidance that they recognize and know. They also hope in Allah’s mercy by believing in what He revealed.”

Further, Qatadah said that,

لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ (Al-Muttaqin), are those whom Allah has described in His statement; الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاةَ (Who believe in the Ghayb and perform the Salah) (2:3), and the following Ayat.

Ibn Jarir stated that the Ayah (2:2) includes all of these meanings that the scholars have mentioned, and this is the correct view.

Also, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah narrated that Atiyah As-Sa`di said that the Messenger of Allah said,

لَا يَبْلُغُ الْعَبْدُأَنْ يَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُتَّقِينَ حَتَّى يَدَعَ مَالَا بَأْسَ بِهِ حَذَرًا مِمَّا بِهِ بَأْس

The servant will not acquire the status of the Muttaqin until he abandons what is harmless out of fear of falling into that which is harmful.

At-Tirmidhi then said “Hasan Gharib.”

There are Two Types of Hidayah (Guidance)

Huda here means;

the faith that resides in the heart, and only Allah is able to create it in the heart of the servants.

Allah said,

إِنَّكَ لاَ تَهْدِى مَنْ أَحْبَبْتَ

Verily, you (O Muhammad) guide not whom you like. (28:56)

لَّيْسَ عَلَيْكَ هُدَاهُمْ

Not upon you (Muhammad) is their guidance. (2:272)

مَن يُضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَلاَ هَادِيَ لَهُ

Whomsoever Allah sends astray, none can guide him. (7:186)

and,

مَن يَهْدِ اللَّهُ فَهُوَ الْمُهْتَدِ وَمَن يُضْلِلْ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُ وَلِيًّا مُّرْشِدًا

He whom Allah guides, he is the rightly guided; but he whom He sends astray, for him you will find no Wali (guiding friend) to lead him (to the right path). (18:17)

Huda also means to explain the truth, give direction and lead to it.

Allah, the Exalted, said,

وَإِنَّكَ لَتَهْدِى إِلَى صِرَطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ

And verily, you (O Muhammad) are indeed guiding (mankind) to the straight path (i.e. Allah’s religion of Islamic Monotheism). (42: 52)

إِنَّمَآ أَنتَ مُنذِرٌ وَلِكُلِّ قَوْمٍ هَادٍ

You are only a warner, and to every people there is a guide. (13:7)

and,

وَأَمَّا ثَمُودُ فَهَدَيْنَـهُمْ فَاسْتَحَبُّواْ الْعَمَى عَلَى الْهُدَى

And as for Thamud, We showed and made clear to them the path of truth (Islamic Monotheism) through Our Messenger (i.e. showed them the way of success), but they preferred blindness to guidance. (41:17)

testifying to this meaning.

Also, Allah said,

وَهَدَيْنَـهُ النَّجْدَينِ

And shown him the two ways (good and evil). (90:10)

This is the view of the scholars who said that the two ways refer to the paths of righteousness and evil, which is also the correct explanation. And Allah knows best.

Meaning of Taqwa

The root meaning of Taqwa is to avoid what one dislikes.

It was reported that;

Umar bin Al-Khattab asked Ubayy bin Ka`b about Taqwa.

Ubayy said, “Have you ever walked on a path that has thorns on it?”

Umar said, “Yes.”

Ubayy said, “What did you do then?”

He said, “I rolled up my sleeves and struggled.”

Ubayy said, “That is Taqwa.”

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الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ

2:3 Who believe in the Ghayb and perform the Salah and spend out of what We have provided for them

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The Meaning of Iman

Allah says;

الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ …

Those Who have faith in the Ghayb.

Abu Jafar Ar-Razi said that Al-Ala bin Al-Musayyib bin Rafi narrated from Abu Ishaq that Abu Al-Ahwas said that Abdullah said,

“Iman is to trust.”

Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said, يُؤْمِنُونَ (who have faith),

means they trust.

Also, Ma`mar said that Az-Zuhri said,

“Iman is the deeds.”

In addition, Abu Jafar Ar-Razi said that Ar-Rabi bin Anas said that,

`They have faith’, means, they fear (Allah).

Ibn Jarir (At-Tabari) commented,

“The preferred view is that they be described as having faith in the Unseen by the tongue, deed and creed. In this case, fear of Allah is included in the general meaning of Iman, which necessitates following deeds of the tongue by implementation. Hence, Iman is a general term that includes affirming and believing in Allah, His Books and His Messengers, and realizing this affirmation through adhering to the implications of what the tongue utters and affirms.”

Linguistically, in the absolute sense, Iman merely means trust, and it is used to mean that sometimes in the Qur’an, for instance, Allah the Exalted said,

يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَيُؤْمِنُ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

He trusts (yu’minu) in Allah, and trusts (yu’minu) in the believers. (9: 61)

Prophet Yusuf’s brothers said to their father,

وَمَآ أَنتَ بِمُؤْمِنٍ لَّنَا وَلَوْ كُنَّا صَـدِقِينَ

But you will never believe us even when we speak the truth. (12:17)

Further, the word Iman is sometimes mentioned along with deeds, such as Allah said,

إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ

Save those who believe (in Islamic Monotheism) and do righteous deeds. (95:6)

However, when Iman is used in an unrestricted manner, it includes beliefs, deeds, and statements of the tongue. We should state here that Iman increases and decreases.

There are many narrations and Hadiths on this subject, and we discussed them in the beginning of our explanation of Sahih Al-Bukhari, all favors are from Allah.

Some scholars explained that Iman means Khashyah (fear of Allah). For instance, Allah said;

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُم بِالْغَيْبِ

Verily, those who fear their Lord unseen (i.e. they do not see Him, nor His punishment in the Hereafter). (67:12)

and,

مَّنْ خَشِىَ الرَّحْمَـنَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَجَآءَ بِقَلْبٍ مُّنِيبٍ

Who feared the Most Gracious (Allah) in the Ghayb (unseen) and brought a heart turned in repentance (to Him and absolutely free from every kind of polytheism). (50: 33)

Fear is the core of Iman and knowledge, just as Allah the Exalted said,

إِنَّمَا يَخْشَى اللَّهَ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ الْعُلَمَاءُ

It is only those who have knowledge among His servants that fear Allah. (35:28)

The Meaning of Al-Ghayb

As for the meaning of Ghayb here, the Salaf have different explanations of it, all of which are correct, indicating the same general meaning.

For instance, Abu Jafar Ar-Razi quoted Ar-Rabi bin Anas, reporting from Abu Al-Aliyah about Allah’s statement, يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ ((Those who) have faith in the Ghayb),

“They believe in Allah, His angels, Books, Messengers, the Last Day, His Paradise, Fire and in the meeting with Him. They also believe in life after death and in Resurrection. All of this is the Ghayb.”

Qatadah bin Di`amah said similarly.

Sa`id bin Mansur reported from Abdur-Rahman bin Yazid who said,

“We were sitting with Abdullah bin Mas`ud when we mentioned the Companions of the Prophet and their deeds being superior to our deeds.

Abdullah said, `The matter of Muhammad was clear for those who saw him. By He other than Whom there is no God, no person will ever acquire a better type of faith than believing in Al-Ghayb.’

He then recited,

الم – ذَلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ – الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ …

Alif Lam Mim. This is the Book, wherein there is no doubt, a guidance for the Muttaqin. Those who believe in the Ghayb, until, الْمُفْلِحُونَ (the successful).”

Ibn Abi Hatim, Ibn Marduwyah and Al-Hakim, in his Mustadrak, recorded this Hadith.

Al-Hakim commented that this Hadith is authentic and that the Two Sheikhs – Al-Bukhari and Muslim – did not collect it, although it meets their criteria.

Ahmad recorded a Hadith with similar meaning from Ibn Muhayriz who said:

I said to Abu Jumu`ah, “Narrate a Hadith for us that you heard from the Messenger of Allah.”

He said, “Yes. I will narrate a good Hadith for you.

Once we had lunch with the Messenger of Allah. Abu Ubaydah, who was with us, said, `O Messenger of Allah! Are people better than us We embraced Islam with you and performed Jihad with you.’

He said,

نَعَمْ قَوْمٌ مِنْ بَعْدِكُمْ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِي وَلَمْ يَرَوْنِي

Yes, those who will come after you, who will believe in me although they did not see me.”

This Hadith has another route collected by Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah in his Tafsir, from Salih bin Jubayr who said:

Abu Jumuah Al-Ansari, the Companion of the Messenger of Allah, came to Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem) to perform the prayer. Raja’ bin Haywah was with us, so when Abu Jumuah finished, we went out to greet him. When he was about to leave, he said, “You have a gift and a right. I will narrate a Hadith for you that I heard from the Messenger of Allah.”

We said, “Do so, and may Allah grant you mercy.”

He said, “We were with the Messenger of Allah, ten people including Mu`adh bin Jabal. We said, “O Messenger of Allah! Are there people who will acquire greater rewards than us We believed in Allah and followed you.’

He said,

مَا يَمْنَعُكُمْ مِنْ ذَلِكَ وَرَسُولُ اللهِ بَيْنَ أَظْهُرِكُمْ يَأْتِيكُمْ بِالْوَحْيِ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ، بَلْ قَوْمٌ بَعْدَكُمْ يَأْتِيهِمْ كِتَابٌ مِنْ بَيْنِ لَوْحَيْنِ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِ وَيَعْمَلُونَ بِمَا فِيهِ، أُولئِكَ أَعْظَمُ مِنْكُمْ أَجْرًا مَرَّتَيْن

What prevents you from doing so, while the Messenger of Allah is among you, bringing you the revelation from heaven There are people who will come after you and who will be given a book between two covers (the Qur’an), and they will believe in it and implement its commands. They have a greater reward than you, even twice as much.”

Allah says;

… وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ ﴿٣﴾

And perform Salah, and spend out of what we have provided for them.

Meaning of Iqamat As-Salah

Ibn Abbas said that, وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاةَ (And perform the Salah),

means, “Perform the prayer with all of the obligations that accompany it.”

Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn Abbas said,

“Iqamat As-Salah means to complete the bowings, prostrations, recitation, humbleness and attendance for the prayer.”

Qatadah said,

“Iqamat As-Salah means to preserve punctuality, and the ablution, bowings, and prostrations of the prayer.”

Muqatil bin Hayyan said Iqamat As-Salah means,

“To preserve punctuality for it, as well as completing ones purity for it, and completing the bowings, prostrations, recitation of the Qur’an, Tashahhud and blessings for the Prophet. This is Iqamat As-Salah.”

The Meaning of “Spending” in this Ayah

Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said, وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ (And spend out of what We have provided for them) means,

“The Zakah due on their wealth.”

As-Suddi said that Abu Malik and Abu Salih narrated from Ibn Abbas, as well as Murrah from Ibn Mas`ud and other Companions of the Messenger of Allah, that, وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ (And spend out of what We have provided for them) means,

“A man’s spending on his family. This was before the obligation of Zakah was revealed.”

Juwaybir narrated from Ad-Dahhak,

“General spending (in charity) was a means of drawing nearer to Allah, according to one’s discretion and capability. Until the obligation of charity was revealed in the seven Ayat of Surah Bara’ah, were revealed. These abrogated the previous case.”

In many instances, Allah mentioned prayer and spending wealth together.

Prayer is a right of Allah as well as a form of worshipping Him. It includes singling Him out for one’s devotion, praising Him, glorifying Him, supplicating to Him, invoking Him, and it displays one’s dependence upon Him.

Spending is form of kindness towards creatures by giving them what will benefit them, and those people most deserving of this charity are the relatives, the wife, the servants and then the rest of the people. So all types of required charity and required spending are included in Allah’s saying, وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ (And spend out of what we have provided for them).

The Two Sahihs recorded that Ibn Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,

بُنِيَ الْإِسْلَامُ عَلَى خَمْسٍ:

شَهَادَةِ أَنْ لَا إِلهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللهِ،

وَإِقَامِ الصَّلَاةِ،

وَإِيتَاءِ الزَّكَاةِ،

وَصَوْمِ رَمَضَانَ،

وَحَجِّ الْبَيْت

Islam is built upon five (pillars):

Testifying that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah,

establishing the prayer,

giving Zakah,

fasting Ramadan and

Hajj to the House.

There are many other Hadiths on this subject.

The Meaning of Salah

In the Arabic language, the basic meaning of Salah is supplication. In religious terminology, Salah is used to refer to the acts of bowing and prostration, the remaining specified acts associated with it, specified at certain times, with those known conditions, and the characteristics, and requirements that are well-known about it.

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وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ وَبِالأْخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ

2:4 And who have faith in what is revealed to you and in what was revealed before you, and in the Hereafter they are certain.

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Allah says;

والَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ …

And who have faith in what is revealed to you and in what was revealed before you.

Ibn Abbas said that,

means, “They believe in what Allah sent you with, and in what the previous Messengers were sent with, they do not distinguish between (believing) them, nor do they reject what they brought from their Lord.”

… وَبِالآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ ﴿٤﴾

And in the Hereafter they are certain.

that is the resurrection, the standing (on the Day of Resurrection), Paradise, the Fire, the reckoning and the Scale that weighs the deeds (the Mizan). The Hereafter is so named because it comes after this earthly life.

Attributes of the Believers

The people described here (2:4) are those whom Allah described in the preceding Ayah, الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ (Those who have faith in the Ghayb and perform Salah, and spend out of what we have provided for them).

Mujahid once stated,

“Four Ayat at the beginning of Surah Al-Baqarah describe the believers, two describe the disbelievers, and thirteen describe the hypocrites.”

The four Ayat mentioned in this statement are general and include every believer, whether an Arab, non-Arab, or a person of a previous Scripture, whether they are Jinns or humans. All of these attributes complement each other and require the existence of the other attributes.

For instance, it is not possible that one believes in the Unseen, performs the prayer and gives Zakah without believing in what the Messenger of Allah and the previous Messengers were sent with.

The same with certainty in the Hereafter, this is not correct without that, for Allah has commanded the believers,

يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ ءَامِنُواْ بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَـبِ الَّذِى نَزَّلَ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَـبِ الَّذِى أَنَزلَ مِن قَبْلُ

O you who believe! Believe in Allah, and His Messenger, and the Book (the Qur’an) which He has revealed to the Messenger, and the Book which He sent own to those before (him). (4:136)

وَلاَ تُجَـدِلُواْ أَهْلَ الْكِتَـبِ إِلاَّ بِالَّتِى هِىَ أَحْسَنُ إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ مِنْهُمْ وَقُولُواْ ءَامَنَّا بِالَّذِى أُنزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَأُنزِلَ إِلَيْكُمْ وَإِلَـهُنَا وَإِلَـهُكُمْ وَاحِدٌ

And argue not with the People of the Book, unless it be in (a way) that is better, except with such of them as do wrong; and say (to them): “We believe in that which has been revealed to us and revealed to you; our Ilah (God) and your Ilah (God) is One (i.e. Allah).” (29:46)

يَـأَيُّهَآ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَـبَ ءَامِنُواْ بِمَا نَزَّلْنَا مُصَدِّقاً لِّمَا مَعَكُمْ

O you who have been given the Book (Jews and Christians)! Believe in what We have revealed (to Muhammad) confirming what is (already) with you. (4:47)

and,

قُلْ يَـأَهْلَ الْكِتَـبِ لَسْتُمْ عَلَى شَىْءٍ حَتَّى تُقِيمُواْ التَّوْرَاةَ وَالإِنجِيلَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكُمْ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ

Say (O Muhammad): “O People of the Book (Jews and Christians)! You have nothing until you act according to the Tawrah (Torah), the Injil (Gospel), and what has (now) been revealed to you from your Lord (the Qur’an).” (5:68)

Also, Allah the Exalted described the believers;

ءَامَنَ الرَّسُولُ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مِن رَّبِّهِ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ كُلٌّ ءَامَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَمَلَـئِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ لاَ نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّن رُّسُلِهِ

The Messenger (Muhammad) believes in what has been revealed to him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers. Each one believes in Allah, His Angels, His Books, and His Messengers. (They say,) “We make no distinction between any of His Messengers”. (2: 285)

and,

وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَلَمْ يُفَرِّقُواْ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ

And those who believe in Allah and His Messengers and make no distinction between any of them (Messengers). (4:152)

This is a sample of the Ayat that indicate that the true believers all believe in Allah, His Messengers and His Books.

The faithful among the People of the Book, have a special significance here, since they believe in their Books and in all of the details related to that, so when such people embrace Islam and sincerely believe in the details of the religion, then they will get two rewards. As for the others, they can only believe in the previous religious teachings in a general way. For instance, the Prophet stated,

إِذَا حَدَثَكُمْ أَهْلُ الْكِتَابِ فَلَا تُكَذِّبُوهُمْ وَلَا تُصَدِقُوهُمْ وَلكِنْ قُولُوا: آمَنَّا بِالَّذِي أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَأُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكُم

When the People of the Book narrate to you, neither reject nor affirm what they say. Rather, say, ‘We believe in what was revealed to us and what was revealed to you.’

However, the faith that many Arabs have in the religion of Islam as it was revealed to Muhammad might be more complete, encompassing and firmer than the faith of the People of the Book who embraced Islam. Therefore, if the believers in Islam among the People of the Book gain two rewards, other Muslims who have firmer Islamic faith might gain an equal reward that compares to the two the People of the Book gain (upon embracing Islam). And Allah knows best.

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أُوْلَـئِكَ عَلَى هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ وَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ

2:5 They are on guidance from their Lord, and they are the successful.

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Guidance and Success are awarded to the Believers

Allah said,

أُوْلَـئِكَ …

They are,

refers to those who believe in the Unseen, establish the prayer, spend from what Allah has granted them, believe in what Allah has revealed to the Messenger and the Messengers before him, believe in the Hereafter with certainty, and prepare the necessary requirements for the Hereafter by performing good deeds and avoiding the prohibitions.

Allah then said,

… عَلَى هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ …

on guidance from their Lord,

meaning, they are (following) a light, guidance, and have insight from Allah,

… وَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ ﴿٥﴾

And they are the successful.

meaning, in this world and the Hereafter. They shall have what they seek and be saved from the evil that they tried to avoid. Therefore, they will have rewards, eternal life in Paradise, and safety from the torment that Allah has prepared for His enemies.

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إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ سَوَآءٌ عَلَيْهِمْ ءَأَنذَرْتَهُمْ أَمْ لَمْ تُنذِرْهُمْ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ

2:6 Verily, those who disbelieve, it is the same to them whether you warn them or do not warn them, they will not believe.

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Allah said,

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ سَوَاءٌ عَلَيْهِمْ أَأَنذَرْتَهُمْ أَمْ لَمْ تُنذِرْهُمْ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ ﴿٦﴾

Verily, those who disbelieve, it is the same to them whether you warn them or do not warn them, they will not believe.

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ (Verily, those who disbelieve) meaning,

covered the truth and hid it.

Since Allah has written that they would do so, it does not matter if you (O Muhammad) warn them or not, they would still have disbelieved in what you were sent with.

Similarly, Allah said,

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ حَقَّتْ عَلَيْهِمْ كَلِمَةُ رَبِّكَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ

وَلَوْ جَآءَتْهُمْ كُلُّ ءايَةٍ حَتَّى يَرَوُاْ الْعَذَابَ الاٌّلِيمَ

Truly, those against whom the Word (wrath) of your Lord has been justified, will not believe. Even if every sign should come to them, until they see the painful torment. (10:96-97)

About the rebellious People of the Book, Allah said,

وَلَئِنْ أَتَيْتَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَـبَ بِكُلِّ ءَايَةٍ مَّا تَبِعُواْ قِبْلَتَكَ

And even if you were to bring to the People of the Book (Jews and Christians) all the Ayat, they would not follow your Qiblah (prayer direction). (2:145)

These Ayat indicate that whomever Allah has written to be miserable, they shall never find anyone to guide them to happiness, and whomever Allah directs to misguidance, he shall never find anyone to guide him. So do not pity them – O Muhammad – deliver the Message to them. Certainly, whoever among them accepts the Message, then he shall gain the best rewards.

As for those who turn away in rejection, do not feel sad for them or concerned about them, for فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْكَ الْبَلاَغُ وَعَلَيْنَا الْحِسَابُ (Your duty is only to convey (the Message) and on Us is the reckoning (13:40), and, إِنَّمَا أَنتَ نَذِيرٌ وَاللّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَكِيلٌ (But you are only a warner. And Allah is a Wakil (Disposer of affairs, Trustee, Guardian) over all things), (11:12).

Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said about Allah’s statement, إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ سَوَاءٌ عَلَيْهِمْ أَأَنذَرْتَهُمْ أَمْ لَمْ تُنذِرْهُمْ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ (Verily, those who disbelieve, it is the same to them whether you (O Muhammad) warn them or do not warn them, they will not believe),

“That the Messenger of Allah was eager for all the people to believe and follow the guidance he was sent with. Allah informed him that none would believe except for those whom He decreed happiness for in the first place, and none would stray except those who Allah has decreed to do so in the first place.”

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خَتَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ وَعَلَى سَمْعِهِمْ وَعَلَى أَبْصَـرِهِمْ غِشَـوَةٌ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عظِيمٌ

2:7 Allah has set a seal on their hearts and on their hearing, and on their eyes there is a covering. Theirs will be a great torment.

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Meaning of Khatama

Allah said,

خَتَمَ اللّهُ عَلَى قُلُوبِهمْ وَعَلَى سَمْعِهِمْ وَعَلَى أَبْصَارِهِمْ غِشَاوَةٌ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عظِيمٌ ﴿٧﴾

Allah has set a seal on their hearts and on their hearing, and on their eyes there is a covering. Theirs will be a great torment.

As-Suddi said that, خَتَمَ اللّهُ (Khatama Allah) means,

“Allah has sealed.”

Qatadah said that this Ayah means,

“Shaytan controlled them when they obeyed him. Therefore, Allah sealed their hearts, hearing and sight, and they could neither see the guidance nor hear, comprehend or understand.”

Ibn Jurayj said that Mujahid said, خَتَمَ اللّهُ عَلَى قُلُوبِهمْ (Allah has set a seal on their hearts),

“A stamp. It occurs when sin resides in the heart and surrounds it from all sides, and this submersion of the heart in sin constitutes a stamp, meaning a seal.”

Ibn Jurayj also said that the seal is placed on the heart and the hearing.

In addition, Ibn Jurayj said, that Abdullah bin Kathir narrated that Mujahid said,

“The stain is not as bad as the stamp, the stamp is not as bad as the lock which is the worst type.”

Al-Amash said,

“Mujahid demonstrated with his hand while saying, They used to say that the heart is just like this – meaning the open palm. When the servant commits a sin, a part of the heart will be rolled up – and he rolled up his index finger. When the servant commits another sin, a part of the heart will be rolled up’ – and he rolled up another finger, until he rolled up all of his fingers. Then he said,Then, the heart will be sealed.’

Mujahid also said that this is the description of the Ran (refer to 83:14).”

Al-Qurtubi said,

“The Ummah has agreed that Allah has described Himself with sealing and closing the hearts of the disbelievers, as a punishment for their disbelief.

Similarly, Allah said, بَلْ طَبَعَ اللّهُ عَلَيْهَا بِكُفْرِهِمْ (Nay, Allah has set a seal upon their hearts because of their disbelief), (4:155).”

He then mentioned the Hadith about changing the hearts, (in which the Prophet supplicated),

يَا مُقَلِبَ الْقُلُوبِ ثَبِّتْ قُلُوبَنَا عَلى دِينِك

O You Who changes the hearts, make our hearts firm on Your religion.

He also mentioned the Hadith by Hudhayfah recorded in the Sahih, in which the Messenger of Allah said,

تُعْرَضُ الْفِتَنُ عَلَى الْقُلُوبِ كَالْحَصِيرِ عُودًا عُودًا، فَأَيُّ قَلْبٍ أُشْرِبَهَا نُكِتَ فِيه نُكْتَةٌ سَوْدَاءُ وَأَيُّ قَلْبٍ أَنْكَرَهَا نُكِتَ فِيهِ نُكْتَةٌ بَيْضَاءُ حَتى تَصِيرَ عَلَى قَلْبَيْنِ: عَلى أَبْيَضَ مِثْلِ الصَّفَا، فَلَا تَضُرُّهُ فِتْنَةٌ مَا دَامَتِ السَّمَوَاتُ وَالْأَرْضُ وَالْآخَرُ أَسْوَدُ مُرْبَادًّا كَالْكُوزِ مُجَخِّيًا لَا يَعْرِفُ مَعْرُوفًا وَلَا يُنْكِرُ مُنْكَرًا

The Fitan (trials, tests) are offered to the hearts, just as the straws that are sewn into a woven mat, one after another. Any heart that accepts the Fitan, then a black dot will be engraved on it. Any heart that rejects the Fitan, then a white dot will be engraved on it. The hearts will therefore become two categories: white, just like the barren rock; no Fitnah shall ever harm this category as long as the heavens and earth still exist. Another category is black, just as the cup that is turned upside down, for this heart does not recognize righteousness or renounce evil.

Ibn Jarir said,

“The truth regarding this subject is what the authentic Hadith from the Messenger of Allah stated. Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger of Allah said,

إِنَّ الْمُؤمِنَ إِذَا أَذْنَبَ ذَنْبًا كَانَتْ نُكْتَةً سَوْدَاءَ فِي قَلْبِهِ، فَإِنْ تَابَ وَنَزَعَ وَاسْتَعْتَبَ صَقِلَ قَلْبُهُ وَإِنْ زَادَ زَادَتْ حَتَّى تَعْلُوَ قَلْبَهُ، فَذلِكَ الرَّانُ الَّذِي قَالَ اللهُ تَعَالى:

When the believer commits a sin, a black dot will be engraved on his heart. If he repents, refrains and regrets, his heart will be polished again. If he commits more errors, the dots will increase until they cover his heart. This is the Ran (stain) that Allah described,

كَلاَّ بَلْ رَانَ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ مَّا كَانُواْ يَكْسِبُونَ

Nay! But on their hearts is the Ran (stain) which they used to earn.” (83:14)

At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah recorded this Hadith, and At-Tirmidhi said that it is Hasan Sahih.

The Meaning of Ghishawah

Reciting the Ayah, خَتَمَ اللّهُ عَلَى قُلُوبِهمْ وَعَلَى سَمْعِهِمْ (Allah has set a seal on their hearts and on their hearing), then pausing, then continuing with, وَعَلَى أَبْصَارِهِمْ غِشَاوَةٌ (And on their eyes there is a Ghishawah (covering)) is accurate, for the stamp is placed on the heart and the hearing while the Ghishawah, the covering, is appropriately placed on the eyes.

In his Tafsir, As-Suddi said that Ibn Abbas and Ibn Mas`ud said about Allah’s statement, خَتَمَ اللّهُ عَلَى قُلُوبِهمْ وَعَلَى سَمْعِهِمْ (Allah has set a seal on their hearts and on their hearing),

“So that they neither understand nor hear.

Allah also said that He placed a covering on their sight, meaning eyes, and so, they do not see.”

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وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ ءَامَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَبِالْيَوْمِ الأْخِرِ وَمَا هُم بِمُؤْمِنِينَ

2:8 And of mankind, there are some who say: “We believe in Allah and the Last Day” while in fact they do not believe.

يُخَـدِعُونَ اللَّهَ وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا وَمَا يَخْدَعُونَ إلاَّ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ

2:9 They try to deceive Allah and those who believe, while they only deceive themselves, and perceive (it) not!

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The Hypocrites

We mentioned that four Ayat in the beginning of Surah Al-Baqarah described the believers. The two last Ayat (2:6-7) describe the disbelievers.

Afterwards, Allah begins to describe the hypocrites who show belief and hide disbelief. Since the matter of the hypocrites is vague and many people do not realize their true reality, Allah mentioned their description in detail. Each of the characteristics that Allah used to described them with is a type of hypocrisy itself. Allah revealed Surah Bara’h and Surah Al-Munafiqun about the hypocrites. He also mentioned the hypocrites in Surah An-Nur and other Surahs, so that their description would be known and their ways and errors could be avoided.

Allah said,

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ آمَنَّا بِاللّهِ وَبِالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَمَا هُم بِمُؤْمِنِينَ ﴿٨﴾

يُخَادِعُونَ اللّهَ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَمَا يَخْدَعُونَ إِلاَّ أَنفُسَهُم وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ ﴿٩﴾

And of mankind, there are some who say: “We believe in Allah and the Last Day” while in fact they do not believe. They try to deceive Allah and those who believe, while they only deceive themselves, and perceive (it) not!

Meaning of Nifaq

Nifaq means to show conformity – or agreement – and to conceal evil. Nifaq has several types:

Nifaq in the creed that causes its people to reside in Hell for eternity, and

Nifaq in deed, which is one of the major sins, as we will explain soon, Allah willing.

Ibn Jurayj said of the hypocrite that,

“His actual deeds are different from what he publicizes, what he conceals is different from what he utters, his entrance and presence are not the same as his exit and absence.”

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The Beginning of Hypocrisy

The revelations about the characteristics of the hypocrites were revealed in Al-Madinah, this is because there were no hypocrites in Makkah. Rather the opposite was the situation in Makkah, since some people were forced to pretend that they were disbelievers, while their hearts concealed their faith. Afterwards, the Messenger of Allah migrated to Al-Madinah, where the Ansar from the tribes of Aws and Khazraj resided. They used to worship idols during the pre-Islamic period of ignorance, just as the rest of the Arab idolators. Three Jewish tribes resided in Al-Madinah, Banu Qaynuqa-allies of Al-Khazraj, Banu An-Nadir and Banu Qurayzah-allies of the Aws. Many members of the Aws and Khazraj tribes embraced Islam. However, only a few Jews embraced Islam, such as Abdullah bin Salam.

During the early stage in Al-Madinah, there weren’t any hypocrites because the Muslims were not strong enough to be feared yet. On the contrary, the Messenger of Allah conducted peace treaties with the Jews and several other Arab tribes around Al-Madinah. Soon after, the battle of Badr occurred and Allah gave victory to Islam and its people.

Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul was a leader in Al-Madinah. He was Al-Khazraj’s chief, and during the period of Jahiliyyah he was the master of both tribes – Aws and Khazraj. They were about to appoint him their king when the Message reached Al-Madinah, and many in Al-Madinah embraced Islam.

Ibn Salul’s heart was filled with hatred against Islam and its people. When the battle of Badr took place, he said, “Allah’s religion has become apparent.” So he pretended to be Muslim, along with many of those who were just like him, as well as many among the People of the Book.

It was then that hypocrisy began in Al-Madinah and among the surrounding nomad tribes. As for the Emigrants, none of them were hypocrites, since they emigrated willingly (seeking the pleasure of Allah). Rather, when a Muslim would emigrate from Makkah, he would be forced to abandon all of his wealth, offspring and land; he would do so seeking Allah’s reward in the Hereafter.

The Tafsir of Ayah 2:8

Allah said,

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ آمَنَّا بِاللّهِ وَبِالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَمَا هُم بِمُؤْمِنِينَ

And of mankind, there are some who say: “We believe in Allah and the Last Day” while in fact they do not believe.

Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated that Ibn Abbas said that,

“This refers to the hypocrites among the Aws and Khazraj and those who behaved as they did.”

This is how Abu Al-Aliyah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and As-Suddi explained this Ayah.

Allah revealed the characteristics of the hypocrites, so that the believers would not be deceived by their outer appearance, thus saving the believers from a great evil. Otherwise, the believers might think that the hypocrites were believers, when in reality they are disbelievers. To consider the sinners as righteous people is extremely dangerous, Allah said, وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ آمَنَّا بِاللّهِ وَبِالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَمَا هُم بِمُؤْمِنِينَ (And of mankind, there are some who say: “We believe in Allah and the Last Day” while in fact they do not believe) meaning, they utter these false statements only with their tongues, just as Allah said,

إِذَا جَآءَكَ الْمُنَـفِقُونَ قَالُواْ نَشْهَدُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُهُ

When the hypocrites come to you (O Muhammad), they say: “We bear witness that you are indeed the Messenger of Allah.” Allah knows that you are indeed His Messenger. (63:1)

This Ayah means that;

the hypocrites utter these statements only when they meet you, not because they actually believe what they are saying. The hypocrites emphasize their belief in Allah and the Last Day with their words, when that is not the case in reality. Therefore, Allah stated that the hypocrites lie in their testimony of creed, when He said, وَاللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ لَكَاذِبُونَ (And Allah bears witness that the hypocrites are indeed liars), (63:1), and, وَمَا هُم بِمُؤْمِنِينَ (while in fact they believe not).

Allah said, يُخَادِعُونَ اللّهَ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا (They try to deceive Allah and those who believe).

The hypocrites show belief outwardly while concealing disbelief. They think that by doing this, they will mislead Allah, or that the statements they utter will help them with Allah, and this is an indication of their total ignorance. They think that such behavior will deceive Allah, just as it might deceive some of the believers.

Similarly, Allah said,

يَوْمَ يَبْعَثُهُمُ اللَّهِ جَمِيعاً فَيَحْلِفُونَ لَهُ كَمَا يَحْلِفُونَ لَكُمْ وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ عَلَى شَىْءٍ أَلاَ إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ الْكَـذِبُونَ

On the Day when Allah will resurrect them all together; then they will swear to Him as they swear to you. And they think that they have something (to stand upon). Verily, they are liars! (58:18)

Hence, Allah refuted their way by saying,

وَمَا يَخْدَعُونَ إِلاَّ أَنفُسَهُم وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ

While they only deceive themselves, and perceive (it) not!

Allah stated that the hypocrites only deceive themselves by this behavior, although they are unaware of this fact.

Allah also said,

إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ يُخَادِعُونَ اللّهَ وَهُوَ خَادِعُهُمْ

Verily, the hypocrites try to deceive Allah, but it is He Who deceives them. (4:142)

Also, Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Ibn Jurayj commented on Allah’s statement,

“The hypocrites pronounce, `There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah’ seeking to ensure the sanctity of their blood and money, all the while concealing disbelief.”

Allah’s statement;

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ آمَنَّا بِاللّهِ وَبِالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَمَا هُم بِمُؤْمِنِينَ

يُخَادِعُونَ اللّهَ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَمَا يَخْدَعُونَ إِلاَّ أَنفُسَهُم وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ

And of mankind, there are some who say: “We believe in Allah and the Last Day” while in fact they believe not. They try to deceive Allah and those who believe, while they only deceive themselves, and perceive (it) not!

Sa`id said that Qatadah commented,

“This is the description of a hypocrite. He is devious; he says the truth with his tongue and defies it with his heart and deeds. He wakes up in a condition other than the one he goes to sleep in, and goes to sleep in a different condition than the one he wakes up in. He changes his mind just like a ship that moves about whenever a wind blows.”

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فِى قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ فَزَادَهُمُ اللَّهُ مَرَضًا وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَكْذِبُونَ

2:10 In their hearts is a disease and Allah has increased their disease. A painful torment is theirs because they used to tell lies.

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The Meaning of `Disease’ in this Ayah

Allah said,

فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ فَزَادَهُمُ اللّهُ مَرَضاً وَلَهُم عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ …

In their hearts is a disease and Allah has increased their disease. A painful torment is theirs,

because they used to tell lies.

As-Suddi narrated from Abu Malik and (also) from Abu Salih, from Ibn Abbas, and (also) Murrah Al-Hamdani from Ibn Mas`ud and other Companions that this Ayah, فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ (In their hearts is a disease),

means, `doubt’,

and,

فَزَادَهُمُ اللّهُ مَرَضاً (And Allah has increased their disease) also means `doubt’.

Mujahid, Ikrimah, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Abu Al-Aliyah, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and Qatadah also said similarly.

Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam commented on, فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ (In their hearts is a disease),

“A disease in the religion, not a physical disease. They are the hypocrites and the disease is the doubt that they brought to Islam.

فَزَادَهُمُ اللّهُ مَرَضاً (And Allah has increased their disease) meaning, increased them in shameful behavior.”

He also recited,

فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ ءامَنُواْ فَزَادَتْهُمْ إِيمَـناً وَهُمْ يَسْتَبْشِرُونَ

وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ فِى قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ فَزَادَتْهُمْ رِجْسًا إِلَى رِجْسِهِمْ

As for those who believe, it has increased their faith, and they rejoice. But as for those in whose hearts is a disease, it will add disgrace to their disgrace. (9:124-125)

and commented,

“Evil to their evil and deviation to their deviation.”

This statement by Abdur-Rahman is true, and it constitutes a punishment that is compatible to the sin, just as the earlier scholars stated.

Similarly, Allah said,

وَالَّذِينَ اهْتَدَوْاْ زَادَهُمْ هُدًى وَءَاتَـهُمْ تَقُوَاهُمْ

While as for those who accept guidance, He increases their guidance and grants them their piety. (47:17)

Allah said next,

… بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْذِبُونَ ﴿١٠﴾

Because they used to tell lies.

The hypocrites have two characteristics, they lie and they deny the Unseen.

The scholars who stated that the Prophet knew the hypocrites of his time have only the Hadith of Hudhayfah bin Al-Yaman as evidence. In it the Prophet gave him the names of fourteen hypocrites during the battle of Tabuk. These hypocrites plotted to assassinate the Prophet during the night on a hill in that area. They planned to excite the Prophet’s camel, so that she would throw him down the hill. Allah informed the Prophet about their plot, and the Prophet told Hudhayfah their names.

As for the other hypocrites, Allah said about them,

وَمِمَّنْ حَوْلَكُم مِّنَ الاٌّعْرَابِ مُنَـفِقُونَ وَمِنْ أَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ مَرَدُواْ عَلَى النَّفَاقِ لاَ تَعْلَمُهُمْ نَحْنُ نَعْلَمُهُمْ

And among the Bedouins around you, some are hypocrites, and so are some among the people of Al-Madinah who persist in hypocrisy; you (O Muhammad) know them not, We know them. (9:101)

and,

لَّئِن لَّمْ يَنتَهِ الْمُنَـفِقُونَ وَالَّذِينَ فِى قُلُوبِهِمْ مَّرَضٌ وَالْمُرْجِفُونَ فِى الْمَدِينَةِ لَنُغْرِيَنَّكَ بِهِمْ ثُمَّ لاَ يُجَاوِرُونَكَ فِيهَآ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً

مَّلْعُونِينَ أَيْنَمَا ثُقِفُواْ أُخِذُواْ وَقُتِّلُواْ تَقْتِيلاً

If the hypocrites, and those in whose hearts is a disease, and those who spread false news among the people in Al-Madinah do not cease, We shall certainly let you overpower them, then they will not be able to stay in it as your neighbors but a little while. Accursed, they shall be seized wherever found, and killed with a (terrible) slaughter. (33:60-61)

These Ayat prove that the Prophet was not informed about each and everyone among the hypocrites of his time. Rather, the Prophet was only informed about their characteristics, and he used to assume that some people possessed these characteristics.

Similarly, Allah said,

وَلَوْ نَشَآءُ لأَرَيْنَـكَهُمْ فَلَعَرَفْتَهُم بِسِيمَـهُمْ وَلَتَعْرِفَنَّهُمْ فِى لَحْنِ الْقَوْلِ

Had We willed, We could have shown them to you, and you should have known them by their marks; but surely, you will know them by the tone of their speech! (47:30)

The most notorious hypocrite at that time was Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul; Zayd bin Arqam – the Companion – gave truthful testimony to that effect.

In addition, Umar bin Al-Khattab once mentioned the matter of Ibn Salul to the Prophet, who said,

إِنِّي أَكْرَهُ أَنْ تَتَحَدَّثَ الْعَرَبُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا يَقْتُلُ أَصْحَابَه

I would not like the Arabs to say to each other that Muhammad is killing his Companions.

Yet, when Ibn Salul died, the Prophet performed the funeral prayer for him and attended his funeral just as he used to do with other Muslims. It was recorded in the Sahih that the Prophet said,

إِنِّي خُيِّرْتُ فَاخْتَرْت

I was given the choice (to pray for him or not), so I chose.

In another narration, the Prophet said,

لَوْ أَعْلَمُ أَنِّي لَوْ زِدْتُ عَلَى السَّبْعِينَ يُغْفَرُ لَهُ لَزِدْت

If I knew that by asking (Allah to forgive Ibn Salul) more than seventy times that He would forgive him, then I would do that.

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وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ لاَ تُفْسِدُواْ فِى الأَرْضِ قَالُواْ إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُصْلِحُونَ

2:11 And when it is said to them: “Do not make mischief on the earth,” they say: “We are only peacemakers.”

أَلا إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ الْمُفْسِدُونَ وَلَـكِن لاَّ يَشْعُرُونَ

2:12 Verily, they are the ones who make mischief, but they perceive not.

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Meaning of Mischief

Allah said,

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ لاَ تُفْسِدُواْ فِي الأَرْضِ قَالُواْ إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُصْلِحُونَ ﴿١١﴾

And when it is said to them: “Do not make mischief on the earth,” they say: “We are only peacemakers.”

In his Tafsir, As-Suddi said that Ibn Abbas and Ibn Mas`ud commented,

“They are the hypocrites.

As for, لاَ تُفْسِدُواْ فِي الأَرْضِ (“Do not make mischief on the earth”), that is disbelief and acts of disobedience.”

Abu Jafar said that Ar-Rabi bin Anas said that Abu Al-Aliyah said that Allah’s statement, وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ لاَ تُفْسِدُواْ فِي الأَرْضِ (And when it is said to them: “Do not make mischief on the earth”),

means, “Do not commit acts of disobedience on the earth. Their mischief is disobeying Allah, because whoever disobeys Allah on the earth, or commands that Allah be disobeyed, he has committed mischief on the earth. Peace on both the earth and in the heavens is ensured (and earned) through obedience (to Allah).”

Ar-Rabi bin Anas and Qatadah said similarly.

Types of Mischief that the Hypocrites commit

Ibn Jarir said,

“The hypocrites commit mischief on earth;

by disobeying their Lord on it and continuing in the prohibited acts.

They also abandon what Allah made obligatory and doubt His religion, even though He does not accept a deed from anyone except with faith in His religion and certainty of its truth.

The hypocrites also lie to the believers by saying contrary to the doubt and hesitation their hearts harbor.

They give as much aid as they can, against Allah’s loyal friends, and support those who deny Allah, His Books and His Messengers.

This is how the hypocrites commit mischief on earth, while thinking that they are doing righteous work on earth.”

The statement by Ibn Jarir is true; taking the disbelievers as friends is one of the categories of mischief on the earth.

Allah said,

وَالَّذينَ كَفَرُواْ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَآءُ بَعْضٍ إِلاَّ تَفْعَلُوهُ تَكُنْ فِتْنَةٌ فِى الاٌّرْضِ وَفَسَادٌ كَبِيرٌ

And those who disbelieve are allies of one another, if you do not do this (help each other), there will be turmoil and oppression on the earth, and great mischief. (8:73),

In this way Allah severed the loyalty between the believers and the disbelievers.

Similarly, Allah said,

يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ الْكَـفِرِينَ أَوْلِيَآءَ مِن دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَتُرِيدُونَ أَن تَجْعَلُواْ للَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ سُلْطَاناً مُّبِيناً

O you who believe! Do not take disbelievers as Awliya (protectors or helpers or friends) instead of believers. Do you wish to offer Allah a manifest proof against yourselves. (4: 144)

Allah then said,

إِنَّ الْمُنَـفِقِينَ فِى الدَّرْكِ الاٌّسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ وَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُمْ نَصِيراً

Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depth of the Fire; no helper will you find for them. (4:145)

Since the outward appearance of the hypocrite displays belief, he confuses the true believers. Hence, the deceitful behavior of the hypocrites is an act of mischief, because they deceive the believers by claiming what they do not believe in, and because they give support and loyalty to the disbelievers against the believers.

If the hypocrite remains a disbeliever (rather than pretending to be Muslim), the evil that results from him would be less. Even better, if the hypocrite becomes sincere with Allah and makes the statements that he utters conform to his deeds, he will gain success.

Allah said,

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ لاَ تُفْسِدُواْ فِي الأَرْضِ قَالُواْ إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُصْلِحُونَ

And when it is said to them: “Do not make mischief on the earth,” they say: “We are only peacemakers.”

meaning, “We seek to be friends with both parties, the believers and the disbelievers, and to have peace with both parties.”

Similarly, Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn Abbas commented on Allah’s statement,

means, “We seek to make amends between the believers and the People of the Book.”

Allah said,

أَلا إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ الْمُفْسِدُونَ وَلَـكِن لاَّ يَشْعُرُونَ ﴿١٢﴾

Verily, they are the ones who make mischief, but they perceive not.

This Ayah means that the hypocrites’ behavior, and their claim that it is for peace, is itself mischief, although in their ignorance, they do not see it to be mischief.

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وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ ءَامِنُواْ كَمَآ ءَامَنَ النَّاسُ قَالُواْ أَنُؤْمِنُ كَمَآ آمَنَ السُّفَهَآءُ

2:13 And when it is said to them: Believe as the people believe,” They say: “Shall we believe as the fools have believed!”

أَلاَ إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ السُّفَهَآءُ وَلَـكِن لاَّ يَعْلَمُونَ

Verily, they are the fools, but they do not know.

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Allah tells;

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ …

And when it is said to them:

Allah said that if the hypocrites are told,

… آمِنُواْ كَمَا آمَنَ النَّاسُ …

“Believe as the people believe,”

meaning, `Believe just as the believers believe in Allah, His angels, His Books, His Messengers, Resurrection after death, Paradise and Hellfire, etc. And obey Allah and His Messenger by heeding the commandments and avoiding the prohibitions.’

Yet the hypocrites answer by saying,

… قَالُواْ أَنُؤْمِنُ كَمَا آمَنَ السُّفَهَاء …

“Shall we believe as the fools have believed!”

they meant (may Allah curse the hypocrites) the Companions of the Messenger of Allah.

This is the same Tafsir given by Abu Al-Aliyah and As-Suddi in his Tafsir, with a chain of narration to Ibn Abbas, Ibn Mas`ud and other Companions.

This is also the Tafsir of Ar-Rabi bin Anas and Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam.

The hypocrites said,

“Us and them having the same status, following the same path, while they are fools!”

`The fool’ is the ignorant, simple-minded person who has little knowledge in areas of benefit and harm. This is why, according to the majority of the scholars, Allah used the term foolish to include children, when He said,

وَلاَ تُؤْتُواْ السُّفَهَآءَ أَمْوَلَكُمُ الَّتِى جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ قِيَـماً

And do not give your property, which Allah has made a means of support for you, to the foolish. (4:5)

Allah answered the hypocrites in all of these instances. For instance, Allah said here,

… أَلا إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ السُّفَهَاء …

Verily, they are the fools.

Allah thus affirmed that the hypocrites are indeed the fools.

yet,

… وَلَـكِن لاَّ يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿١٣﴾

But they know not.

Since they are so thoroughly ignorant, the hypocrites are unaware of their degree of deviation and ignorance, and such situation is more dangerous, a severer case of blindness, and further from the truth than one who is aware.

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وَإِذَا لَقُواْ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ قَالُوا ءَامَنَّا وَإِذَا خَلَوْاْ إِلَى شَيَـطِينِهِمْ قَالُواْ إِنَّا مَعَكُمْ إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُسْتَهْزِءُونَ

2:14 And when they meet those who believe, they say: “We believe,” but when they are alone with their Shayatin (devils), they say: “Truly, we are with you; verily, we were but mocking.”

اللَّهُ يَسْتَهْزِىءُ بِهِمْ وَيَمُدُّهُمْ فِي طُغْيَـنِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ

2:15 Allah mocks at them and leaves them increasing in their deviation to wander blindly.

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The Hypocrites’ Cunning and Deceit

Allah said,

وَإِذَا لَقُواْ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ قَالُواْ آمَنَّا …

And when they meet those who believe, they say: “We believe,”

Allah said that when the hypocrites meet the believers, they proclaim their faith and pretend to be believers, loyalists and friends. They do this to misdirect, mislead and deceive the believers. The hypocrites also want to have a share of the benefits and gains that the believers might possibly acquire.

Yet,

… وَإِذَا خَلَوْاْ إِلَى شَيَاطِينِهِمْ …

But when they are alone with their Shayatin,

meaning, if they are alone with their devils, such as their leaders and masters among the rabbis of the Jews, hypocrites and idolators.

Human and Jinn Devils

Ibn Jarir said,

“The devils of every creation are the mischievous among them. There are both human devils and Jinn devils.

Allah said,

وَكَذَلِكَ جَعَلْنَا لِكُلِّ نِبِىٍّ عَدُوّاً شَيَـطِينَ الإِنْسِ وَالْجِنِّ يُوحِى بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَى بَعْضٍ زُخْرُفَ الْقَوْلِ غُرُوراً

And so We have appointed for every Prophet enemies ـ Shayatin (devils) among mankind and Jinn, inspiring one another with adorned speech as a delusion (or by way of deception). (6:112)

The Meaning of `Mocking

Allah said,

… قَالُواْ إِنَّا مَعَكْمْ …

They say: “Truly, we are with you”.

Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn Abbas said that the Ayah means,

“We are with you, إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُسْتَهْزِؤُونَ (Verily, we were but mocking), meaning, we only mock people (the believers) and deceive them.”

… إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُسْتَهْزِؤُونَ ﴿١٤﴾

Verily, we were but mocking,

Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn Abbas said that the Ayah, means,

“We (meaning the hypocrites) were mocking the Companions of Muhammad.”

Also, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Qatadah said similarly.

Allah’s statement,

اللّهُ يَسْتَهْزِىءُ بِهِمْ وَيَمُدُّهُمْ فِي طُغْيَانِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ ﴿١٥﴾

Allah mocks at them and leaves them increasing in their deviation to wander blindly.

answers the hypocrites and punishes them for their behavior.

Ibn Jarir commented,

“Allah mentioned what He will do to them on the Day of Resurrection, when He said,

يَوْمَ يَقُولُ الْمُنَـفِقُونَ وَالْمُنَـفِقَـتُ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ انظُرُونَا نَقْتَبِسْ مِن نُّورِكُمْ قِيلَ ارْجِعُواْ وَرَآءَكُمْ فَالْتَمِسُواْ نُوراً فَضُرِبَ بَيْنَهُم بِسُورٍ لَّهُ بَابٌ بَاطِنُهُ فِيهِ الرَّحْمَةُ وَظَـهِرُهُ مِن قِبَلِهِ الْعَذَابُ

On the Day when the hypocrites ـ men and women ـ will say to the believers: “Wait for us! Let us get something from your light!” It will be said: “Go back to your rear! Then seek a light!” So a wall will be put up between them, with a gate therein. Inside it will be mercy, and outside it will be torment.) (57:13)

and,

وَلاَ يَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ أَنَّمَا نُمْلِى لَهُمْ خَيْرٌ لاًّنفُسِهِمْ إِنَّمَا نُمْلِى لَهُمْ لِيَزْدَادُواْ إِثْمَاً

And let not the disbelievers think that Our postponing of their punishment is good for them. We postpone the punishment only so that they may increase in sinfulness.” (3:178)

He then said,

“This, and its like, is Allah’s mockery of the hypocrites and the people of Shirk.”

The Hypocrites suffering for their Plots

Allah stated that He will punish the hypocrites for their mockery, using the same terms to describe both the deed and its punishment, although the meaning is different.

Similarly, Allah said,

وَجَزَآءُ سَيِّئَةٍ سَيِّئَةٌ مِّثْلُهَا فَمَنْ عَفَا وَأَصْلَحَ فَأَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللَّهِ

The recompense for an offense is an offense equal to it; but whoever forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is with Allah. (42:40)

and,

فَمَنِ اعْتَدَى عَلَيْكُمْ فَاعْتَدُواْ عَلَيْهِ

Then whoever transgresses (the prohibition) against you, transgress likewise against him. (2:194)

The first act is an act of injustice, while the second act is an act of justice. So both actions carry the same name, while being different in reality.

This is how the scholars explain deceit, cunning and mocking when attributed to Allah in the Qur’an.

Surely, Allah exacts revenge for certain evil acts with a punishment that is similar in nature to the act itself. We should affirm here that Allah does not do these things out of joyful play, according to the consensus of the scholars, but as a just form of punishment for certain evil acts.

Meaning of `Leaves them increasing in their deviation to wander blindly

Allah said,

… وَيَمُدُّهُمْ فِي طُغْيَانِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ

…and leaves them increasing in their deviation to wander blindly.

As-Suddi reported that Ibn Abbas, Ibn Mas`ud and several other Companions of the Messenger of Allah said that, وَيَمُدُّهُمْ (and leaves them increasing) means,

He gives them respite.

Also, Mujahid said,

“He (causes their deviation) to increase.”

Allah said;

أَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّمَا نُمِدُّهُمْ بِهِ مِن مَّالٍ وَبَنِينَ

نُسَارِعُ لَهُمْ فِى الْخَيْرَتِ بَل لاَّ يَشْعُرُونَ

Do they think that by the wealth and the children with which We augment them. (That) We hasten to give them with good things. Nay, but they perceive not. (23:55-56)

Ibn Jarir commented,

“The correct meaning of this Ayah is `We give them increase from the view of giving them respite and leaving them in their deviation and rebellion.’

Similarly, Allah said,

وَنُقَلِّبُ أَفْئِدَتَهُمْ وَأَبْصَـرَهُمْ كَمَا لَمْ يُؤْمِنُواْ بِهِ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَنَذَرُهُمْ فِى طُغْيَانِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ

And We shall turn their hearts and their eyes away (from guidance), as they refused to believe in it the first time, and We shall leave them in their trespass to wander blindly.” (6:110)

Tughyan used in this Ayah means to transgress the limits, just as Allah said in another Ayah,

إِنَّا لَمَّا طَغَا الْمَآءُ حَمَلْنَـكُمْ فِى الْجَارِيَةِ

Verily, when the water Tagha (rose) beyond its limits, We carried you in the ship. (69:11)

Also, Ibn Jarir said that;

the term Amah, in the Ayah means,deviation’.

He also said about Allah’s statement, فِي طُغْيَانِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ (in their deviation to wander),

“In the misguidance and disbelief that has encompassed them, causing them to be confused and unable to find a way out of it. This is because Allah has stamped their hearts, sealed them, and blinded their vision. Therefore, they do not recognize guidance or find the way out of their deviation.”

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أُوْلَـئِكَ الَّذِينَ اشْتَرَوُاْ الضَّلَـلَةَ بِالْهُدَى فَمَا رَبِحَت تِّجَـرَتُهُمْ وَمَا كَانُواْ مُهْتَدِينَ

2:16 These are they who have purchased error with guidance, so their commerce was profitless. And they were not guided.

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Next 17-18

Allah said,

أُوْلَـئِكَ الَّذِينَ اشْتَرُوُاْ الضَّلاَلَةَ بِالْهُدَى …

These are they who have purchased error with guidance,

In his Tafsir, As-Suddi reported that Ibn Abbas and Ibn Mas`ud commented saying it means,

“They pursued misguidance and abandoned guidance.”

Mujahid said,

“They believed and then disbelieved,”

while Qatadah said,

“They preferred deviation to guidance.”

This statement is similar in meaning to Allah’s statement about Thamud,

وَأَمَّا ثَمُودُ فَهَدَيْنَـهُمْ فَاسْتَحَبُّواْ الْعَمَى عَلَى الْهُدَى

And as for Thamud, We granted them guidance, but they preferred blindness to guidance. (41:17)

In summary, the statements that we have mentioned from the scholars of Tafsir indicate that the hypocrites deviate from the true guidance and prefer misguidance, substituting wickedness in place of righteousness. This meaning explains Allah’s statement, أُوْلَـئِكَ الَّذِينَ اشْتَرُوُاْ الضَّلاَلَةَ بِالْهُدَى (These are they who have purchased error with guidance),

meaning, they exchanged guidance to buy misguidance. This meaning includes those who first believed, then later disbelieved, whom Allah described,

ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ ءَامَنُواّ ثُمَّ كَفَرُوا فَطُبِعَ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ

That is because they believed, and then disbelieved; therefore their hearts are sealed. (63:3)

The Ayah also includes those who preferred deviation over guidance. The hypocrites fall into several categories.

This is why Allah said,

… فَمَا رَبِحَت تِّجَارَتُهُمْ وَمَا كَانُواْ مُهْتَدِينَ ﴿١٦﴾

So their commerce was profitless. And they were not guided,

meaning their trade did not succeed nor were they righteous or rightly guided throughout all this.

In addition, Ibn Jarir narrated that Qatadah commented on the Ayah,

“By Allah! I have seen them leaving guidance for deviation, leaving the Jama`ah (the community of the believers) for the sects, leaving safety for fear, and the Sunnah for innovation.”

Ibn Abi Hatim also reported other similar statements.

Previous 16

مَثَلُهُمْ كَمَثَلِ الَّذِى اسْتَوْقَدَ نَاراً فَلَمَّآ أَضَاءَتْ مَا حَوْلَهُ ذَهَبَ اللَّهُ بِنُورِهِمْ وَتَرَكَهُمْ فِي ظُلُمَـتٍ لاَّ يُبْصِرُونَ

2:17 Their likeness is as the likeness of one who kindled a fire; then, when it illuminated all around him, Allah removed their light and left them in darkness. (So) they could not see.

صُمٌّ بُكْمٌ عُمْىٌ فَهُمْ لاَ يَرْجِعُونَ

2:18 They are deaf, dumb, and blind, so they return not (to the right path).

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The Example of the Hypocrites

Allah says,

مَثَلُهُمْ كَمَثَلِ الَّذِي اسْتَوْقَدَ نَاراً فَلَمَّا أَضَاءتْ مَا حَوْلَهُ …

Their likeness is as the likeness of one who kindled a fire; then, when it illuminated all around him,

Allah likened the hypocrites when they bought deviation with guidance, thus acquiring utter blindness, to the example of a person who started a fire. When the fire was lit, and illuminated the surrounding area, the person benefited from it and felt safe. Then the fire was suddenly extinguished. Therefore, total darkness covered this person, and he became unable to see anything or find his way out of it.

Further, this person could not hear or speak and became so blind that even if there were light, he would not be able to see. This is why he cannot return to the state that he was in before this happened to him. Such is the case with the hypocrites who preferred misguidance over guidance, deviation over righteousness. This parable indicates that the hypocrites first believed, then disbelieved, just as Allah stated in other parts of the Qur’an.

Allah’s statement,

… ذَهَبَ اللّهُ بِنُورِهِمْ …

Allah removed their light,

means, Allah removed what benefits them, and this is the light, and He left them with what harms them, that is, the darkness and smoke.

Allah said,

… وَتَرَكَهُمْ فِي ظُلُمَاتٍ …

And left them in darkness,

that is their doubts, disbelief and hypocrisy.

… لاَّ يُبْصِرُونَ ﴿١٧﴾

(So) they could not see.

meaning, they are unable to find the correct path or find its direction.

In addition, they are,

صُمٌّ بُكْمٌ عُمْيٌ فَهُمْ لاَ يَرْجِعُونَ ﴿١٨﴾

They are deaf, dumb, and blind, so they return not (to the right path).

صُمٌّ (deaf),

and thus cannot hear the guidance.

بُكْمٌ (dumb),

and cannot utter the words that might benefit them.

عُمْيٌ (and blind),

in total darkness and deviation.

Similarly, Allah said,

فَإِنَّهَا لاَ تَعْمَى الاٌّبْصَـرُ وَلَـكِن تَعْمَى الْقُلُوبُ الَّتِى فِى الصُّدُورِ

Verily, it is not the eyes that grow blind, but it is the hearts which are in the breasts that grow blind. (22:46),

and this why they cannot get back to the state of guidance that they were in, since they sold it for misguidance.

Previous 17-18

أَوْ كَصَيِّبٍ مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ فِيهِ ظُلُمَـتٌ وَرَعْدٌ وَبَرْقٌ

2:19 Or like a rainstorm in the sky, bringing darkness, thunder, and lightning.

يَجْعَلُونَ أَصْـبِعَهُمْ فِى ءَاذَانِهِم مِّنَ الصَّوَعِقِ حَذَرَ الْمَوْتِ وَاللَّهُ مُحِيطٌ بِالْكـفِرِينَ

They thrust their fingers in their ears to keep out the stunning thunderclap for fear of death. But Allah ever encompasses the disbelievers.

يَكَادُ الْبَرْقُ يَخْطَفُ أَبْصَـرَهُمْ كُلَّمَآ أَضَآءَ لَهُم مَّشَوْاْ فِيهِ وَإِذَآ أَظْلَمَ عَلَيْهِمْ قَامُواْ

2:20 The lightning almost snatches away their sight, whenever it flashes for them, they walk therein, and when darkness covers them, they stand still.

وَلَوْ شَآءَ اللَّهُ لَذَهَبَ بِسَمْعِهِمْ وَأَبْصَـرِهِمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

And if Allah willed, He could have taken away their hearing and their sight. Certainly, Allah has power over all things.

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Next 21-22

Another Parable of the Hypocrites

Allah says,

أَوْ كَصَيِّبٍ مِّنَ السَّمَاء فِيهِ ظُلُمَاتٌ وَرَعْدٌ وَبَرْقٌ …

Or like a rainstorm in the sky, bringing darkness, thunder, and lightning.

This is another parable which Allah gave about the hypocrites who sometimes know the truth and doubt it at other times. When they suffer from doubt, confusion and disbelief, their hearts are, كَصَيِّبٍ (Like a Sayyib), meaning,

“The rain”,

as Ibn Masud, Ibn Abbas, and several other Companions have confirmed as well as Abu Al-Aliyah, Mujahid, Said bin Jubayr, Ata, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Qatadah, Atiyah Al-Awfi, Ata Al-Khurasani, As-Suddi and Ar-Rabi bin Anas.

Ad-Dahhak said

“It is the clouds.”

However, the most accepted opinion is that;

it means the rain that comes down during, ظُلُمَاتٌ (darkness),

meaning, here, the doubts, disbelief and hypocrisy.

وَرَعْدٌ (thunder), that shocks the hearts with fear.

The hypocrites are usually full of fear and anxiety, just as Allah described them,

يَحْسَبُونَ كُلَّ صَيْحَةٍ عَلَيْهِمْ

They think that every cry is against them. (63: 4)

and,

وَيَحْلِفُونَ بِاللَّهِ إِنَّهُمْ لَمِنكُمْ وَمَا هُم مِّنكُمْ وَلَـكِنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ يَفْرَقُونَ

لَوْ يَجِدُونَ مَلْجَئاً أَوْ مَغَـرَاتٍ أَوْ مُدَّخَلاً لَّوَلَّوْاْ إِلَيْهِ وَهُمْ يَجْمَحُونَ

They swear by Allah that they are truly of you while they are not of you, but they are a people who are afraid. Should they find refuge, or caves, or a place of concealment, they would turn straightway thereto in a swift rush. (9:56-57).

وَبَرْقٌ (The lightning),

is in reference to the light of faith that is sometimes felt in the hearts of the hypocrites.

Allah said,

… يَجْعَلُونَ أَصْابِعَهُمْ فِي آذَانِهِم مِّنَ الصَّوَاعِقِ حَذَرَ الْمَوْتِ واللّهُ مُحِيطٌ بِالْكافِرِينَ ﴿١٩﴾

They thrust their fingers in their ears to keep out the stunning thunderclap for fear of death. But Allah ever encompasses the disbelievers.

meaning, their cautiousness does not benefit them because they are bound by Allah’s all-encompassing will and decision.

Similarly, Allah said,

هَلُ أَتَاكَ حَدِيثُ الْجُنُودِ

فِرْعَوْنَ وَثَمُودَ

بَلِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ فِى تَكْذِيبٍ

وَاللَّهُ مِن وَرَآئِهِمْ مُّحِيطٌ

Has the story reached you of two hosts. Of Fir`awn (Pharaoh) and Thamud! Nay! The disbelievers (persisted) in denying. And Allah encompasses them from behind! (85:17-20)

Allah then said,

يَكَادُ الْبَرْقُ يَخْطَفُ أَبْصَارَهُمْ …

The lightning almost snatches away their sight,

meaning, because the lightning is strong itself, and because their comprehension is weak and does not allow them to embrace the faith.

Also, Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas commented on the Ayah,

“The Qur’an mentioned almost all of the secrets of the hypocrites.”

… كُلَّمَا أَضَاء لَهُم مَّشَوْاْ فِيهِ …

Whenever it flashes for them, they walk therein,

Ali bin Abi Talhah narrated that Ibn Abbas said,

“Whenever the hypocrites acquire a share in the victories of Islam, they are content with this share. Whenever Islam suffers a calamity, they are ready to revert to disbelief.”

Similarly, Allah said,

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَعْبُدُ اللَّهَ عَلَى حَرْفٍ فَإِنْ أَصَابَهُ خَيْرٌ اطْمَأَنَّ بِهِ

And among mankind is he who worships Allah on the edge: If good befalls him, he is content with that. (22:11)

… كُلَّمَا أَضَاء لَهُم مَّشَوْاْ فِيهِ وَإِذَا أَظْلَمَ عَلَيْهِمْ قَامُواْ …

Whenever it flashes for them, they walk therein, and when darkness covers them, they stand still,

Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn Abbas said,

“They recognize the truth and speak about it. So their speech is upright, but when they revert to disbelief, they again fall into confusion.”

This was also said by Abu Al-Aliyah, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and As-Suddi, who narrated it from the Companions, and it is the most obvious and most correct view, and Allah knows best.

Consequently, on the Day of Judgment, the believers will be given a light according to the degree of their faith. Some of them will gain light that illuminates over a distance of several miles, some more, some less. Some people’s light will glow sometimes and be extinguished at other times. They will, therefore, walk on the Sirat (the bridge over the Fire) in the light, stopping when it is extinguished. Some people will have no light at all, these are the hypocrites whom Allah described when He said,

يَوْمَ يَقُولُ الْمُنَـفِقُونَ وَالْمُنَـفِقَـتُ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ انظُرُونَا نَقْتَبِسْ مِن نُّورِكُمْ قِيلَ ارْجِعُواْ وَرَآءَكُمْ فَالْتَمِسُواْ نُوراً

On the Day when the hypocrites ـ men and women ـ will say to the believers: “Wait for us! Let us get something from your light!” It will be said to them; “Go back to you rear! Then seek a light!” (57:13)

Allah described the believers,

يَوْمَ تَرَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَـتِ يَسْعَى نُورُهُم بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَبِأَيْمَـنِهِم بُشْرَاكُمُ الْيَوْمَ جَنَّـتٌ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا الاٌّنْهَـرُ

On the Day you shall see the believing men and the believing women ـ their light running forward before them and by their right hands. Glad tidings for you this Day! Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise). (57:12)

and,

يَوْمَ لَا يُخْزِي اللَّهُ النَّبِيَّ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَعَهُ نُورُهُمْ يَسْعَى بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَبِأَيْمَانِهِمْ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا أَتْمِمْ لَنَا نُورَنَا وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا إِنَّكَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

The Day that Allah will not disgrace the Prophet (Muhammad) and those who believe with him. Their Light will run forward before them and (with their Records ـ Books of deeds) in their right hands. They will say: “Our Lord! Keep perfect our Light for us (and do not put it off till we cross over the Sirat (a slippery bridge over the Hell) safely) and grant us forgiveness. Verily, You are Able to do all things.” (66:8)

Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Abdullah bin Mas`ud commented on, نُورُهُمْ يَسْعَى بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ (Their Light will run forward before them),

“They will pass on the Sirat, according to their deeds. The light that some people have will be as big as a mountain, while the light of others will be as big as a date tree. The people who will have the least light are those whose index fingers will sometimes be lit and extinguished at other times.”

Ibn Abi Hatim also reported that Ibn Abbas said,

“Every person among the people of Tawhid (Islamic Monotheism) will gain a light on the Day of Resurrection. As for the hypocrite, his light will be extinguished. When the believers witness the hypocrite’s light being extinguished, they will feel anxious. Hence, they will supplicate, رَبَّنَا أَتْمِمْ لَنَا نُورَنَا (Our Lord! Keep perfect our Light for us).”

Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim said,

“On the Day of Resurrection, everyone who has embraced the faith will be given a light. When they arrive at the Sirat, the light of the hypocrites will be extinguished. When the believers see this, they will feel anxious and supplicate, رَبَّنَا أَتْمِمْ لَنَا نُورَنَا (Our Lord! Keep perfect our Light for us).”

Types of Believers and Types of Disbelievers

Consequently, there are several types of people.

There are the believers whom the first four Ayat (2:2-5) in Surah Al-Baqarah describe.

There are the disbelievers who were described in the next two Ayat.

And there are two categories of hypocrites:

the complete hypocrites who were mentioned in the parable of the fire,

and the hesitant hypocrites, whose light of faith is sometimes lit and sometimes extinguished. The parable of the rain was revealed about this category, which is not as evil as the first category.

This is similar to the parables that were given in Surah An-Nur. Like the example of the believer and the faith that Allah put in his heart, compared to a brightly illuminated lamp, just like a rising star. This is the believer, whose heart is built on faith and receiving its support from the divine legislation that was revealed to it, without any impurities or imperfections, as we will come to know, Allah willing.

Allah gave a parable of the disbelievers who think that they have something, while in reality they have nothing; such people are those who have compounded ignorance.

Allah said,

وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ أَعْمَـلُهُمْ كَسَرَابٍ بِقِيعَةٍ يَحْسَبُهُ الظَّمْآنُ مَآءً حَتَّى إِذَا جَآءَهُ لَمْ يَجِدْهُ شَيْئاً

As for those who disbelieved, their deeds are like a mirage in a desert. The thirsty one thinks it to be water, until he comes up to it, he finds it to be nothing. (24:39)

Allah then gave the example of ignorant disbelievers, simple in their ignorance.

He said;

أَوْ كَظُلُمَـتٍ فِى بَحْرٍ لُّجِّىٍّ يَغْشَـهُ مَوْجٌ مِّن فَوْقِهِ مَوْجٌ مِّن فَوْقِهِ سَحَابٌ ظُلُمَـتٌ بَعْضُهَا فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ إِذَآ أَخْرَجَ يَدَهُ لَمْ يَكَدْ يَرَاهَا وَمَن لَّمْ يَجْعَلِ اللَّهُ لَهُ نُوراً فَمَا لَهُ مِن نُورٍ

Or (the state of a disbeliever) is like the darkness in a vast deep sea, overwhelmed by waves, topped by dark clouds, (layers of) darkness upon darkness: if a man stretches out his hand, he can hardly see it! And he for whom Allah has not appointed light, for him there is no light. (24:40)

Therefore, Allah divided the camp of the disbelievers into two groups, advocates and followers.

Allah mentioned these two groups in the beginning of Surah Al-Hajj,

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يُجَـدِلُ فِى اللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَيَتَّبِعُ كُلَّ شَيْطَـنٍ مَّرِيدٍ

And among mankind is he who disputes about Allah, without knowledge, and follows every rebellious (disobedient to Allah) Shaytan (devil) (devoid of every kind of good). (22:3)

and,

ومِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يُجَـدِلُ فِى اللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَلاَ هُدًى وَلاَ كِتَـبٍ مُّنِيرٍ

And among men is he who disputes about Allah, without knowledge or guidance, or a Book giving light (from Allah). (22:8)

Furthermore, Allah has divided the group of the believers in the beginning of Surah Al-Waqi`ah and at the end. He also divided them in Surah Al-Insan into two groups,

the Sabiqun (those who preceded), they are the “near ones” (Muqaribun) and

Ashab Al-Yamin (the companions of the right), and they are righteous (Abrar).

In summary, these Ayat divide the believers into two categories,

the near ones and

righteous.

Also, the disbelievers are of two types,

advocates and

followers.

In addition, the hypocrites are divided into two types,

pure hypocrites and

those who have some hypocrisy in them.

The Two Sahihs record that Abdullah bin Amr said that the Prophet said,

ثَلَاثٌ مَنْ كُنَّ فِيهِ كَانَ مُنَافِقًا خَالِصًا، وَمَنْ كَانَتْ فِيهِ وَاحِدَةٌ مِنْهُنَّ كَانَتْ فِيهِ خَصْلَةٌ مِنَ النِّفَاقِ حَتَّى يَدَعَهَا:

مَنْ إِذَا حَدَّثَ كَذَبَ،

وَإِذَا وَعَدَ أَخْلَفَ،

وَإِذَا ائْتُمِنَ خَان

Whoever has the following three (characteristics) will be a pure hypocrite, and whoever has one of the following three characteristics will have one characteristic of hypocrisy, unless and until he gives it up.

Whenever he speaks, he tells a lie.

Whenever he makes a covenant, he proves treacherous.

Whenever he is entrusted, he breaches the trust.

Hence, man might have both a part of faith and a part of hypocrisy, whether in deed, as this Hadith stipulates, or in the creed, as the Ayah (2:20) stipulates.

Types of Hearts

Imam Ahmad recorded Abu Sa`id saying that the Messenger of Allah said

الْقُلُوبُ أَرْبَعَةٌ:

قَلْبٌ أَجْرَدُ فِيهِ مِثْلُ السِّرَاجِ يَزْهَرُ

وَقَلْبٌ أَغْلَفُ مَرْبُوطٌ عَلى غِلَافِهِ

وَقَلْبٌ مَنْكُوسٌ

وَقَلْبٌ مُصْفَحٌ،

The hearts are four (types):

polished as shiny as the radiating lamp,

a sealed heart with a knot tied around its seal,

a heart that is turned upside down and

a wrapped heart.

فَأَمَّا الْقَلْبُ الْأَجْرَدُ فَقَلْبُ الْمُؤْمِنِ فَسِرَاجُهُ فِيهِ نُورُهُ،

As for the polished heart, it is the heart of the believer and the lamp is the light of faith.

وَأَمَّا الْقَلْبُ الْأَغْلَفُ فَقَلْبُ الْكَافِرِ،

The sealed heart is the heart of the disbeliever.

وَأَمَّا الْقَلْبُ الْمَنْكُوسُ فَقَلْبُ الْمُنَافِقِ الْخَالِصِ عَرَفَ ثُمَّ أَنْكَرَ

The heart that is turned upside down is the heart of the pure hypocrite, because he had knowledge but denied it.

وَأَمَّا الْقَلْبُ الْمُصْفَحُ فَقَلْبٌ فِيهِ إيمَانٌ وَنِفَاقٌ

As for the wrapped heart, it is a heart that contains belief and hypocrisy.

وَمَثَلُ الْإيمَانِ فِيهِ كَمَثَلِ الْبَقْلَةِ يَمُدُّهَا الْمَاءُ الطَّيِّبُ

The example of faith in this heart, is the example of the herb that is sustained by pure water.

وَمَثَلُ النِّفَاقِ فِيهِ كَمَثَلِ الْقُرْحَةِ يَمُدُّهَا الْقَيْحُ وَالدَّمُ فَأَيُّ الْمَادَّتَيْنِ غَلَبَتْ عَلَى الْأُخْرَى غَلَبَتْ عَلَيْه

The example of hypocrisy in it, is the example of an ulcer that thrives on puss and blood. Whichever of the two substances has the upper hand, it will have the upper hand on that heart.

This Hadith has a Jayid Hasan (good) chain of narration.

Allah said,

… وَلَوْ شَاء اللّهُ لَذَهَبَ بِسَمْعِهِمْ وَأَبْصَارِهِمْ إِنَّ اللَّه عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ ﴿٢٠﴾

And if Allah willed, He would have taken away their hearing and their sight. Certainly, Allah has power over all things.

Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn Abbas commented on Allah’s statement, وَلَوْ شَاء اللّهُ لَذَهَبَ بِسَمْعِهِمْ وَأَبْصَارِهِمْ (And if Allah willed, He would have taken away their hearing and their sight),

“Because they abandoned the truth after they had knowledge in it.”

… إِنَّ اللَّه عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ ﴿٢٠﴾

Certainly, Allah has power over all things.

Ibn Abbas said,

“Allah is able to punish or pardon His servants as He wills.”

Ibn Jarir commented,

“Allah only described Himself with the ability to do everything in this Ayah as a warning to the hypocrites of His control over everything, and to inform them that His ability completely encompasses them and that He is able to take away their hearing and sight.”

Ibn Jarir and several other scholars of Tafsir stated that;

these two parables are about the same kind of hypocrite. So the or’ mentioned in, أَوْ كَصَيِّبٍ مِّنَ السَّمَاء (Or like a rainstorm from the sky) meansand’, just as the Ayah, وَلَا تُطِعْ مِنْهُمْ آثِمًا أَوْ كَفُورًا (And obey neither a sinner or a disbeliever among them).

Therefore, `or’ in the Ayah includes a choice of using either example for the hypocrites.

Also, Al-Qurtubi said that `or’ means,

“To show compatibility of the two choices, just as when one says, `Sit with Al-Hasan or Ibn Sirin.’

According to the view of Az-Zamakhshari, `so it means each of these persons is the same as the other, so you may sit with either one of them.’

The meaning of or’ thus becomeseither.’ Allah gave these two examples of the hypocrites, because they both perfectly describe them.”

I (Ibn Kathir) say,

these descriptions are related to the type of hypocrite, because there is a difference between them as we stated.

For instance, Allah mentioned these types in Surah Bara’h when He repeated the statement, “And among them” three times, describing their types, characteristics, statements and deeds.

So the two examples mentioned here describe two types of hypocrites whose characteristics are similar.

For instance, Allah gave two examples in Surah An-Nur, one for the advocates of disbelief and one for the followers of disbelief, He said, وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَعْمَالُهُمْ كَسَرَابٍ بِقِيعَةٍ (As for those who disbelieved, their deeds are like a mirage in a desert) (24:39), until, أَوْ كَظُلُمَاتٍ فِي بَحْرٍ لُّجِّيٍّ (Or (the state of a disbeliever) is like the darkness in a vast deep sea), (24:40).

The first example is of the advocates of disbelief who have complex ignorance, while the second is about the followers who have simple ignorance. Allah knows best.

Previous 19-20

يَـأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُواْ رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِىْ خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

2:21 O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allah), Who created you and those who were before you so that you may acquire Taqwa.

الَّذِى جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الاٌّرْضَ فِرَاشاً وَالسَّمَآءَ بِنَآءً وَأَنزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً فَأَخْرَجَ بِهِ مِنَ الثَّمَرَتِ رِزْقاً لَّكُمْ فَلاَ تَجْعَلُواْ للَّهِ أَندَاداً وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

2:22 Who has made the earth a resting place for you, and the sky as a canopy, and sent down water (rain) from the sky and brought forth therewith fruits as a provision for you. Then do not set up rivals unto Allah (in worship) while you know (that He alone has the right to be worshipped).

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Tawhid Al-Uluhiyyah

Allah says;

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُواْ رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ ﴿٢١﴾

O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allah), Who created you and those who were before you so that you may acquire Taqwa.

Allah mentioned His Oneness in divinity and stated that He has favored His servants by bringing them to life after they did not exist.

He also surrounded them with blessings, both hidden and apparent.

الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الأَرْضَ فِرَاشاً …

Who has made the earth a resting place for you,

He made the earth a resting place for them, just like the bed, stable with the firm mountains.

… وَالسَّمَاء بِنَاء …

And the sky as a canopy,

meaning, `a ceiling’.

Similarly, Allah said in another Ayah,

وَجَعَلْنَا السَّمَآءَ سَقْفاً مَّحْفُوظاً وَهُمْ عَنْ ءَايَـتِهَا مُعْرِضُونَ

And We have made the heaven a roof, safe and well-guarded. Yet they turn away from its signs (i.e. sun, moon, winds, clouds). (21:32)

… وَأَنزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاء مَاء …

And sends down for you water (rain) from the sky,

meaning, through the clouds, when they need the rain.

… فَأَخْرَجَ بِهِ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ رِزْقاً لَّكُمْ …

and brought forth therewith fruits as a provision for you.

Hence, Allah caused the various types of vegetation and fruits to grow as a means of sustenance for people and their cattle.

Allah reiterated this bounty in various parts of the Qur’an.

Explore Tafsir Surah Al-Baqarah Ayat 22: A comprehensive guide to understanding this profound verse in the Quran at Quran

There is another Ayah that is similar to this Ayah (2:22), that is, Allah’s statement,

الَّذِى جَعَـلَ لَكُـمُ الاٌّرْضَ قَـرَاراً وَالسَّمَآءَ بِنَـآءً وَصَوَّرَكُـمْ فَأَحْسَنَ صُوَرَكُـمْ وَرَزَقَكُـمْ مِّنَ الطَّيِّبَـتِ ذَلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُـمْ فَتَـبَـرَكَ اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَـلَمِينَ

It is He Who has made for you the earth as a dwelling place and the sky as a canopy, and has given you shape and made your shapes good (looking) and has provided you with good things. That is Allah, your Lord, so Blessed be Allah, the Lord of all that exists. (40:64)

The meaning that is reiterated here is that Allah is the Creator, the Sustainer, the Owner and Provider of this life, all that is in and on it. Hence, He alone deserves to be worshipped, and no one and nothing is to be associated with Him.

This is why Allah said next,

… فَلاَ تَجْعَلُواْ لِلّهِ أَندَاداً وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونََ ﴿٢٢﴾

Then do not set up rivals unto Allah (in worship) while you know (that He alone has the right to be worshipped).

The Two Sahihs record that Ibn Mas`ud said,

“I said to the Messenger of Allah, `Which evil deed is the worst with Allah?’

He said,

أَنْ تَجْعَلَ للهِ نِدًّا وَهُوَ خَلَقَك

To take an equal with Allah, while He alone created you.”

Also, Mu`adh narrated the Prophet’s statement,

أَتَدْرِي مَا حَقُّ اللهِ عَلَى عِبَادِهِ ؟

أَنْ يَعْبُدُوهُ وَلَا يُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا

Do you know Allah’s right on His servants?

They must worship Him alone and refrain from associating anything with Him in worship.

Another Hadith states,

لَا يَقُولَنَّ أَحَدُكُمْ مَا شَاءَ اللهُ وَشَاءَ فُلَانٌ، وَلكِنْ لِيَقُلْ: مَا شَاءَ اللهُ ثُمَّ شَاءَ فُلَان

None of you should say, What Allah and so-and-so person wills. Rather, let him say,What Allah wills, and then what so-and-so person wills.

A Hadith with the same Meaning

Imam Ahmad narrated that Al-Harith Al-Ashari said that the Prophet of Allah said,

إِنَّ اللهَ عَزَّوَجَلَّ أَمَرَ يَحْيَى بْنَ زَكَرِيَّا عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ بِخَمْسِ كَلِمَاتٍ أَنْ يَعْمَلَ بِهِنَّ، وَأَنْ يَأْمُرَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ أَنْ يَعْمَلُوا بِهِنَّ وَأَنَّهُ كَادَ أَنْ يُبْطِىءَ بِهَا،

Allah commanded Yahya bin Zakariyya to implement five commands and to order the Children of Israel to implement them, but Yahya was slow in carrying out these commands.

فَقَالَ لَهُ عِيسَى عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ: إِنَّكَ قَدْ أُمِرْتَ بِخَمْسِ كَلِمَاتٍ أَنْ تَعْمَلَ بِهِنَّ وَتَأْمُرَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ أَنْ يَعْمَلُوا بِهِنَّ فَإِمَّا أَنْ تُبَلِّغَهُمْ وَإمَّا أَنْ أُبَلِّغَهُنَّ،

Isa said to Yahya,You were ordered to implement five commands and to order the Children of Israel to implement them. So either order, or I will do it.’

فَقَالَ: يَا أَخِي إِنِّي أَخْشَى إِنْ سَبَقْتَنِي أَنْ أُعَذَّبَ أَوْ يُخْسَفَ بِي قَالَ: فَجَمَعَ يَحْيَى بْنُ زَكَرِيَّا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ فِي بَيْتِ الْمَقْدِسِ حَتَّى امْتَلَأَ الْمَسْجِدُ،

Yahya said, ‘My brother! I fear that if you do it before me, I will be punished or the earth will be shaken under my feet.’ Hence, Yahya bin Zakariyya called the Children of Israel to Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem), until they filled the Masjid.

فَقَعَدَ عَلَى الشَّرَفِ فَحَمِدَ اللهَ وَأَثْنَى عَلَيْهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ:

He sat on the balcony, thanked Allah and praised him and then said,

إِنَّ اللهَ أَمَرَنِي بِخَمْسِ كَلِمَاتٍ أَنْ أَعْمَلَ بِهِنَّ وَآمُرَكُمْ أَنْ تَعْمَلُوا بِهِنَّ أَوَّلُهُنَّ: أَنْ تَعْبُدُوا اللهَ وَلَا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا، فَإِنَّ مَثَلَ ذلِكَ كَمَثَلِ رَجُلٍ اشْتَرَى عَبْدًا مِنْ خَالِصِ مَالِهِ بِوَرِقٍ أَوْ ذَهَبٍ فَجَعَلَ يَعْمَلُ وَيُؤَدِّي غَلَّتَهُ إِلى غَيْرِ سَيِّدِهِ، فَأَيُّكُمْ يَسُرُّهُ أَنْ يَكُونَ عَبْدُهُ كَذلِكَ، وَإِنَّ اللهَ خَلَقَكُمْ وَرَزَقَكُمْ فَاعْبُدُوهُ وَلَا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا.

`Allah ordered me to implement five commandments and that I should order you to adhere to them. The first is that you worship Allah alone and not associate any with Him. The example of this command is the example of a man who bought a servant from his money with paper or gold. The servant started to work for the master, but was paying the profits to another person. Who among you would like his servant to do that Allah created you and sustains you. Therefore, worship Him alone and do not associate anything with Him.

وَآمُرَكُمْ بِالصَّلَاةِ فَإِنَّ اللهَ يَنْصِبُ وَجْهَهُ لِوَجْهِ عَبْدِهِ مَا لَمْ يَلْتَفِتْ فَإِذَا صَلَّيْتُمْ فَلَا تَلْتَفِتُوا.

I also command you to pray, for Allah directs His Face towards His servant’s face, as long as the servant does not turn away. So when you pray, do not turn your heads to and fro.

وَآمُرُكُمْ بِالصِّيَامِ فَإِنَّ مَثَلَ ذلِكَ كَمَثَلِ رَجُلٍ مَعَهُ صُرَّةٌ مِنْ مِسْكٍ فِي عِصَابَةٍ كُلُّهُمْ يَجِدُ رِيحَ الْمِسْكِ وَإِنَّ خَلُوفَ فَمِ الصَّائِم أَطْيَبُ عِنْدَ اللهِ مِنْ رِيحِ الْمِسْكِ.

I also command you to fast. The example of it is the example of a man in a group of men and he has some musk wrapped in a piece of cloth, and consequently, all of the group smells the scent of the wrapped musk. Verily, the odor of the mouth of a fasting person is better before Allah than the scent of musk.

وَآمُرُكُمْ بِالصَّدَقَةِ فَإِنَّ مَثَلَ ذلِكَ كَمَثَلِ رَجُلٍ أَسَرَهُ الْعَدُوُّ فَشَدُّوا يَدَيْهِ إِلى عُنُقِهِ وَقَدَّمُوهُ لِيَضْرِبُوا عُنُقَهُ فَقَالَ لَهُمْ: هَلْ لَكُمْ أَنْ أَفْتَدِيَ نَفْسِي مِنْكُمْ فَجَعَلَ يَفْتَدِي نَفْسَهُ مِنْهُمْ بِالْقَلِيلِ وَالْكَثِيرِ حَتَّى فَكَّ نَفْسَهُ.

I also command you to give charity. The example of this is the example of a man who was captured by the enemy. They tied his hands to his neck and brought him forth to cut off his neck. He said to them, ‘Can I pay a ransom for myself?’ He kept ransoming himself with small and large amounts until he liberated himself.

وَآمُرُكُمْ بِذِكْرِ اللهِ كَثِيرًا وَإِنَّ مَثَلَ ذلِكَ كَمَثَلِ رَجُلِ طَلَبَهُ الْعَدُوُّ سِرَاعًا فِي أَثَرِهِ فَأَتَى حِصْنًا حَصِينًا فَتَحَصَّنَ فِيهِ وَإِنَّ الْعَبْدَأَحْصَنَ مَا يَكُونُ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ إِذَا كَانَ فِي ذِكْرِ الله

I also command you to always remember Allah. The example of this deed is that of a man who the enemy is tirelessly pursuing. He takes refuge in a fortified fort. When the servant remembers Allah, he will be resorting to the best refuge from Satan.

Al-Harith then narrated that the Messenger of Allah said,

وَأَنَا آمُرُكُمْ بِخَمْسٍ اللهُ أَمَرَنِي بِهِنَّ:

الْجَمَاعَةِ

وَالسَّمْعِ وَالطَّاعَةِ

وَالْهِجْرَةِ

وَالْجِهَادِ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ.

فَإِنَّهُ مَنْ خَرَجَ مِنَ الْجَمَاعَةِ قِيدَ شِبْرٍ فَقَدْ خَلَعَ رَبْقَةَ الْإِسْلَامِ مِنْ عُنُقِهِ إِلَّا أَنْ يُرَاجِعَ وَمَنْ دَعَا بِدَعْوَى جَاهِلِيَّةٍ فَهُوَ مِنْ جُثَى جَهَنَّم

And I order you with five commandments that Allah has ordered me.

Stick to the Jama`ah (community of the faithful),

listen and obey (your leaders) and

perform Hijrah (migration) and

Jihad for the sake of Allah.

Whoever abandons the Jama`ah, even the distance of a hand span, will have removed the tie of Islam from his neck, unless he returns. Whoever uses the slogans of Jahiliyah (the pre-Islamic period of ignorance) he will be among those kneeling in Jahannam (Hellfire).)

They said, “O Messenger of Allah! Even if he prays and fasts?”

He said,

وَإِنَّ صَلَّى وَصَامَ وَزَعَمَ أَنَّهُ مُسْلِمٌ،

فَادْعُوا الْمُسْلِمِينَ بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ عَلَى مَا سَمَّاهُمُ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عِبَادَ الله

Even if he prays, fasts and claims to be Muslim.

So call the Muslims with their names that Allah has called them: `The Muslims, the believing servants of Allah.’

This is a Hasan Hadith, and it contains the statement,

“Allah has created and sustains you, so worship Him and do not associate anything with Him in worship.”

This statement is relevant in the Ayat (2:21-22) we are discussing here and support singling Allah in worship, without partners.

Signs of Allah’s Existence

Several scholars of Tafsir, like Ar-Razi and others, used these Ayat as an argument for the existence of the Creator, and it is a most worthy method of argument. Indeed, whoever ponders over the things that exist, the higher and lower creatures, their various shapes, colors, behavior, benefits and ecological roles, then he will realize the ability, wisdom, knowledge, perfection and majesty of their Creator.

Once a Bedouin was asked about the evidence to Allah’s existence, he responded,

“All praise is due to Allah! The camel’s dung testifies to the existence of the camel, and the track testifies to the fact that someone was walking. A sky that holds the giant stars, a land that has fairways and a sea that has waves, does not all of this testify that the Most Kind, Most Knowledgeable exists”

Hence, whoever gazes at the sky in its immensity, its expanse, and the various kinds of planets in it, some of which appear stationary in the sky – whoever gazes at the seas that surround the land from all sides, and the mountains that were placed on the earth to stabilize it, so that whoever lives on land, whatever their shape and color, are able to live and thrive – whoever reads Allah’s statement,

وَمِنَ الْجِبَالِ جُدَدٌ بِيضٌ وَحُمْرٌ مُّخْتَلِفٌ أَلْوَنُهَا وَغَرَابِيبُ سُودٌ

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ وَالدَّوَآبِّ وَالاٌّنْعَـمِ مُخْتَلِفٌ أَلْوَنُهُ كَذَلِكَ إِنَّمَا يَخْشَى اللَّهَ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ الْعُلَمَاءُ

And among the mountains are streaks white and red, of varying colours and (others) very black. And likewise, men and Ad-Dawabb (moving (living) creatures, beasts) and cattle are of various colours. It is only those who have knowledge among His servants that fear Allah. (35: 27-28)

Whoever thinks about the running rivers that travel from area to area bringing benefit, whoever ponders over what Allah has created on earth; various animals and plants of different tastes, scents, shapes and colors that are a result of unity between land and water, whoever thinks about all of this then he will realize that these facts testify to the existence of the Creator, His perfect ability, wisdom, mercy, kindness, generosity and His overall compassion for His creation. There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah, nor is there a Lord besides Him, upon Him we rely and to Him we turn in repentance.

There are numerous Ayat in the Qur’an on this subject.

وَإِن كُنتُمْ فِى رَيْبٍ مِّمَّا نَزَّلْنَا عَلَى عَبْدِنَا فَأْتُواْ بِسُورَةٍ مِّن مِّثْلِهِ وَادْعُواْ شُهَدَآءَكُم مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ إِن كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ

2:23 And if you (Arab pagans, Jews, and Christians) are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down (i.e. the Qur’an) to Our servant (Muhammad), then produce a Surah (chapter) of the like thereof and call your witnesses (supporters and helpers) besides Allah, if you are truthful.

فَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلُواْ وَلَن تَفْعَلُواْ فَاتَّقُواْ النَّارَ الَّتِى وَقُودُهَا النَّاسُ وَالْحِجَارَةُ أُعِدَّتْ لِلْكَـفِرِينَ

2:24 But if you do it not, and you can never do it, then fear the Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for the disbelievers.

Hint: Dive into the Best 10 Benefits Of Surah Baqarah – Lessons and Meaning Of Surah Baqarah. This Surah provides practical guidance for leading ethical lives and is a testament to the firm pact between Allah and believers.

 

The Message of Messenger of Allah is True

Allah says;

وَإِن كُنتُمْ فِي رَيْبٍ مِّمَّا نَزَّلْنَا عَلَى عَبْدِنَا فَأْتُواْ بِسُورَةٍ مِّن مِّثْلِهِ وَادْعُواْ شُهَدَاءكُم مِّن دُونِ اللّهِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ ﴿٢٣﴾

And if you (Arab pagans, Jews, and Christians) are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down (i.e. the Qur’an) to Our servant (Muhammad), then produce a Surah of the like thereof and call your witnesses (supporters and helpers) besides Allah, if you are truthful.

Allah begins to prove the truth of Prophethood after He stated that there is no deity worthy of worship except Him.

Allah said to the disbelievers, وَإِن كُنتُمْ فِي رَيْبٍ مِّمَّا نَزَّلْنَا عَلَى عَبْدِنَا (And if you (Arab pagans, Jews, and Christians) are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down (i.e. the Qur’an) to Our servant) meaning, Muhammad, فَأْتُواْ بِسُورَةٍ (then produce a Surah) meaning, similar to what he brought to you.

Hence, if you claim that what he was sent with did not come from Allah, then produce something similar to what he has brought to you, using the help of anyone you wish instead of Allah. However, you will not be able to succeed in this quest.

Ibn Abbas said that, شُهَدَاءكُم (your witnesses),

means “Aids.”

Also, As-Suddi reported that Abu Malik said the Ayah means,

“Your partners, meaning, some other people to help you in that. Meaning then go and seek the help of your deities to support and aid you.”

Also, Mujahid said that, وَادْعُواْ شُهَدَاءكُم (and call your witnesses) means,

“People, meaning, wise and eloquent men who will provide the testimony that you seek.”

The Challenge

Allah challenged the disbelievers in various parts of the Qur’an. For instance, Allah said in Surah Al-Qasas,

قُلْ فَأْتُواْ بِكِتَـبٍ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ هُوَ أَهْدَى مِنْهُمَآ أَتَّبِعْهُ إِن كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ

Say (to them, O Muhammad): “Then bring a Book from Allah, which is a better guide than these two (the Tawrah (Torah) and the Qur’an), that I may follow it, if you are truthful”. (28:49)

Also, Allah said in Surah Al-Isra,

قُل لَّئِنِ اجْتَمَعَتِ الإِنسُ وَالْجِنُّ عَلَى أَن يَأْتُواْ بِمِثْلِ هَـذَا الْقُرْءَانِ لاَ يَأْتُونَ بِمِثْلِهِ وَلَوْ كَانَ بَعْضُهُمْ لِبَعْضٍ ظَهِيرًا

Say: “If mankind and the Jinn were together to produce the like of this Qur’an, they could not produce the like thereof, even if they helped one another.” (17:88)

Allah said in Surah Hud,

أَمْ يَقُولُونَ افْتَرَاهُ قُلْ فَأْتُواْ بِعَشْرِ سُوَرٍ مِّثْلِهِ مُفْتَرَيَاتٍ وَادْعُواْ مَنِ اسْتَطَعْتُمْ مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ إِن كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ

Or they say, “He (Prophet Muhammad) forged it (the Qur’an).”

Say: “Bring you then ten forged Surahs like it, and call whomsoever you can, other than Allah (to your help), if you speak the truth!” (11:13)

and in Surah Yunus,

وَمَا كَانَ هَـذَا الْقُرْءَانُ أَن يُفْتَرَى مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلَـكِن تَصْدِيقَ الَّذِى بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَتَفْصِيلَ الْكِتَابِ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ مِن رَّبِّ الْعَـلَمِينَ

أَمْ يَقُولُونَ افْتَرَاهُ قُلْ فَأْتُواْ بِسُورَةٍ مِّثْلِهِ وَادْعُواْ مَنِ اسْتَطَعْتُمْ مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ إِن كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ

And this Qur’an is not such as could ever be produced by other than Allah (Lord of the heavens and the earth), but it is a confirmation of (the revelation) which was before it (i.e. the Tawrah, and the Injil), and a full explanation of the Book (i.e. Laws decreed for mankind) ـ wherein there is no doubt ـ from the Lord of all that exists.

Or do they say: “He (Muhammad) has forged it!”

Say: “Bring then a Surah like it, and call upon whomsoever you can besides Allah, if you are truthful!” (10:37-38)

All of these Ayat were revealed in Makkah.

Allah also challenged the disbelievers in the Ayat that were revealed in Al-Madinah.

In this Ayah, Allah said, وَإِن كُنتُمْ فِي رَيْبٍ (And if you (Arab pagans, Jews, and Christians) are in Rayb) meaning, doubt. مِّمَّا نَزَّلْنَا عَلَى عَبْدِنَا (Concerning that which We have sent down (i.e. the Qur’an) to Our servant) meaning, Muhammad, فَأْتُواْ بِسُورَةٍ مِّن مِّثْلِهِ (then produce a Surah (chapter) the like thereof) meaning, similar to the Qur’an.

This is the Tafsir of Mujahid, Qatadah, Ibn Jarir At-Tabari, Az-Zamakhshari and Ar-Razi.

Ar-Razi said that this is the Tafsir of Umar, Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn Abbas, Al-Hasan Al-Basri and the majority of the scholars. And he gave preference to this view and mentioned the fact that Allah has challenged the disbelievers as individuals and as groups, whether literate or illiterate, thus making the challenge truly complete. This type of challenge is more daring than simply challenging the disbelievers who might not be literate or knowledgeable. This is why Allah said,

فَأْتُواْ بِعَشْرِ سُوَرٍ مِّثْلِهِ

Bring you then ten forged Surahs like it) (11:13)

and,

لاَ يَأْتُونَ بِمِثْلِهِ

They could not produce the like thereof. (17:88)

Therefore, this is a general challenge to the Arab disbelievers, the most eloquent among all nations. Allah challenged the Arab disbelievers both in Makkah and Al-Madinah several times, especially since they had tremendous hatred and enmity for the Prophet and his religion. Yet, they were unable to succeed in answering the challenge, and this is why Allah said,

فَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلُواْ وَلَن تَفْعَلُواْ …

But if you do it not, and you can never do it,

indicating that they will never be able to answer the challenge.

This is another miracle, in that, Allah clearly stated without doubt that the Qur’an will never be opposed or challenged by anything similar to it, for eternity. This is a true statement that has not been changed until the present and shall never change.

How can anyone be able to produce something like the Qur’an, when the Qur’an is the Word of Allah Who created everything!

How can the words of the created ever be similar to the Words of the Creator!

Examples of the Miracle of the Qur’an

Whoever reads through the Qur’an will realize that it contains various levels of superiority through both the apparent and hidden meanings that it mentions.

Allah said,

الر كِتَابٌ أُحْكِمَتْ ءايَـتُهُ ثُمَّ فُصِّلَتْ مِن لَّدُنْ حَكِيمٍ خَبِيرٍ

Alif Lam Ra. (This is) a Book, the verses whereof are perfect (in every sphere of knowledge, etc.), and then explained in detail from One (Allah), Who is Wise and well-acquainted (with all things). (11:1)

So the expressions in the Qur’an are perfect and its meanings are explained. Further, every word and meaning in the Qur’an is eloquent and cannot be surpassed. The Qur’an also mentioned the stories of the people of the past; and these accounts and stories occurred exactly as the Qur’an stated. Also, the Qur’an commanded every type of righteousness and forbade every type of evil, just as Allah stated,

وَتَمَّتْ كَلِمَةُ رَبِّكَ صِدْقاً وَعَدْلاً

And the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and in justice. (6:115)

meaning, true in the stories it narrates and just in its Laws.

The Qur’an is true, just and full of guidance. It does not contain exaggerations, lies or falsehood, unlike Arabic and other types of poems that contained lies. These poems, conform with the popular statement,

“The most eloquent speech is the one that contains the most lies!”

Sometimes, one would find a long poem that mainly contains descriptions of women, horses or alcohol. Or, the poem might contain praise or the description of a certain person, horse, camel, war, incident, fear, lion, or other types of items and objects. Such praise or descriptions do not bring any benefit, except shed light on the poet’s ability to clearly and eloquently describe such items. Yet, one will only be able to find one or two sentences in many long poems that elaborate on the main theme of the poem, while the rest of the poem contains insignificant descriptions and repetitions.

As for the Qur’an, it is entirely eloquent in the most perfect manner, as those who have knowledge in such matters and understand Arabic methods of speech and expressions concur.

When one reads through the stories in the Qur’an, he will find them fruitful, whether they were in extended or short forms, repeated or not. The more these stories are repeated, the more fruitful and beautiful they become. The Qur’an does not become old when one repeats reciting it, nor do the scholars ever get bored with it.

When the Qur’an mentions the subject of warning and promises, it presents truths that would make solid, firm mountains shake, so what about the comprehending, understanding hearts! When the Qur’an promises, it opens the hearts and the ears, making them eager to attain the abode of peace – Paradise – and to be the neighbors of the Throne of the Most Beneficent.

For instance, on the subject of promises and encouragement, the Qur’an said,

فَلاَ تَعْلَمُ نَفْسٌ مَّآ أُخْفِىَ لَهُم مِّن قُرَّةِ أَعْيُنٍ جَزَآءً بِمَا كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُونَ

No person knows what is kept hidden for them of joy as a reward for what they used to do. (32:17)

and,

وَفِيهَا مَا تَشْتَهِيهِ الاٌّنْفُسُ وَتَلَذُّ الاٌّعْيُنُ وَأَنتُمْ فِيهَا خَـلِدُونَ

(There will be) therein all that inner selves could desire, and all that eyes could delight in and you will abide therein forever. (43:71)

On the subject of warning and discouragement;

أَفَأَمِنتُمْ أَن يَخْسِفَ بِكُمْ جَانِبَ الْبَرِّ

Do you then feel secure that He will not cause a side of the land to swallow you up! (17:68)

and,

أَءَمِنتُمْ مَّن فِى السَّمَآءِ أَن يَخْسِفَ بِكُمُ الاٌّرْضَ فَإِذَا هِىَ تَمُورُ

أَمْ أَمِنتُمْ مِّن فِى السَّمَآءِ أَن يُرْسِلَ عَلَيْكُمْ حَـصِباً فَسَتَعْلَمُونَ كَيْفَ نَذِيرِ

Do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (Allah), will not cause the earth to sink with you, and then it should quake!

Or do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (Allah), will not send against you a violent whirlwind! Then you shall know how (terrible) has been My warning. (67:16-17)

On the subject of threats, the Qur’an said,

فَكُلاًّ أَخَذْنَا بِذَنبِهِ

So We punished each (of them) for his sins. (29:40)

Also, on the subject of soft advice, the Qur’an said,

أَفَرَأَيْتَ إِن مَّتَّعْنَـهُمْ سِنِينَ

ثُمَّ جَآءَهُم مَّا كَانُواْ يُوعَدُونَ

مَآ أَغْنَى عَنْهُمْ مَّا كَانُواْ يُمَتَّعُونَ

Tell Me, (even) if We do let them enjoy for years. And afterwards comes to them that (punishment) which they had been promised. All that with which they used to enjoy shall not avail them. (26:205-207).

There are many other examples of the eloquence, beauty, and benefits of the Qur’an.

When the Qur’an is discussing Laws, commandments and prohibitions, it commands every type of righteous, good, pleasing and beneficial act. It also forbids every type of evil, disliked and amoral act.

Ibn Mas`ud and other scholars of the Salaf said,

“When you hear what Allah said in the Qur’an, such as, يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ O you who believe! then listen with full attention, for it either contains a type of righteousness that Allah is enjoining, or an evil that He is forbidding.”

For instance, Allah said,

يَأْمُرُهُم بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَـهُمْ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَيُحِلُّ لَهُمُ الطَّيِّبَـتِ وَيُحَرِّمُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْخَبَـئِثَ وَيَضَعُ عَنْهُمْ إِصْرَهُمْ وَالاٌّغْلَـلَ الَّتِى كَانَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ

He (Muhammad) commands them for Al-Ma`ruf (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam has ordained); and forbids them from Al-Munkar (i.e. disbelief, polytheism of all kinds, and all that Islam has forbidden); he allows them as lawful At-Tayyibat (i.e. all good and lawful things), and prohibits them as unlawful Al-Khaba’ith (i.e. all evil and unlawful things), he releases them from their heavy burdens and from the fetters (bindings) that were upon them. (7:157)

When the Ayat mention Resurrection and the horrors that will occur on that Day, and Paradise and the Fire and the joys and safe refuge that Allah prepared for His loyal friends, or torment and Hell for His enemies, these Ayat contain glad tidings or warnings. The Ayat then call to perform good deeds and avoid evil deeds, making the life of this world less favorable and the Hereafter more favorable. They also establish the correct methods and guide to Allah’s straight path and just legislation, all the while ridding the hearts of the evil of the cursed devil.

The Qur’an is the Greatest Miracle given to the Prophet

The Two Sahihs record that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said,

مَا مِنْ نَبِيَ مِنَ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ إِلَّا قَدْ أُعْطِيَ مِنَ الآيَاتِ مَا آمَنَ عَلَى مِثْلِهِ الْبَشَرُ، وَإنَّمَا كَانَ الَّذِي أُوتِيتُه وَحْيًا أَوْحَاهُ اللهُ إِلَيَّ فَأَرْجُو أَنْ أَكُونَ أَكْثَرَهُمْ تَابِعًا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَة

Every Prophet was given a miracle, the type of which brings mankind to faith. What I was given is a revelation that Allah sent down to me. Yet, I hope that I will have the most following on the Day of Resurrection.

This is the wording narrated by Muslim.

The Prophet stated that among the Prophets he was given a revelation, meaning, he was especially entrusted with the miraculous Qur’an that challenged mankind to produce something similar to it. As for the rest of the divinely revealed Books, they were not miraculous according to many scholars. Allah knows best.

The Prophet was also aided with innumerable signs and indications that testify to the truth of his Prophethood and what he was sent with, all thanks and praise is due to Allah.

Meaning of `Stones

Allah said,

… فَاتَّقُواْ النَّارَ الَّتِي وَقُودُهَا النَّاسُ وَالْحِجَارَةُ أُعِدَّتْ لِلْكَافِرِينَ ﴿٢٤﴾

Then fear the Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for the disbelievers.

`Fuel’ is wood or similar substances, used to start and feed a fire.

Similarly, Allah said,

وَأَمَّا الْقَـسِطُونَ فَكَانُواْ لِجَهَنَّمَ حَطَباً

And as for the Qasitun (disbelievers who deviated from the right path), they shall be firewood for Hell. (72:15)

and,

إِنَّكُمْ وَمَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ حَصَبُ جَهَنَّمَ أَنتُمْ لَهَا وَارِدُونَ

لَوْ كَانَ هَـؤُلاءِ ءَالِهَةً مَّا وَرَدُوهَا وَكُلٌّ فِيهَا خَـلِدُونَ

Certainly you (disbelievers) and that which you are worshipping now besides Allah, are (but) fuel for Hell! (Surely) you enter it.

Had these (idols) been alihah (gods), they would not have entered there (Hell), and all of them will abide therein. (21:98-99)

The stones mentioned here are the giant, rotten, black, sulfuric stones that become the hottest when heated, may Allah save us from this evil end.

It was also reported that the stones mentioned here are the idols and rivals that were worshipped instead of Allah, just as Allah said,

إِنَّكُمْ وَمَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ حَصَبُ جَهَنَّمَ

Certainly you (disbelievers) and that which you are worshipping now besides Allah, are (but) fuel for Hell! (21:98)

Allah’s statement, أُعِدَّتْ لِلْكَافِرِينَ (prepared for the disbelievers),

It appears most obvious that it refers to the Fire that is fueled by men and stones, and it also may refer to the stones themselves.

There is no contradiction between these two views, because they are dependent upon each other.

`Prepared’ means,

it is `kept’ and will surely touch those who disbelieve in Allah and His Messenger.

Ibn Ishaq narrated that Muhammad said that Ikrimah or Sa`id bin Jubayr said that Ibn Abbas said, أُعِدَّتْ لِلْكَافِرِينَ (prepared for the disbelievers),

“For those who embrace the disbelief that you (disbelievers) have embraced.”

Jahannam (Hellfire) exists now

Many of the Imams of the Sunnah used this Ayah to prove that the Fire exists now. This is because Allah said, أُعِدَّتْ (prepared) meaning, prepared and kept.

There are many Hadiths on this subject. For instance, the Prophet said,

تَحَاجَّتِ الْجَنَّةُ وَالنَّار

Paradise and the Fire had an argument..

Also, the Prophet said,

اسْتَأْذَنَتِ النَّارُ رَبَّهَا فَقَالَتْ: رَبِّ أَكَلَ بَعضِي بَعْضًا فَأذِنَ لَهَا بِنَفَسَيْنِ: نَفَسٍ فِي الشِّتَاءِ وَنَفَسٍ فِي الصَّيْف

The Fire sought the permission of her Lord. She said, ‘O my Lord! Some parts of me consumed the other parts.’ And Allah allowed her two periods to exhale, one in winter and one in summer.

Also, there is a Hadith recorded from Ibn Mas`ud that the Companions heard the sound of a falling object. When they asked about it, the Messenger of Allah said,

هَذَا حَجَرٌ أُلْقِيَ بِهِ مِنْ شَفِيرِ جَهَنَّمَ مُنْذُ سَبْعِينَ سَنَةً، الْآنَ وَصَلَ إِلى قَعْرِهَا

This is a stone that was thrown from the top of Jahannam seventy years ago, but only now reached its bottom.

This Hadith is in Sahih Muslim.

There are many Hadiths that are Mutawatir (narrated by many different chains of narrations) on this subject, such as the Hadiths about the eclipse prayer, the night of Isra etc.

Allah’s statements, فَأْتُواْ بِسُورَةٍ مِّن مِّثْلِهِ (Then produce a Surah of the like thereof) (2:23), and, بِسُورَةٍ مِّثْلِهِ (A Surah like it) (10:38),

this includes the short and long Surahs of the Qur’an. Therefore, the challenge to creation stands with regards to both the long and short Surahs, and there is no disagreement that I know of on this fact between the scholars of old and new.

Before he became Muslim, Amr bin Al-`As met Musaylimah the Liar who asked him, “What has recently been revealed to your fellow (meaning Muhammad) in Makkah?”

Amr said, “A short, yet eloquent Surah.”

He asked, “What is it?”

He said,

وَالْعَصْرِ

إِنَّ الإِنسَـنَ لَفِى خُسْرٍ

By Al-`Asr (the time). Verily, man is in loss, (103:1-2)

Musaylimah thought for a while and said, “A similar Surah was also revealed to me.”

Amr asked, “What is it?”

He said, “O Wabr, O Wabr (i.e. a wild cat), you are but two ears and a chest, and the rest of you is unworthy and thin.”

Amr said, “By Allah! You know that I know that you are lying.”

وَبَشِّرِ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَاتِ أَنَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّـتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا الأَنْهَـرُ

2:25 And give glad tidings to those who believe and do righteous good deeds, that for them will be Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise).

كُلَّمَا رُزِقُواْ مِنْهَا مِن ثَمَرَةٍ رِّزْقاً قَالُواْ هَـذَا الَّذِى رُزِقْنَا مِن قَبْلُ وَأُتُواْ بِهِ مُتَشَـبِهاً

Every time they will be provided with a fruit therefrom, they will say: “This is what we were provided with before,” and they will be given things in resemblance (i.e. in the same form but different in taste),

وَلَهُمْ فِيهَآ أَزْوَجٌ مُّطَهَّرَةٌ وَهُمْ فِيهَا خَـلِدُونَ

and they shall have therein Azwajun Mutahharatun (purified mates or wives), and they will abide therein forever.

Hint: Read Surah Al Al Imran translation for a deeper understanding of Islamic history and theology.

 

Rewards of Righteous Believers

After mentioning the torment that Allah has prepared for His miserable enemies who disbelieve in Him and in His Messengers, He mentions the condition of His happy, loyal friends who believe in Him and in His Messengers, adhere to the faith and perform the good deeds. This is the reason why the Qur’an was called Mathani, based on the correct opinion of the scholars. We will elaborate upon this subject later.

Mathani means to mention faith and then disbelief, or vice versa. Or, Allah mentions the miserable and then the happy, or vice versa.

As for mentioning similar things, it is called Tashabbuh, as we will come to know, Allah willing.

Allah said,

وَبَشِّرِ الَّذِين آمَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّالِحَاتِ أَنَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الأَنْهَارُ …

And give glad tidings to those who believe and do righteous good deeds, that for them will be Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise),

Consequently, Allah stated that Paradise has rivers that run beneath it, meaning, underneath its trees and rooms.

From Hadiths it is learned that the rivers of Paradise do not run in valleys, and that the banks of Al-Kawthar (the Prophet’s lake in Paradise) are made of domes of hollow pearls, the sand of Paradise is made of scented musk while its stones are made from pearls and jewels. We ask Allah to grant Paradise to us, for verily, He is the Most Beneficent, Most Gracious.

Ibn Abi Hatim reported that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

أَنْهَارُ الْجَنَّةِ تَفَجَّرُ تَحْتَ تِلَالٍ أَوْ مِنْ تَحْتِ جِبَالِ الْمِسْ

The rivers of Paradise spring from beneath hills, or mountains of musk.

He also reported from Masruq that Abdullah said,

“The rivers of Paradise spring from beneath mountains of musk.”

The similarity between the Fruits of Paradise

Allah said next,

… كُلَّمَا رُزِقُواْ مِنْهَا مِن ثَمَرَةٍ رِّزْقاً قَالُواْ هَـذَا الَّذِي رُزِقْنَا مِن قَبْلُ …

Every time they will be provided with a fruit therefrom, they will say: “This is what we were provided with before”.

Ibn Abi Hatim reported that Yahya bin Abi Kathir said,

“The grass of Paradise is made of saffron, its hills from musk and the boys of everlasting youth will serve the believers with fruits which they will eat. They will then be brought similar fruits, and the people of Paradise will comment, This is the same as what you have just brought us.’ The boys will say to them,Eat, for the color is the same, but the taste is different.

Hence Allah’s statement,

… وَأُتُواْ بِهِ مُتَشَابِهاً …

and they will be given things in resemblance.”

Abu Jafar Ar-Razi narrated that Ar-Rabi bin Anas said that Abu Al-Aliyah said that, وَأُتُواْ بِهِ مُتَشَابِهاً (and they will be given things in resemblance) means,

“They look like each other, but the taste is different.”

Also, Ikrimah said, وَأُتُواْ بِهِ مُتَشَابِهاً (and they will be given things in resemblance),

“They are similar to the fruits of this life, but the fruits of Paradise taste better.”

Sufyan Ath-Thawri reported from Al-Amash, from Abu Thubyan, that Ibn Abbas said,

“Nothing in Paradise resembles anything in the life of this world, except in name.”

In another narration, Ibn Abbas said,

“Only the names are similar between what is in this life and what is in Paradise.”

The Wives of the People of Paradise are Pure

Allah said,

… وَلَهُمْ فِيهَا أَزْوَاجٌ مُّطَهَّرَةٌ …

and they shall have therein Azwajun Mutahharatun,

Ibn Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said,

“Purified from filth and impurity.”

Also, Mujahid said,

“From menstruation, relieving the call of nature, urine, spit, semen and pregnancies.”

Also, Qatadah said,

“Purified from impurity and sin.”

In another narration, he said,

“From menstruation and pregnancies.”

Further, Ata, Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak, Abu Salih, Atiyah and As-Suddi were reported to have said similarly.

Allah’s statement,

… وَهُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُون ﴿٢٥﴾

and they will abide therein forever.

meaning ultimate happiness, for the believers will enjoy everlasting delight, safe from death and disruption of their bliss, for it never ends or ceases.

We ask Allah to make us among these believers, for He is the Most Generous, Most Kind and Most merciful.

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إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَسْتَحْىِ أَن يَضْرِبَ مَثَلاً مَّا بَعُوضَةً فَمَا فَوْقَهَا

2:26 Verily, Allah is not ashamed to set forth a parable even of a mosquito or so much more when it is bigger (or less when it is smaller) than it.

فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ فَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ فَيَقُولُونَ مَاذَآ أَرَادَ اللَّهُ بِهَـذَا

And as for those who believe, they know that it is the truth from their Lord, but as for those who disbelieve, they say: “What did Allah intend by this parable?”

مَثَلاً يُضِلُّ بِهِ كَثِيرًا وَيَهْدِي بِهِ كَثِيرًا وَمَا يُضِلُّ بِهِ إِلاَّ الْفَـسِقِينَ

By it He misleads many, and many He guides thereby. And He misleads thereby only the Fasiqin (the rebellious, disobedient to Allah).

الَّذِينَ يَنقُضُونَ عَهْدَ اللَّهِ مِن بَعْدِ مِيثَـقِهِ وَيَقْطَعُونَ مَآ أَمَرَ اللَّهُ بِهِ أَن يُوصَلَ وَيُفْسِدُونَ فِي الاٌّرْضِ أُولَـئِكَ هُمُ الْخَـسِرُونَ

2:27 Those who break Allah’s covenant after ratifying it, and sever what Allah has ordered to be joined and do mischief on earth, it is they who are the losers.

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Allah says;

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَسْتَحْيِي أَن يَضْرِبَ مَثَلاً مَّا بَعُوضَةً فَمَا فَوْقَهَا …

Verily, Allah is not ashamed to set forth a parable even of a mosquito or so much more when it is bigger (or less when it is smaller) than it.

In his Tafsir, As-Suddi reported that Ibn Abbas, Ibn Mas`ud, and some Companions said;

“When Allah gave these two examples of the hypocrites” meaning Allah’s statements, مَثَلُهُمْ كَمَثَلِ الَّذِي اسْتَوْقَدَ نَاراً (Their likeness is as the likeness of one who kindled a fire), (2:17) and, أَوْ كَصَيِّبٍ مِّنَ السَّمَاء (Or like a rainstorm from the sky), (2:19) “The hypocrites said, `Allah’s far more exalted than for Him to make such examples.’ So Allah revealed these Ayat (2:26-27) up to: هُمُ الْخَاسِرُون (Who are the losers)”.

Sa`id said that Qatadah said,

“Allah does not shy away from the truth when He mentions a matter as a parable, whether this matter is significant or not. When Allah mentioned the flies and the spider in His Book, the people of misguidance said, `Why did Allah mention these things.’ So Allah revealed; إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَسْتَحْيِي أَن يَضْرِبَ مَثَلاً مَّا بَعُوضَةً فَمَا فَوْقَهَا (Verily, Allah is not ashamed to set forth a parable even of a mosquito or so much more when it is bigger (or less when it is smaller) than it).”

A Parable about the Life of This World

Abu Jafar Ar-Razi reported that Ar-Rabi bin Anas commented on this Ayah (2:26);

“This is an example that Allah has given for the life of this world. The mosquito lives as long as it needs food, but when it gets fat, it dies. This is also the example of people whom Allah mentioned in the Qur’an: when they acquire (and collect the delights of) the life of this world, Allah then takes them away.”

Afterwards, he recited,

فَلَمَّا نَسُواْ مَا ذُكِّرُواْ بِهِ فَتَحْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ أَبْوَابَ كُلِّ شَىْءٍ

So, when they forgot (the warning) with which they had been reminded, We opened for them the gates of every (pleasant) thing. (6:44)

In this Ayah (2:26) Allah stated that He does not shy away or hesitate in making an example or parable of anything, whether the example involves a significant or an insignificant matter. Allah’s statement, فَمَا فَوْقَهَا (Or so much more when it is bigger than it) Fama fawqaha means,

something bigger than the mosquito, which is one of the most insignificant and tiniest of creatures.

Muslim narrated that Aishah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

مَا مِنْ مُسْلِمٍ يُشَاكُ شَوكَةً فَمَا فَوْقَهَا إِلَّا كُتِبَتْ لَهُ بِهَا دَرَجَةٌ، وَمُحِيَتْ عَنْهُ بِهَا خَطِيئَة

No Muslim is harmed by a thorn, Fama fawqaha (or something larger), but a good deed will be written for him and an evil deed will be erased from his record.

So Allah has informed us that there is no matter that is too small that is exempt from being used as an example, even if it was as insignificant as a mosquito or a spider.

Allah said,

يأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ ضُرِبَ مَثَلٌ فَاسْتَمِعُواْ لَهُ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ لَن يَخْلُقُواْ ذُبَاباً وَلَوِ اجْتَمَعُواْ لَهُ وَإِن يَسْلُبْهُمُ الذُّبَابُ شَيْئاً لاَّ يَسْتَنقِذُوهُ مِنْهُ ضَعُفَ الطَّالِبُ وَالْمَطْلُوبُ

O mankind! A similitude has been coined, so listen to it (carefully): Verily, those on whom you call besides Allah, cannot create (even) a fly, even though they combine together for the purpose. And if the fly snatches away a thing from them, they will have no power to release it from the fly. So weak are (both) the seeker and the sought. (22:73)

مَثَلُ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُواْ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ أَوْلِيَآءَ كَمَثَلِ الْعَنكَبُوتِ اتَّخَذَتْ بَيْتاً وَإِنَّ أَوْهَنَ الْبُيُوتِ لَبَيْتُ الْعَنكَبُوتِ لَوْ كَانُواْ يَعْلَمُونَ

The likeness of those who take (false deities as) Awliya (protectors, helpers) other than Allah is the likeness of a spider who builds (for itself) a house; but verily, the frailest (weakest) of houses is the spider’s house ـ if they but knew. (29:41)

and,

أَلَمْ تَرَ كَيْفَ ضَرَبَ اللَّهُ مَثَلاً كَلِمَةً طَيِّبَةً كَشَجَرةٍ طَيِّبَةٍ أَصْلُهَا ثَابِتٌ وَفَرْعُهَا فِى السَّمَآءِ

تُؤْتِى أُكُلَهَا كُلَّ حِينٍ بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهَا وَيَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ الأَمْثَالَ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ

وَمَثلُ كَلِمَةٍ خَبِيثَةٍ كَشَجَرَةٍ خَبِيثَةٍ اجْتُثَّتْ مِن فَوْقِ الاٌّرْضِ مَا لَهَا مِن قَرَارٍ

يُثَبِّتُ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ بِالْقَوْلِ الثَّابِتِ فِى الْحَيَوةِ الدُّنْيَا وَفِى الاٌّخِرَةِ وَيُضِلُّ اللَّهُ الظَّـلِمِينَ وَيَفْعَلُ اللَّهُ مَا يَشَآءُ

See you not how Allah sets forth a parable!

A goodly word as a goodly tree, whose root is firmly fixed, and its branches (reach) to the sky (i.e. very high). Giving its fruit at all times, by the leave of its Lord, and Allah sets forth parables for mankind in order that they may remember.

And the parable of an evil word is that of an evil tree uprooted from the surface of earth, having no stability.

Allah will keep firm those who believe, with the word that stands firm in life of this world (i.e. they will keep on worshipping Allah alone and none else), and in the Hereafter. And Allah will cause the Zalimin (polytheists and wrongdoers) to go astray those and Allah does what He wills. (14:24-27)

Allah said,

ضَرَبَ اللَّهُ مَثَلاً عَبْدًا مَّمْلُوكًا لاَّ يَقْدِرُ عَلَى شَىْءٍ

Allah puts forward the example of (two men ـ a believer and a disbeliever); a servant under the possession of another, he has no power of any sort. (16:75)

He then said,

وَضَرَبَ اللَّهُ مَثَلاً رَّجُلَيْنِ أَحَدُهُمَآ أَبْكَمُ لاَ يَقْدِرُ عَلَى شَىْءٍ وَهُوَ كَلٌّ عَلَى مَوْلاهُ أَيْنَمَا يُوَجِّههُّ لاَ يَأْتِ بِخَيْرٍ هَلْ يَسْتَوِى هُوَ وَمَن يَأْمُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ

And Allah puts forward (another) example of two men, one of them dumb, who has no power over anything, and he is a burden on his master; whichever way he directs him, he brings no good. Is such a man equal to one who commands justice! (16:76)

Also, Allah said,

ضَرَبَ لَكُمْ مَّثَلاً مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ هَلْ لَّكُمْ مِّن مَّا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَـنُكُمْ مِّن شُرَكَآءَ فِى مَا رَزَقْنَـكُمْ

He sets forth for you a parable from your own selves: Do you have partners among those whom your right hands possess (i.e. your servants) to share as equals in the wealth we have bestowed on you! (30:28)

Mujahid commented on Allah’s statement, إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَسْتَحْيِي أَن يَضْرِبَ مَثَلاً مَّا بَعُوضَةً فَمَا فَوْقَهَا (Verily, Allah is not ashamed to set forth a parable even of a mosquito or so much more when it is bigger than it),

“The believers believe in these parables, whether they involve large matters or small, because they know that they are the truth from their Lord, and Allah guides the believers by these parables.”

Allah’s statement;

… فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ فَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ فَيَقُولُونَ مَاذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهُ بِهَـذَا مَثَلاً …

And as for those who believe, they know that it is the truth from their Lord, but as for those who disbelieve, they say: “What did Allah intend by this parable?”

… يُضِلُّ بِهِ كَثِيراً …

By it He misleads many,

In his Tafsir, As-Suddi reported that Ibn Abbas, Ibn Mas`ud and other people among the Companions said,

“Meaning the hypocrites. Allah guides the believers with these parables, and the straying of the hypocrites increases when they reject the parables that Allah mentioned for them which they know are true. This is how Allah misleads them.”

… وَيَهْدِي بِهِ …

And He guides thereby,

meaning, with the parables,

… كَثِيراً …

many,

from among the people of faith and conviction. Allah adds guidance to their guidance, and faith to their faith, because they firmly believe in what they know to be true, that is, the parables that Allah has mentioned. This is guidance that Allah grants them;

… وَمَا يُضِلُّ بِهِ إِلاَّ الْفَاسِقِين ﴿٢٦﴾

And He misleads thereby only the Fasiqin (the rebellious, disobedient to Allah),

meaning, the hypocrites.

The Arabs say that the date has Fasaqat, when it comes out of its skin, and they call the mouse a Fuwaysiqah, because it leaves its den to cause mischief.

The Two Sahihs recorded Aishah saying that the Messenger of Allah said,

خَمْسٌ فَوَاسِقُ يُقْتَلْنَ فِي الْحِلِّ وَالْحَرَمِ: الغُرَابُ وَالْحِدَأَةُ وَالْعَقْرَبُ وَالْفَأْرَةُ وَالْكَلْبُ الْعَقُور

Five animals are Fawasiq, and they must be killed during Ihram and otherwise:

the crow,

the kite,

the scorpion,

the mouse and

the rabid dog.

Fasiq, includes the disbeliever and the disobedient. However, the Fisq of the disbeliever is worse, and this is the type of Fasiq that the Ayah is describing here, because Allah described them as,

الَّذِينَ يَنقُضُونَ عَهْدَ اللَّهِ مِن بَعْدِ مِيثَاقِهِ وَيَقْطَعُونَ مَا أَمَرَ اللَّهُ بِهِ أَن يُوصَلَ وَيُفْسِدُونَ فِي الأَرْضِ أُولَـئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُون ﴿٢٧﴾

Those who break Allah’s covenant after ratifying it, and sever what Allah has ordered to be joined and do mischief on earth, it is they who are the losers.

These are the characteristics of the disbelievers and they contradict the qualities of the believers.

Similarly, Allah said in Surah Ar-Ra`d,

أَفَمَن يَعْلَمُ أَنَّمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَبِّكَ الْحَقُّ كَمَنْ هُوَ أَعْمَى إِنَّمَا يَتَذَكَّرُ أُوْلُواْ الأَلْبَـبِ

الَّذِينَ يُوفُونَ بِعَهْدِ اللَّهِ وَلاَ يِنقُضُونَ الْمِيثَـقَ

وَالَّذِينَ يَصِلُونَ مَآ أَمَرَ اللَّهُ بِهِ أَن يُوصَلَ وَيَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُمْ وَيَخَافُونَ سُوءَ الحِسَابِ

Shall he then, who knows that what has been revealed unto you (O Muhammad) from your Lord is the truth, be like him who is blind! But it is only the men of understanding that pay heed.

Those who fulfill the covenant of Allah and break not the Mithaq (bond, treaty, covenant).

And those who join that which Allah has commanded to be joined (i.e. they are good to their relatives and do not sever the bond of kinship), and fear their Lord, and dread the terrible reckoning. (13:19-21)) until,

وَالَّذِينَ يَنقُضُونَ عَهْدَ اللَّهِ مِن بَعْدِ مِيثَـقِهِ وَيَقْطَعُونَ مَآ أَمَرَ اللَّهُ بِهِ أَن يُوصَلَ وَيُفْسِدُونَ فِى الاٌّرْضِ أُوْلَـئِكَ لَهُمُ اللَّعْنَةُ وَلَهُمْ سُوءُ الدَّارِ

And those who break the covenant of Allah, after its ratification, and sever that which Allah has commanded to be joined (i.e. they sever the bond of kinship and are not good to their relatives), and work mischief in the land, on them is the curse (i.e. they will be far away from Allah’s mercy), and for them is the unhappy (evil) home (i.e. Hell). (13:25)

The covenant that these deviant people broke is Allah’s covenant with His creation, that is, to obey Him and avoid the sins that He prohibited. This covenant was reiterated in Allah’s Books and by the words of His Messengers. Ignoring this covenant constitutes breaking it.

It was said that the Ayah (2:27) is about the disbelievers and the hypocrites among the People of the Book. In this case, the covenant that they broke is the pledge that Allah took from them in the Tawrah to follow Muhammad when he is sent as a Prophet, and to believe in him, and in what he was sent with. Breaking Allah’s covenant in this case occurred when the People of the Book rejected the Prophet after they knew the truth about him, and they hid this truth from people, even though they swore to Allah that they would do otherwise. Allah informed us that they threw the covenant behind their backs and sold it for a miserable price.

It was also reported that the Ayah (2:27) refers to all disbelievers, idol worshippers and hypocrites. Allah took their pledge to believe in His Oneness, showing them the signs that testify to His Lordship. He also took a covenant from them to obey His commands and refrain from His prohibitions, knowing that His Messengers would bring proofs and miracles that none among the creation could ever produce. These miracles testified to the truth of Allah’s Messengers. The covenant was broken when the disbelievers denied what was proven to them to be authentic and rejected Allah’s Prophets and Books, although they knew that they were the truth.

This Tafsir was reported from Muqatil bin Hayyan, and it is very good. It is also the view that Az-Zamakhshari held.

Allah’s statement next,

… وَيَقْطَعُونَ مَا أَمَرَ اللَّهُ بِهِ أَن يُوصَلَ …

And sever what Allah has ordered to be joined,

is in reference to keeping the relations with the relatives, as Qatadah asserted.

This Ayah is similar to Allah’s statement,

فَهَلْ عَسَيْتُمْ إِن تَوَلَّيْتُمْ أَن تُفْسِدُواْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ وَتُقَطِّعُواْ أَرْحَامَكُمْ

Would you then, if you were given the authority, do mischief in the land, and sever your ties of kinship. (47:22)

Ibn Jarir At-Tabari preferred this opinion.

However, it has been said that the meaning of the Ayah (2:27) here is more general. Hence, everything that Allah has commanded to nurture, and the people severed, is included in its meaning.

The Meaning of `Loss

Muqatil bin Hayyan commented on Allah’s statement, أُولَـئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُون (It is they who are the losers),

“In the Hereafter.”

Similarly, Allah said,

أُوْلَـئِكَ لَهُمُ اللَّعْنَةُ وَلَهُمْ سُوءُ الدَّارِ

On them is the curse (i.e. they will be far away from Allah’s mercy), and for them is the unhappy (evil) home (i.e. Hell). (13:25)

Also, Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn Abbas said,

“Every characteristic that Allah describes those other than the people of Islam – such as being losers – then it refers to disbelief. However, when they are attributed to the people of Islam, then these terms refer to sin.”

Ibn Jarir commented on Allah’s statement, أُولَـئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُون (It is they who are the losers),

“Losers is plural for loser, this word refers to whoever decreased his own share of Allah’s mercy by disobeying Him, just as the merchant loses in his trade by sustaining capital loss. Such is the case with the hypocrite and the disbeliever who lose their share of the mercy that Allah has in store for His servants on the Day of Resurrection. And that is when the disbeliever and the hypocrite most desperately need Allah’s mercy.”

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كَيْفَ تَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَكُنتُمْ أَمْوَتًا فَأَحْيَـكُمْ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ

2:28 How can you disbelieve in Allah seeing that you were dead and He gave you life! Then He will give you death, then again will bring you to life (on the Day of Resurrection) and then unto Him you will return.

Hint: Read Surah Al Nisa translation for a deeper understanding of Islamic law and jurisprudence

Allah testifies to the fact that He exists and that He is the Creator and the Sustainer Who has full authority over His servants,

كَيْفَ تَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَكُنتُمْ أَمْوَاتاً فَأَحْيَاكُمْ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ ﴿٢٨﴾

How can you disbelieve in Allah seeing that you were dead and He gave you life! Then He will give you death, then again will bring you to life (on the Day of Resurrection) and then unto Him you will return.

How can anyone deny Allah’s existence or worship others with Him while; وَكُنتُمْ أَمْوَاتاً فَأَحْيَاكُمْ (You were dead and He gave you life),

meaning, He brought them from the state of non-existence to life.

Similarly, Allah said,

أَمْ خُلِقُواْ مِنْ غَيْرِ شَىْءٍ أَمْ هُمُ الْخَـلِقُونَ

أَمْ خَلَقُواْ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ بَل لاَّ يُوقِنُونَ

Were they created by nothing! Or were they themselves the creators! Or did they create the heavens and the earth! Nay, but they have no firm belief. (52:35-36)

and,

هَلْ أَتَى عَلَى الإِنسَـنِ حِينٌ مِّنَ الدَّهْرِ لَمْ يَكُن شَيْئاً مَّذْكُوراً

Has there not been over man a period of time, when he was not a thing worth mentioning. (76:1)

There are many other Ayat on this subject.

Ibn Jarir reported from Ata that Ibn Abbas said that, وَكُنتُمْ أَمْوَاتاً فَأَحْيَاكُمْ (Seeing that you were dead and He gave you life) means,

“You did not exist beforehand. You were nothing until Allah created you; He will bring death to you and then bring you back to life during Resurrection.”

Ibn Abbas then said, “This is similar to Allah’s statement;

قَالُواْ رَبَّنَآ أَمَتَّنَا اثْنَتَيْنِ وَأَحْيَيْتَنَا اثْنَتَيْنِ

They will say: “Our Lord! You have made us to die twice and You have given us life twice.” (40:11)”

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هُوَ الَّذِى خَلَقَ لَكُم مَّا فِى الاٌّرْضِ جَمِيعاً ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى إِلَى السَّمَآءِ فَسَوَّاهُنَّ سَبْعَ سَمَـوَاتٍ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

2:29 He it is Who created for you all that is on earth. Then He Istawa ila the heaven and made them seven heavens and He is the Knower of everything.

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Evidence of Allah’s Ability

After Allah mentioned the proofs of His creating them, and what they can witness in themselves as proof of that, He mentioned another proof that they can witness, that is, the creation of the heavens and earth.

Allah said,

هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ لَكُم مَّا فِي الأَرْضِ جَمِيعاً ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى إِلَى السَّمَاء فَسَوَّاهُنَّ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ …

He it is Who created for you all that is on earth. Then He Istawa ila the heaven and made them seven heavens.

meaning, He turned towards the heaven,

فَسَوَّاهُنَّ (And made them) meaning,

that He made the heaven, seven heavens.

Allah said,

… فَسَوَّاهُنَّ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ ﴿٢٩﴾

And made them seven heavens and He is the Knower of everything.

meaning, His knowledge encompasses all His creation, just as He said in another Ayah,

أَلاَ يَعْلَمُ مَنْ خَلَقَ

Should not He Who has created know! (67:14)

The Beginning of the Creation

This Ayah (2:29) is explained in detail in Surah As-Sajdah where Allah said;

قُلْ أَءِنَّكُمْ لَتَكْفُرُونَ بِالَّذِى خَلَقَ الاٌّرْضَ فِى يَوْمَيْنِ وَتَجْعَلُونَ لَهُ أَندَاداً ذَلِكَ رَبُّ الْعَـلَمِينَ

وَجَعَلَ فِيهَا رَوَاسِىَ مِن فَوْقِهَا وَبَـرَكَ فِيهَا وَقَدَّرَ فِيهَآ أَقْوَتَهَا فِى أَرْبَعَةِ أَيَّامٍ سَوَآءً لِّلسَّآئِلِينَ

ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى إِلَى السَّمَآءِ وَهِىَ دُخَانٌ فَقَالَ لَهَا وَلِلاٌّرْضِ ائْتِيَا طَوْعاً أَوْ كَرْهاً قَالَتَآ أَتَيْنَا طَآئِعِينَ

فَقَضَاهُنَّ سَبْعَ سَمَـوَتٍ فِى يَوْمَيْنِ وَأَوْحَى فِى كُلِّ سَمَآءٍ أَمْرَهَا وَزَيَّنَّا السَّمَآءَ الدُّنْيَا بِمَصَـبِيحَ وَحِفْظاً ذَلِكَ تَقْدِيرُ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلِيمِ

Say (O Muhammad): “Do you verily disbelieve in Him Who created the earth in two Days And you set up rivals (in worship) with Him! That is the Lord of all that exists.

He placed therein (i.e. the earth) firm mountains from above it, and He blessed it, and measured therein its sustenance (for its dwellers) in four Days equal (i.e. all these four `days’ were equal in the length of time) for all those who ask (about its creation). Then He Istawa ila the heaven when it was smoke, and said to it and to the earth: “Come both of you willingly or unwillingly.”

They both said: “We come willingly.”

Then He finished them (as) seven heavens in two Days and He made in each heaven its affair. And We adorned the nearest (lowest) heaven with lamps (stars) to be an adornment as well as to guard (from the devils by using them as missiles against the devils).

Such is the decree of the Almighty, the Knower. (41:9-12).

These Ayat indicate that Allah started creation by creating earth, then He made heaven into seven heavens. This is how building usually starts, with the lower floors first and then the top floors, as the scholars of Tafsir reiterated, as we will come to know, Allah willing.

Allah also said,

أَءَنتُمْ أَشَدُّ خَلْقاً أَمِ السَّمَآءُ بَنَـهَا

رَفَعَ سَمْكَهَا فَسَوَّاهَا

وَأَغْطَشَ لَيْلَهَا وَأَخْرَجَ ضُحَـهَا

وَالاٌّرْضَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ دَحَـهَا

أَخْرَجَ مِنْهَا مَآءَهَا وَمَرْعَـهَا

وَالْجِبَالَ أَرْسَـهَا

مَتَـعاً لَّكُمْ وَلاًّنْعَـمِكُمْ

Are you more difficult to create or is the heaven that He constructed He raised its height, and has perfected it. Its night He covers with darkness and its forenoon He brings out (with light). And the earth, after that, He spread it out. And brought forth therefrom its water and its pasture. And the mountains He has fixed firmly. (To be) a provision and benefit for you and your cattle. (79:27-33)

It is said that “Then” in the Ayah (2:29) relates only to the order of reciting the information being given, it does not relate to the order that the events being mentioned took place, this was reported from Ibn Abbas by Ali bin Abi Talhah.

The Earth was created before Heaven

Mujahid commented on Allah’s statement, هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ لَكُم مَّا فِي الأَرْضِ جَمِيعاً (He it is Who created for you all that is on earth),

“Allah created the earth before heaven, and when He created the earth, smoke burst out of it. This is why Allah said, ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى إِلَى السَّمَاء وَهِيَ دُخَانٌ (Then He Istawa ila (turned towards) the heaven when it was smoke. (41:11), فَسَوَّاهُنَّ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ (And made them seven heavens) means, one above the other, while the `seven earths’ means, one below the other.”

This Ayah testifies to the fact that the earth was created before heaven, as Allah has indicated in the Ayat in Surah As-Sajdah.

Spreading the Earth out after the Heavens were created

Sahih Al-Bukhari records that;

when Ibn Abbas was questioned about this matter, he said that the earth was created before heaven, and the earth was spread out only after the creation of the heaven.

Several Tafsir scholars of old and recent times also said similarly, as we have elaborated on in the Tafsir of Surah An-Nazi`at.

The result of that discussion is that the word Daha (translated above as “spread”) is mentioned and explained in Allah’s statement,

وَالاٌّرْضَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ دَحَـهَا

أَخْرَجَ مِنْهَا مَآءَهَا وَمَرْعَـهَا

وَالْجِبَالَ أَرْسَـهَا

And the earth, after that, He spread it out. And brought forth therefrom its water and its pasture. And the mountains He has fixed firmly. (79:30-32)

Therefore, Daha means that the earth’s treasures were brought to its surface after finishing the job of creating whatever will reside on earth and heaven. When the earth became Daha, the water burst out to its surface and the various types, colors, shapes and kinds of plants grew. The stars started rotating along with the planets that rotate around them. And Allah knows best.

وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَـئِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِى الأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً

2:30 And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: “Verily, I am going to place (mankind) generations after generations on earth.”

قَالُواْ أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَآءَ وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ

They said: “Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, ـ while we glorify You with praises and thanks and sanctify You.”

قَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ

He (Allah) said: “I know that which you do not know.”

Explore the profound insights of Tafsir Al Baqarah Ayat 30 on Quran House. Understand the creation of humanity and the wisdom behind Allah’s divine plan.

Adam and His Children inhabited the Earth, Generation after Generation

Allah reiterated His favor on the Children of Adam when He stated that He mentioned them in the highest of heights before He created them. Allah said,

وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلاَئِكَةِ …

And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels,

This Ayah means, “O Muhammad! Mention to your people what Allah said to the angels.

… إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً …

Verily, I am going to place a Khalifah on earth.

Meaning people reproducing generation after generation, century after century, just as Allah said,

وَهُوَ الَّذِى جَعَلَكُمْ خَلَـئِفَ الاٌّرْضِ

And it is He Who has made you (Khala’if) generations coming after generations, replacing each other on the earth. (6:165)

وَيَجْعَلُكُمْ حُلَفَآءَ الاٌّرْضِ

And makes you (Khulafa) inheritors of the earth. (27:62)

وَلَوْ نَشَآءُ لَجَعَلْنَا مِنكُمْ مَّلَـئِكَةً فِى الاٌّرْضِ يَخْلُفُونَ

And if it were Our will, We would have (destroyed you (mankind all, and) made angels to replace you (Yakhlufun) on the earth. (43: 60)

and,

فَخَلَفَ مِن بَعْدِهِمْ خَلْفٌ

Then after them succeeded an (evil) generation (Khalf)) (7:169).

It appears that Allah was not referring to Adam specifically as Khalifah, otherwise he would not have allowed the angels’ statement,

… قَالُواْ أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاء …

They said: “Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood!”

The angels meant that this type of creature usually commits the atrocities they mentioned. The angels knew of this fact, according to their understanding of human nature, for Allah stated that He would create man from clay. Or, the angels understood this fact from the word Khalifah, which also means the person who judges disputes that occur between people, forbidding them from injustice and sin, as Al-Qurtubi said.

The statement the angels uttered was not a form of disputing with Allah’s, nor out of envy for the Children of Adam, as some mistakenly thought. Allah has described them as those who do not precede Him in speaking, meaning that they do not ask Allah anything without His permission.

When Allah informed them that He was going to create a creation on the earth, and they had knowledge that this creation would commit mischief on it, as Qatadah mentioned, they said, أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاء (Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood).

This is only a question for the sake of learning about the wisdom of that, as if they said, Our Lord! What is the wisdom of creating such creatures since they will cause trouble in the earth and spill blood.

“If the wisdom behind this action is that You be worshipped, we praise and glorify You (meaning we pray to You) we never indulge in mischief, so why create other creatures”

… وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ …

while we glorify You with praises and thanks and sanctify You.”

Allah said to the angels in answer to their inquiry,

… قَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ ﴿٣٠﴾

He (Allah) said: I know that which you do not know.

meaning, “I know that the benefit of creating this type of creature outweighs the harm that you mentioned, that which you have no knowledge of. I will create among them Prophets and send Messengers. I will also create among them truthful, martyrs, righteous believers, worshippers, the modest, the pious, the scholars who implement their knowledge, humble people and those who love Allah and follow His Messengers.”

The Sahih recorded that;

when the angels ascend to Allah with the records of the servant’s deeds, Allah asks them, while having better knowledge, “How did you leave My servants?”

They will say, “We came to them while they were praying and left them while they were praying.”

This is because the angels work in shifts with mankind, and they change shifts during the Fajr and `Asr prayers.

The angels who descended will remain with us, while the angels who have remained with us ascend with our deeds. The Messenger of Allah said,

يُرْفَعُ إِلَيْهِ عَمَلُ اللَّيْلِ قَبْلَ النَّهَارِ وَعَمَلُ النَّهَارِ قَبْلَ اللَّيْل

The deeds of the night are elevated to Allah before the morning, and the deeds of the morning before the night falls.

Hence, the angels’ statement, “We came to them while they were praying and left them while they were praying,” explains Allah’s statement, إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ (I know that which you do not know).

It was said that the meaning of Allah’s statement, إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ (I know that which you do not know) is,

“I have a specific wisdom in creating them, which you do not have knowledge of.”

It was also said that it is in answer to, وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ (While we glorify You with praises and thanks and sanctify You) after which Allah said, إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ (I know that which you do not know). Meaning,

“I know that Iblis is not as you are, although he is among you.”

Others said,

أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاء وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ “(Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, ـ while we glorify you with praises and thanks and sanctify You.) is their request that they should be allowed to inhabit the earth, instead of the Children of Adam. So Allah said to them, إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ (I know that which you do not know) if your inhabiting the heavens is better, or worse for you.”

Ar-Razi as well as others said this.

Allah knows best.

The Obligation of appointing a Khalifah and some related Issues

Al-Qurtubi, as well as other scholars, said that;

this Ayah (2:30) proves the obligation of appointing a Khalifah to pass judgments on matters of dispute between people, to aid the oppressed against the oppressor, to implement the Islamic penal code and to forbid evil. There are many other tasks that can only be fulfilled by appointing the Imam, and what is necessary in performing an obligation, is an obligation itself.

We should state here that Imamah occurs by;

either naming a successor, as a group among Ahl As-Sunnah scholars said occurred – by the Prophet – in the case of Abu Bakr, or hinting to a successor.

Or, the current Khalifah names a certain person as Khalifah after him, as Abu Bakr did with Umar.

Or, the Khalifah might leave the matter in the hands of the Muslim consultative council, or a group of righteous men, just as Umar did.

Or, the people of authority could gather around a certain person to whom they give the pledge of allegiance, or they could select one among them to choose the candidate, according to the majority of the scholars.

The Khalifah must be a responsible adult Muslim male, able to perform Ijtihad (independent legal judgments), bodily able, righteous, with knowledge of warfare, politics.

He also must be from the tribe of Quraysh, according to the correct view, but it is not necessary that he be from the tribe of Bani Hashim, or that he be immune from error, as the Rafidah (Shiites) falsely claim.

When the Khalifah becomes an immoral person (Fasiq), should he be impeached. There is disagreement over this matter, but the correct view is that he is not to be removed, because the Messenger of Allah said,

إِلَّا أَنْ تَرَوْا كُفْرًا بَوَاحًا عِنْدَكُمْ مِنَ اللهِ فِيهِ بُرْهَان

Unless you witness a clear Kufr regarding which you have clear proof from Allah.

Does the Khalifah have the right to resign from his post?

There is a difference on this issue.

It is a fact that Al-Hasan bin Ali removed himself from the position of Khalifah and surrendered it to Muawiyah. However, this occurred because of a necessity, and Al-Hasan was praised for this action.

It is not permissible to appoint two Imams for the world or more at the same time. This is not allowed because the Messenger of Allah said,

مَنْ جَاءَكُمْ وَأَمْرُكُمْ جَمِيعٌ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يُفَرِّقَ بَيْنَكُمْ فَاقْتُلُوهُ كَائِنًا مَنْ كَان

Whoever came to you while you are united and tried to divide you, then execute him, no matter who he is.

This is the view of the majority of scholars.

Imam Al-Haramayn stated that;

Abu Ishaq allowed the appointment of two or more Imams when the various provinces are far away from each other.

However, Imam Al-Haramayn himself was indecisive about this view.

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وَعَلَّمَ ءَادَمَ الأَسْمَآءَ كُلَّهَا ثُمَّ عَرَضَهُمْ عَلَى الْمَلَـئِكَةِ فَقَالَ أَنبِئُونِى بِأَسْمَآءِ هَـؤُلاَءِ إِن كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ

2:31 And He taught Adam all the names (of everything), then He showed them to the angels and said, “Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful.”

قَالُواْ سُبْحَـنَكَ لاَ عِلْمَ لَنَآ إِلاَّ مَا عَلَّمْتَنَآ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ

2:32 They (angels) said: “Glory is to You, we have no knowledge except what you have taught us. Verily, You are the Knower, the Wise.”

قَالَ يَـاءَادَمُ أَنبِئْهُم بِأَسْمَآئِهِمْ

2:33 He said: “O Adam! Inform them of their names,”

فَلَمَّآ أَنبَأَهُم بِأَسْمَآئِهِم قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُل لَّكُمْ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ السَّمَـوَاتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَأَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ

and when he had informed them of their names, He said: “Did I not tell you that I know the Ghayb (unseen) in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing!”

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Next 34

The Virtue of Adam over the Angels

Allah stated the virtue of Adam above the angels, because He taught Adam, rather than them, the names of everything. This occurred after they prostrated to him. This discussion precedes that event here, only to show the importance of his position, and the absence of the angels’ knowledge about creating the Khalifah when they asked about it. So Allah informed the angels that He knows what they do not know, and then He mentioned this to show them Adam’s superiority over them in knowledge.

Allah said,

وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الأَسْمَاء كُلَّهَا …

And He taught Adam all the names (of everything).

Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn Abbas commented on the Ayah;

“Meaning, the names that people use, such as human, animal, sky, earth, land, sea, horse, donkey, and so forth, including the names of the other species.”

Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarir reported that Asim bin Kulayb narrated from Said bin Mabad that;

Ibn Abbas was questioned, وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الأَسْمَاء كُلَّهَا (And He taught Adam all the names (of everything) “Did Allah teach him the names of the plate and the pot?”

He said, “Yes, and even the terms for breaking wind!”

Allah taught Adam the names of everything, their proper names, the names of their characteristics, and what they do, just as Ibn Abbas stated about the terms for passing gas.

In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari explained this Ayah in the Book of Tafsir with a report from Anas bin Malik who said that the Messenger of Allah said,

يَجْتَمِعُ الْمُؤمِنُونَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فَيَقُولُونَ: لَوِ اسْتَشْفَعْنَا إِلَى رَبِّنَا

The believers will gather on the Day of Resurrection and will say, `We should seek a means of intercession with our Lord.’

فَيَأْتُونَ آدَمَ فَيَقُولُونَ: أَنْتَ أَبُو النَّاسِ خَلَقَكَ اللهُ بِيَدِهِ وَأَسْجَدَ لَكَ مَلَائِكَتَهُ وَعَلَّمَكَ أَسْمَاءَ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ، فَاشْفَعْ لَنَا عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ حَتَّى يُريحَنَا مِنْ مَكَانِنَا هَذا،

They will go to Adam and say, `O Adam! You are the father of all mankind, Allah created you with His Own Hand, ordered the angels to prostrate for you and taught you the names of everything. Will you not intercede for us with your Lord, so that he relieve us from this gathering place.’

فَيَقُولُ: لَسْتُ هُنَاكُمْ وَيَذْكُرُ ذَنْبَهُ فَيَسْتَحْيِي ائْتُوا نُوحًا فإِنَّهُ أَوَّلُ رَسُولٍ بَعَثَهُ اللهُ إِلَى أَهْلِ الْأَرْضِ،

On that Adam will reply, I cannot do what you have asked’. He will have remembered his error and will be embarrassed, saying,Go to Nuh, for he is the first of Allah’s Messengers whom Allah sent to the people of the earth.’

فَيَأْتُونَه،

They will go to Nuh and ask him.

فَيَقُولُ: لَسْتُ هُناكُمْ وَيَذْكُر سُؤَالَه رَبَّه مَا لَيْسَ لَهُ بِه عِلْم فَيَسْتَحْيِي فَيَقُولُ: ائْتُوا خَلِيلَ الرَّحْمن

He will say, I cannot do what you have asked.’ He will recall asking Allah what he was not to know, and will also be embarrassed. He will say,Go to Khalil Ar-Rahman.’

فَيَأْتُونَهُ فَيقُولُ: لَسْتُ هُنَاكُمْ فَيَقُولُ: ائْتُوا مُوسَى عَبْدًا كَلَّمَهُ اللهُ وَأعْطَاهُ التَّوْرَاةَ،

They will go to Ibrahim and he will also say, I cannot do what you have asked.’ He will say,Go to Musa, a servant to whom Allah spoke directly and gave the Tawrah.’

فَيقُولُ: لَسْتُ هُنَاكُم فَيَذْكُرُ قَتْلَ النَّفْسِ بِغَيْرِ نَفْسٍ فَيَسْتَحْيِي مِنْ رَبِّهِ فَيَقُولُ: ائْتُوا عِيسى عَبْدَاللهِ وَرَسُولَهُ وَكَلِمَةَ اللهِ ورُوحَهُ،

Musa will say, I cannot do what you have asked.’ He will remember that he killed a person without justification and will be embarrassed before his Lord. He will say,Go to `Isa, Allah’s servant and Messenger and His Word and a spirit of His.’

فَيَأْتُونَهُ فَيَقُولُ: لَسْتُ هُنَاكُمْ ائْتُوا مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدًا غُفِرَ لَهُ مَا تَقَدَّم مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ،

They will go to Isa and he will say,I will not do what you asked. Go to Muhammad, a servant whose previous and latter errors were forgiven.’

فَيَأْتُونِّي فأَنْطَلِقُ حَتَّى أَسْتأذِنَ عَلَى رَبِّي فيَأْذَنُ لِي،

They will come to me, and I will go to Allah and seek His permission and He will give me His permission.

فإِذَا رأَيْتُ رَبِّي وَقَعْتُ سَاجِدًا فَيَدَعُنِي مَا شَاءَ اللهُ

When I gaze at my Lord, I will prostrate myself and Allah will allow me to remain like that as much as He will.

ثُمَّ يُقَالُ: ارْفَعْ رَأْسَكَ وَسَلْ تُعْطَهْ وَقُلْ يُسْمَعْ وَاشْفَعْ تُشَفَّعْ،

Then I will be addressed, `O Muhammad! Raise your head; ask, for you will be given what you ask, and intercede, for your intercession will be accepted.’

فأَرْفَعُ رَأْسِي فأَحْمَدُهُ بِتَحْمِيدٍ يُعَلِّمُنِيهِ ثُمَّ أَشْفَعُ فَيُحَدُّ لِي حَدًّا فأُدْخِلُهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ

I will raise my head and thank and praise Allah with such praise as He will inspire me. I will intercede and He will grant me a quantity of people that He will admit into Paradise.

ثُمَّ أَعُودُ إلَيْهِ فَإذَا رَأَيْتُ رَبِّي مِثْلَهُ ثُمَّ أَشْفَعُ فَيُحَدُّ لِي حدًّا فأُدْخِلُهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ

I will go back to Him, and when I see my Lord, I will intercede and He will allow me a quantity that He will admit into Paradise.

ثُمَّ أَعُودُ الثَّالِثَةَ ثُمَّ أعُودُ الرَّابِعَةَ

I will do that for a third and then a fourth time.

فَأَقُولُ:مَا بَقِيَ فِي النَّار إلَّا مَنْ حَبَسَهُ الْقُرْآنُ وَوَجَبَ عَلَيْهِ الْخُلُود

I will say, `There are no more people left in Hell except those whom the Qur’an has incarcerated and have thus acquired eternity in Hell.’

This Hadith was collected by Muslim, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah.

The reason why we mentioned this Hadith here is the Prophet’s statement,

فَيَأْتُونَ آدَمَ فَيَقُولُون: أنْتَ أَبُو النَّاسِ خَلَقَكَ اللهُ بِيَدِهِ وَأَسْجَدَ لَكَ مَلَائِكَتَهُ وَعَلَّمَكَ أَسْمَاءَ كُلِّ شَيْء

They will go to Adam and say, `O Adam! You are the father of all mankind, and Allah created you with His Own Hand, ordered the angels to prostrate for you, and taught you the names of everything.

This part of the Hadith testifies to the fact that Allah taught Adam the names of all creatures.

This is why Allah said,

… ثُمَّ عَرَضَهُمْ عَلَى الْمَلاَئِكَةِ …

Then He showed them to the angels,

meaning, the objects or creations.

Abdur-Razzaq narrated that Ma`mar said that Qatadah said,

“Allah paraded the objects before the angels,

… فَقَالَ أَنبِئُونِي بِأَسْمَاء هَـؤُلاء إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ ﴿٣١﴾

And said, “Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful”.”

Allah’s statement means,

“Tell Me the names of what I paraded before you, O angels who said, أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاء (Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood), (2:30). You asked, `Are You appointing a Khalifah from us or from other creations We praise and glorify You.

Therefore, Allah said, “If you say the truth, that if I appoint a non-angel Khalifah on the earth, he and his offspring will disobey Me, commit mischief and shed blood, but if I designate you the Khalifahs you will obey Me, follow My command and honor and glorify Me. However, since you do not know the names of the objects I paraded before you, then you have even less knowledge of what will occur on the earth that does not exist yet.”

قَالُواْ سُبْحَانَكَ لاَ عِلْمَ لَنَا إِلاَّ مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ ﴿٣٢﴾

They (angels) said: “Glory is to You, we have no knowledge except what you have taught us. Verily, it is You, the Knower, the Wise.”

Here the angels are praising Allah’s holiness, and perfection above every kind of deficiency, affirming that no creature could ever acquire any part of Allah’s knowledge, except by His permission, nor could anyone know anything except what Allah teaches them. This is why they said, سُبْحَانَكَ لاَ عِلْمَ لَنَا إِلاَّ مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ (“Glory is to You, we have no knowledge except what you have taught us. Verily You are the Knower, the Wise) meaning,

Allah is knowledgeable of everything, Most Wise about His creation, and He makes the wisest decisions, and He teaches and deprives whom He wills from knowledge. Verily, Allah’s wisdom and justice in all matters is perfect.

Adam’s Virtue of Knowledge is demonstrated

Allah said,

قَالَ يَا آدَمُ أَنبِئْهُم بِأَسْمَآئِهِمْ فَلَمَّا أَنبَأَهُمْ بِأَسْمَآئِهِمْ قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُل لَّكُمْ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَأَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ ﴿٣٣﴾

He said: “O Adam! Inform them of their names,” and when he had informed them of their names, He said: “Did I not tell you that I know the Ghayb (unseen) in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing!”

Zayd bin Aslam said,

“You are Jibril, you are Mikhail, you are Israfil, until he mentioned the name of the crow.”

Mujahid said that Allah’s statement, قَالَ يَا آدَمُ أَنبِئْهُم بِأَسْمَآئِهِمْ (He said: “O Adam! Inform them of their names”),

“The name of the pigeon, the crow and everything.”

Statements of a similar meaning were reported from Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan, and Qatadah.

When Adam’s virtue over the angels became apparent, as he mentioned the names that Allah taught him, Allah said to the angels,

… أَلَمْ أَقُل لَّكُمْ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَأَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ

Did I not tell you that I know the Ghayb (unseen) in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing!

This means, “Did I not state that I know the seen and unseen matters.”

Similarly, Allah said,

وَإِن تَجْهَرْ بِالْقَوْلِ فَإِنَّهُ يَعْلَمُ السِّرَّ وَأَخْفَى

And if you (O Muhammad) speak (the invocation) aloud, then verily, He knows the secret and that which is yet more hidden. (20:7)

Also, Allah said about the hoopoe, that it said to Suleiman;

أَلاَّ يَسْجُدُواْ للَّهِ الَّذِى يُخْرِجُ الْخَبْءَ فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا تُخْفُونَ وَمَا تُعْلِنُونَ

اللَّهُ لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ رَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ

(As Shaytan (Satan) has barred them from Allah’s way) so they do not prostrate before Allah, Who brings to light what is hidden in the heavens and the earth, and knows what you conceal and what you reveal. Allah, La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the Lord of the Supreme Throne! (27:25-26)

They also have comments other than what we have said about the meaning of Allah’s statement,

… وَأَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ

And I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing.

It is reported from Ad-Dahhak that Ibn Abbas said that it means,

“`I know the secrets, just as I know the apparent things, such as, what Iblis concealed in his heart of arrogance and pride.”

Abu Jafar Ar-Razi narrated that Ar-Rabi bin Anas said that, وَأَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ (And I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing) means,

“The apparent part of what they said was: `Do you create in it that which would commit mischief and shed blood!’

The hidden meaning was: `We have more knowledge and honor than any creation our Lord would create.’

But they came to know that Allah favored Adam above them regarding knowledge and honor.”

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وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَـئِكَةِ اسْجُدُواْ لاًّدَمَ فَسَجَدُواْ إِلاَّ إِبْلِيسَ أَبَى وَاسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَـفِرِينَ

2:34 And (remember) when We said to the angels: “Prostrate yourselves before Adam.” And they prostrated except Iblis (Shaytan), he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allah).

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Next 35-36

Honoring Adam when the Angels prostrated before Him

Allah tells;

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلاَئِكَةِ اسْجُدُواْ لآدَمَ فَسَجَدُواْ إِلاَّ إِبْلِيسَ أَبَى وَاسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ ﴿٣٤﴾

And (remember) when We said to the angels: “Prostrate yourselves before Adam.” And they prostrated except Iblis (Shaytan), he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allah).

This Ayah mentions the great honor that Allah granted Adam, and Allah reminded Adam’s offspring of this fact.

Allah commanded the angels to prostrate before Adam, as this Ayah and many Hadiths testify, such as the Hadith about the intercession that we discussed.

There is a Hadith about the supplication of Musa,

“O my Lord! Show me Adam who caused us and himself to be thrown out of Paradise.”

When Musa met Adam, he said to him, “Are you Adam whom Allah created with His Own Hands, blew life into and commanded the angels to prostrate before!”

Iblis was among Those ordered to prostrate before Adam, although He was not an Angel

When Allah commanded the angels to prostrate before Adam, Iblis was included in this command. Although Iblis was not an angel, he was trying – and pretending – to imitate the angels’ behavior and deeds, and this is why he was also included in the command to the angels to prostrate before Adam.

Satan was criticized for defying that command, as we will explain with detail, Allah willing, when we mention the Tafsir of Allah’s statement, إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ كَانَ مِنَ الْجِنِّ فَفَسَقَ عَنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّهِ (Except Iblis (Satan). He was one of the Jinn; he disobeyed the command of his Lord), (18:50).

Similarly, Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn Abbas said,

“Before he undertook the path of sin, Iblis was with the angels and was called `Azazil.’ He was among the residents of the earth and was one of the most active worshippers and knowledgeable persons among the angels. This fact caused him to be arrogant. Iblis was from a genus called Jinn.”

The Prostration was before Adam but the Obedience was to Allah

Qatadah commented on Allah’s statement, وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلاَئِكَةِ اسْجُدُواْ لآدَمَ (And (remember) when We said to the angels: “Prostrate yourselves before Adam”),

“The obedience was for Allah and the prostration was before Adam. Allah honored Adam and commanded the angels to prostrate before him.”

Some people said that this prostration was just a prostration of greeting, peace and honor, hence Allah’s statement,

وَرَفَعَ أَبَوَيْهِ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ وَخَرُّواْ لَهُ سُجَّدَا وَقَالَ يأَبَتِ هَـذَا تَأْوِيلُ رُؤْيَـى مِن قَبْلُ قَدْ جَعَلَهَا رَبِّى حَقًّا

And he (Prophet Yusuf) raised his parents to the throne and they fell down before him prostrate. And he said: “O my father! This is the interpretation of my dream aforetime! My Lord has made it come true!” (12:100)

The practice of prostrating was allowed for previous nations, but was repealed for ours.

Mu`adh said to the Prophet,

“I visited Ash-Sham and found that they used to prostate before their priests and scholars. You, O Messenger of Allah, are more deserving of prostration.”

The Prophet said,

لَا لَوْ كُنْتُ آمِرًا بَشَرًا أنْ يَسْجُدَ لِبَشَرٍ لَأَمَرْتُ الْمَرْأةَ أنْ تَسْجُدَ لِزَوجِهَا مِنْ عِظَمِ حَقِّهِ عَلَيْهَا

No. If I was to command any human to prostrate before another human, I would command the wife to prostrate before her husband because of the enormity of his right on her.

Ar-Razi agreed with this view.

Also, Qatadah said about Allah’s statement, فَسَجَدُواْ إِلاَّ إِبْلِيسَ أَبَى وَاسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ (And they prostrated except Iblis (Shaytan), he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allah),

“Iblis, the enemy of Allah, envied Adam because Allah honored Adam. He said, `I was created from fire, and he was created from clay.’ Therefore, the first error ever committed was arrogance, for the enemy of Allah was too arrogant to prostrate before Adam.”

I – Ibn Kathir – say, the following is recorded in the Sahih,

لَا يَدْخُلُ الْجَنَّةَ مَنْ كَانَ فِي قَلْبِهِ مِثْقَالُ حَبَّةٍ مِنْ خَرْدَلٍ مِنْ كِبْر

No person who has the weight of a mustard seed of arrogance in his heart shall enter Paradise.

Iblis had disbelief, arrogance, and rebellion, all of which caused him to be expelled from the holy presence of Allah, and His mercy.

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وَقُلْنَا يَاءَادَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنْتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ وَكُلاَ مِنْهَا رَغَدًا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَلاَ تَقْرَبَا هَـذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ الْظَّـلِمِينَ

2:35 And We said: “O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and eat both of you freely with pleasure and delight, of things therein wherever you will, but come not near this tree or you both will be of the Zalimin (wrongdoers). ”

فَأَزَلَّهُمَا الشَّيْطَـنُ عَنْهَا فَأَخْرَجَهُمَا مِمَّا كَانَا فِيهِ

2:36 Then the Shaytan made them slip therefrom (the Paradise), and got them out from that in which they were.

وَقُلْنَا اهْبِطُواْ بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ وَلَكُمْ فِى الأَرْضِ مُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمَتَـعٌ إِلَى حِينٍ

We said: “Get you down, all, with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time.”

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Adam was honored again

Allah tells;

وَقُلْنَا يَا آدَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ وَكُلاَ مِنْهَا رَغَداً حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَلاَ تَقْرَبَا هَـذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ الْظَّالِمِينَ ﴿٣٥﴾

And We said: “O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and eat both of you freely with pleasure and delight, of things therein wherever you will, but come not near this tree or you both will be of the Zalimin (wrongdoers).”

Allah honored Adam by commanding the angels to prostrate before him, so they all complied except for Iblis. Allah then allowed Adam to live and eat wherever and whatever he wished in Paradise.

Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah reported Abu Dharr saying,

“I said, `O Messenger of Allah! Was Adam a Prophet?’

He said,

نَعَمْ نَبِيًّا رَسُولًا كَلَّمَهُ اللَّهُ قُبُلًا

Yes. He was a Prophet and a Messenger to whom Allah spoke directly,

meaning, اسْكُنْ أَنتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ ((O Adam!) Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise).”

Hawwa’ was created before Adam entered Paradise

Muhammad bin Ishaq stated,

The Ayah (2:35) indicates that Hawwa was created before Adam entered Paradise.

Ibn Ishaq said,

“After Allah finished criticizing Iblis, and after teaching Adam the names of everything, He said, قَالَ يَا آدَمُ أَنبِئْهُم بِأَسْمَآئِهِمْ (O Adam! Inform them of their names…) until, the end of the Ayah …and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing. (2:33)

Then Adam fell asleep, as the People of the Book and other scholars such as Ibn Abbas have stated, Allah took one of Adam’s left ribs and made flesh grow in its place, while Adam was asleep and unaware. Allah then created Adam’s wife, Hawwa, from his rib and made her a woman, so that she could be a comfort for him.

When Adam woke up and saw Hawwa next to him, it was claimed, he said, `My flesh and blood, my wife.’ Hence, Adam reclined with Hawwa.

When Allah married Adam to Hawwa and gave him comfort, Allah said to him directly,

وَقُلْنَا يَا آدَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ وَكُلاَ مِنْهَا رَغَداً حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَلاَ تَقْرَبَا هَـذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ الْظَّالِمِينَ

“O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and eat both of you freely with pleasure and delight, of things therein wherever you will, but come not near this tree or you both will be of the Zalimin (wrongdoers).””

Allah tests Adam

Allah’s statement to Adam, وَلاَ تَقْرَبَا هَـذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ (but come not near this tree) is a test for Adam. There are conflicting opinions over the nature of the tree mentioned here.

Some said that it was the grape tree, barley, date tree, fig tree, and so forth. Some said that it was a certain tree, and whoever eats from it will be relieved of the call of nature. It was also said that it was a tree from which the angels eat so that they live for eternity.

Imam Abu Jafar bin Jarir said,

“The correct opinion is that Allah forbade Adam and his wife from eating from a certain tree in Paradise, but they ate from it. We do not know which tree that was, because Allah has not mentioned anything in the Qur’an or the authentic Sunnah about the nature of this tree. It was said that it was barley, grape, or a fig tree. It is possible that it was one of those trees. Yet, this is knowledge that does not bring any benefit, just as being ignorant in its nature does no harm. Allah knows best.”

This is similar to what Ar-Razi stated in his Tafsir, and this is the correct opinion.

Allah’s statement,

فَأَزَلَّهُمَا الشَّيْطَانُ عَنْهَا …

Then the Shaytan made them slip therefrom,

either refers to Paradise, and in this case, it means that Shaytan led Adam and Hawwa away from it, as Asim bin Abi An-Najud recited it.

It is also possible that this Ayah refers to the forbidden tree. In this case, the Ayah would mean, as Al-Hasan and Qatadah stated,

“He tripped them.”

In this case, فَأَزَلَّهُمَا الشَّيْطَانُ عَنْهَا (Then the Shaytan made them slip therefrom) means,

“Because of the tree”, just as Allah said,

يُؤْفَكُ عَنْهُ مَنْ أُفِكَ

Turned aside therefrom (i.e. from Muhammad and the Qur’an) is he who is turned aside (by the decree and preordainment of Allah), (51:9),

meaning, the deviant person becomes turned aside – or slips – from the truth because of so and so reason.

This is why then Allah said,

… فَأَخْرَجَهُمَا مِمَّا كَانَا فِيهِ …

And got them out from that in which they were.

meaning, the clothes, spacious dwelling and comfortable sustenance.

… وَقُلْنَا اهْبِطُواْ بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ وَلَكُمْ فِي الأَرْضِ مُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمَتَاعٌ إِلَى حِينٍ ﴿٣٦﴾

We said: “Get you down, all, with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time.”

meaning, dwelling, sustenance and limited life, until the commencement of the Day of Resurrection

Adam was very Tall

Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Ubayy bin Ka`b said that the Messenger of Allah said,

إِنَّ اللهَ خَلَقَ آدَمَ رَجُلًا طُوَالًا كَثِيرَ شَعْرِ الرَّأْسِ كَأَنَّهُ نَخْلَةٌ سَحُوقٌ، فَلَمَّا ذَاقَ الشَّجَرَةَ سَقَطَ عَنْهُ لِبَاسُهُ فَأَوَّلُ مَا بَدَا مِنْهُ عَوْرَتُهُ، فَلَمَّا نَظَرَ إلى عَوْرتِه جَعَلَ يَشْتَدُّ فِي الْجَنَّةِ فَأَخَذَتْ شَعْرَهُ شَجَرَةٌ فَنَازَعَهَا، فَنَادَاهُ الرَّحْمنُ: يَا آدَمُ مِنِّي تَفِرُّ ؟

Allah created Adam tall, with thick hair, just as a date tree with full branches. When Adam ate from the forbidden tree, his cover fell off, and the first thing that appeared was his private area. When he saw his private area, he ran away in Paradise and his hair got caught in a tree. He tried to free himself and Ar-Rahman called him, ‘O Adam! Are you running away from Me?’

فَلَمَّا سَمِعَ كَلامَ الرَّحْمنِ قَالَ: يَا رَبِّ لَا ولَكِنِ اسْتِحْيَاء

When Adam heard the words of Ar-Rahman (Allah), he said, ‘No, O my Lord! But I am shy.’

Adam remained in Paradise for an Hour

Al-Hakim recorded that Ibn Abbas said,

“Adam was allowed to reside in Paradise during the time period between the `Asr (Afternoon) prayer, until sunset.”

Al-Hakim then commented this is “Sahih according to the Two Sheikhs (Al-Bukhari and Muslim), but they did not include it in their collections.”

Also, Ibn Abi Hatim recorded Ibn Abbas saying,

“Allah sent Adam to earth to an area called, Dahna, between Makkah and At-Ta’if.”

Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that;

Adam was sent down to India, while Hawwa was sent to Jeddah. Iblis was sent down to Dustumaysan, several miles from Basra. Further, the snake was sent down to Asbahan.

This was reported by Ibn Abi Hatim.

Also, Muslim and An-Nasa’i recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

خَيْرُ يَوْمٍ طَلَعَتْ فِيهِ الشَّمْسُ يَوْمُ الْجُمُعَةِ فِيهِ خُلِقَ آدَمُ وَفِيهِ أُدْخِلَ الْجَنَّةَ وَفِيهِ أُخْرِجَ مِنْهَا

Friday is the best day on which the sun has risen. On Friday, Allah created Adam, admitted him into Paradise, and expelled him from it.

A Doubt and a Rebuttal

If one asks, “If the Paradise that Adam was thrown out of was in heaven, as the majority of the scholars assert, then is it possible for Iblis to enter Paradise, although he was expelled from it by Allah’s decision (when he refused to prostrate before Adam)?”

Basically, the response to this would be that the Paradise which Adam was in, was in the heavens, not on the earth, as we explained in the beginning of our book Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah.

The majority of scholars said that Shaytan was originally prohibited from entering Paradise, but there were times when he sneaked into it in secret. For instance, the Tawrah stated that Iblis hid inside the snake’s mouth and entered Paradise.

Some scholars said that it is possible that Shaytan led Adam and Hawwa astray on his way out of Paradise.

Some scholars said that he led Adam and Hawwa astray when he was on earth, while they were still in heaven, as stated by Az-Zamakhshari.

Al-Qurtubi mentioned several beneficial Hadiths here about snakes and the ruling on killing them.

Previous 35-36

فَتَلَقَّى ءَادَمُ مِن رَّبِّهِ كَلِمَاتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ

1:37 Then Adam received from his Lord Words. And his Lord pardoned him (accepted his repentance). Verily, He is the One Who forgives (accepts repentance), the Most Merciful.

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Adam repents and supplicates to Allah

Allah tells;

فَتَلَقَّى آدَمُ مِن رَّبِّهِ كَلِمَاتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ ﴿٣٧﴾

Then Adam received from his Lord Words. And his Lord pardoned him (accepted his repentance). Verily, He is the One Who forgives (accepts repentance), the Most Merciful.

Mujahid, Said bin Jubayr, Abu Al-Aliyah, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Muhammad bin Kab Al-Qurazi, Khalid bin Ma`dan, Ata Al-Khurasani and Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam have stated that the above Ayah is explained by Allah’s statement,

قَالاَ رَبَّنَا ظَلَمْنَآ أَنفُسَنَا وَإِن لَّمْ تَغْفِرْ لَنَا وَتَرْحَمْنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَـسِرِينَ

They said: “Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers.” (7:23)

As-Suddi said that Ibn Abbas commented on, فَتَلَقَّى آدَمُ مِن رَّبِّهِ كَلِمَاتٍ (Then Adam received from his Lord Words),

“Adam said, `O Lord! Did You not created me with Your Own Hands?’

He said, `Yes.’

He said, `And blow life into me?’

He said, `Yes.’

He said, And when I sneezed, You said,May Allah grant you His mercy.’ Does not Your mercy precede Your anger?’

He was told, `Yes.’

Adam said, `And You destined me to commit this evil act?’

He was told, `Yes.’

He said, `If I repent, will You send me back to Paradise?’

Allah said, `Yes.”’

Similar is reported from Al-Awfi, Said bin Jubayr, Said bin Ma`bad, and Ibn Abbas.

Al-Hakim recorded this Hadith in his Mustadrak from Ibn Jubayr, who narrated it from Ibn Abbas.

Al-Hakim said, “Its chain is Sahih and they (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) did not record it.”

Allah’s statement,

… إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ

Verily, He is the One Who forgives (accepts repentance), the Most Merciful.

means that Allah forgives whoever regrets his error and returns to Him in repentance.

This meaning is similar to Allah’s statements,

أَلَمْ يَعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ يَقْبَلُ التَّوْبَةَ عَنْ عِبَادِهِ

Know they not that Allah accepts repentance from His servants. (9:104)

وَمَن يَعْمَلْ سُوءاً أَوْ يَظْلِمْ نَفْسَهُ

And whoever does evil or wrongs himself. (4:110)

and,

وَمَن تَابَ وَعَمِلَ صَـلِحاً

And whosoever repents and does righteous good deeds. (25:71)

The Ayat mentioned above, testify to the fact that Allah forgives the sins of whoever repents, demonstrating His kindness and mercy towards His creation and servants.

There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah, the Most Forgiving, the Most Merciful.

Previous 37

قُلْنَا اهْبِطُواْ مِنْهَا جَمِيعًا فَإِمَّا يَأْتِيَنَّكُم مِّنِّى هُدًى فَمَن تَبِعَ هُدَايَ فَلاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

2:38 We said: “Get down all of you from this place (the Paradise), then whenever there comes to you Hudan (guidance) from Me, and whoever follows My guidance, there shall be no fear on them, nor shall they grieve.

وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَكَذَّبُواْ بِآيَـتِنَآ أُولَـئِكَ أَصْحَـبُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَـلِدُونَ

2:39 But those who disbelieve and belie Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) ـ such are the dwellers of the Fire. They shall abide therein forever.”

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Allah tells;

قُلْنَا اهْبِطُواْ مِنْهَا جَمِيعاً فَإِمَّا يَأْتِيَنَّكُم مِّنِّي هُدًى …

We said: “Get down all of you from this place (the Paradise), then whenever there comes to you Hudan (guidance) from Me,

Allah stated that when He sent Adam, Hawwa, and Shaytan to earth from Paradise, He warned them that He will reveal Books and send Prophets and Messengers to them, i.e., to their offspring.

Abu Al-Aliyah said,

“Al-Huda, refers to the Prophets, Messengers, the clear signs and plain explanation.”

… فَمَن تَبِعَ هُدَايَ …

And whoever follows My guidance,

meaning, whoever accepts what is contained in My Books and what I send the Messengers with.

… فَلاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ …

There shall be no fear on them,

regarding the Hereafter,

… وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ ﴿٣٨﴾

nor shall they grieve.

regarding the life of this world.

Similarly, in Surah Ta Ha, Allah said,

قَالَ اهْبِطَا مِنْهَا جَمِيعاً بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ فَإِمَّا يَأْتِيَنَّكُم مِّنِّى هُدًى فَمَنِ اتَّبَعَ هُدَاىَ فَلاَ يَضِلُّ وَلاَ يَشْقَى

He (Allah) said: “Get you down (from the Paradise to the earth), both of you, together, some of you are an enemy to some others. Then if there comes to you guidance from Me, then whoever follows My guidance, he shall neither go astray, nor shall he be distressed. (20:123)

Ibn Abbas commented,

“He will not be misguided in this life or miserable in the Hereafter.”

The Ayah, وَمَنْ أَعْرَضَ عَن ذِكْرِي فَإِنَّ لَهُ مَعِيشَةً ضَنكًا وَنَحْشُرُهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أَعْمَى (But whosoever turns away from My Reminder (i.e. neither believes in this Qur’an nor acts on its teachings) verily, for him is a life of hardship, and We shall raise him up blind on the Day of Resurrection), (20:124) is similar to what Allah stated here,

وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرواْ وَكَذَّبُواْ بِآيَاتِنَا أُولَـئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ ﴿٣٩﴾

But those who disbelieve and belie Our Ayat ـ such are the dwellers of the Fire. They shall abide therein forever,

meaning, they will remain in Hell for eternity and will not find a way out of it.

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Previous 38-39

يَـبَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ اذْكُرُواْ نِعْمَتِيَ الَّتِى أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَوْفُواْ بِعَهْدِى أُوفِ بِعَهْدِكُمْ وَإِيَّـىَ فَارْهَبُونِ

2:40 O Children of Israel! Remember My favor which I bestowed upon you, and fulfill (your obligations to) My covenant (with you) so that I fulfill (My obligations to) your covenant (with Me), and fear none but Me.

وَءَامِنُواْ بِمَآ أَنزَلْتُ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا مَعَكُمْ وَلاَ تَكُونُواْ أَوَّلَ كَافِرٍ بِهِ وَلاَ تَشْتَرُواْ بِآيَـتِي ثَمَنًا قَلِيلاً وَإِيَّـىَ فَاتَّقُونِ

2:41 And believe in what I have sent down (this Qur’an), confirming that which is with you (the Tawrah and the Injil), and be not the first to disbelieve therein, and buy not with My verses (the Tawrah and the Injil) a small price (i.e. getting a small gain by selling My verses), and fear Me and Me alone.

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Encouraging the Children of Israel to embrace Islam

Allah says;

يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ …

O Children of Israel!

Allah commanded the Children of Israel to embrace Islam and to follow Muhammad. He also reminded them with the example of their father Israel, Allah’s Prophet Yaqub, as if saying, “O children of the pious, righteous servant of Allah who obeyed Allah! Be like your father, following the truth.”

This statement is similar to one’s saying, “O you son of that generous man! Do this or that,” or, “O son of the brave man, engage the strong fighters,” or “O son of the scholar, seek the knowledge,” and so forth. Similarly, Allah said,

ذُرِّيَّةَ مَنْ حَمَلْنَا مَعَ نُوحٍ إِنَّهُ كَانَ عَبْدًا شَكُورًا

O offspring of those whom We carried (in the ship) with Nuh (Noah)! Verily, he was a grateful servant. (17:3)

Israel is Prophet Yaqub (Jacob)

Israel is Prophet Yaqub, for Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded that Abdullah Ibn Abbas said,

“A group of Jews came to the Prophet and he said to them,

هَلْ تَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّ إِسْرَائِيلَ يَعْقُوبُ ؟

Do you know that Israel is Jacob?

They said, “Yes, by Allah.”

He said,

اللَّهُمَّ اشْهَد

O Allah! Be witness.”

At-Tabari recorded that Abdullah Ibn Abbas said that;

Israel’ means,the servant of Allah.’

Allah’s Blessings for the Children of Israel

Allah said,

… اذْكُرُواْ نِعْمَتِيَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ …

Remember My favor which I bestowed upon you.

Mujahid commented,

“Allah’s favor that;

He granted the Jews is that He made water gush from stones,

sent down manna and quails for them,

and saved them from being enslaved by Pharaoh.”

Abu Al-Aliyah also said,

“Allah’s favor mentioned here is His sending Prophets and Messengers among them, and revealing Books to them.”

I – Ibn Kathir – say that this Ayah is similar to what Musa said to the Children of Israel,

يَـقَوْمِ اذْكُرُواْ نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ جَعَلَ فِيكُمْ أَنْبِيَآءَ وَجَعَلَكُمْ مُّلُوكاً وَءَاتَـكُمْ مَّا لَمْ يُؤْتِ أَحَداً مِّن الْعَـلَمِينَ

O my people! Remember the favor of Allah to you: when He made Prophets among you, made you kings, and gave you what He had not given to any other among the nations (of their time. (5:20),

meaning, during their time.

Also, Muhammad bin Ishaq said that Ibn Abbas said, اذْكُرُواْ نِعْمَتِيَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ (Remember My favor which I bestowed upon you), means,

“My support for you and your fathers,”

that is saving them from Pharaoh and his people.

Reminding the Children of Israel of Allah’s Covenant with Them

Allah’s statement,

… وَأَوْفُواْ بِعَهْدِي أُوفِ بِعَهْدِكُمْ …

And fulfill (your obligations to) My covenant (with you) so that I fulfill (My obligations to) your covenant (with Me),

means, `My covenant that I took from you concerning Prophet Muhammad, when he is sent to you, so that I grant you what I promised you if you believe in him and follow him. I will then remove the chains and restrictions that were placed around your necks, because of the errors that you committed.’

Also, Al-Hasan Al-Basri said,

“The `covenant’ is in reference to Allah’s statement,

وَلَقَدْ أَخَذَ اللَّهُ مِيثَـقَ بَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ وَبَعَثْنَا مِنهُمُ اثْنَىْ عَشَرَ نَقِيباً وَقَالَ اللَّهُ إِنِّى مَعَكُمْ لَئِنْ أَقَمْتُمُ الصَّلوةَ وَءَاتَيْتُمْ الزَّكَوةَ وَءَامَنتُمْ بِرُسُلِى وَعَزَّرْتُمُوهُمْ وَأَقْرَضْتُمُ اللَّهَ قَرْضاً حَسَناً لأُكَفِّرَنَّ عَنْكُمْ سَيِّئَـتِكُمْ وَلأدْخِلَنَّكُمْ جَنَّـتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا الاٌّنْهَـرُ

Indeed, Allah took the covenant from the Children of Israel (Jews), and We appointed twelve leaders among them. And Allah said: “I am with you if you perform As-Salah and give Zakah and believe in My Messengers; honor and assist them, and lend a good loan to Allah, verily, I will expiate your sins and admit you to Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise).” (5:12)

Other scholars said,

“The covenant is what Allah took from them in the Tawrah, in that, He will send a great Prophet – meaning Muhammad – from among the offspring of Ismail, who will be obeyed by all peoples. Therefore, whoever obeys him, then Allah will forgive his sins, enter him into Paradise and award him two rewards.”

We should mention here that Ar-Razi mentioned several cases of information brought by the earlier Prophets regarding the coming of Muhammad.

Further, Abu Al-Aliyah said that, وَأَوْفُواْ بِعَهْدِي (And fulfill (your obligations to) My covenant (with you)) means,

“His covenant with His servants is to embrace Islam and to adhere to it.”

Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn Abbas said,

I fulfill My obligations to you’ means,I (Allah) will be pleased with you and admit you into Paradise.”’

As-Suddi, Ad-Dahhak, Abu Al-Aliyah and Ar-Rabi bin Anas said similarly.

Allah’s statement,

… وَإِيَّايَ فَارْهَبُونِ ﴿٤٠﴾

And fear Me and Me alone.

Ibn Abbas said that it means,

“Fear the torment that I might exert on you, just as I did with your fathers, like the mutation, etc.”

This Ayah contains encouragement, followed by warning. Allah first called the Children of Israel, using encouragement, then He warned them, so that they might return to the Truth, follow the Messenger, heed the Qur’an’s prohibitions and commands and believe in its content. Surely, Allah guides whom He wills to the straight path.

Allah said next,

وَآمِنُواْ بِمَا أَنزَلْتُ مُصَدِّقاً لِّمَا مَعَكُمْ …

And believe in what I have sent down, confirming that which is with you (the Tawrah and the Injil),

meaning, the Qur’an that Allah sent down to Muhammad, the unlettered Arab Prophet, as bringer of glad tidings, a warner and a light. The Qur’an contains the Truth from Allah and affirms what was revealed beforehand in the Tawrah and the Injil (the Gospel).

Abu Al-Aliyah said that Allah’s statement,

“means, `O People of the Book! Believe in what I sent down that conforms to what you have.’ This is because they find the description of Muhammad recorded in the Tawrah and the Injil.”

Similar statements were attributed to Mujahid, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and Qatadah.

Allah said,

… وَلاَ تَكُونُواْ أَوَّلَ كَافِرٍ بِهِ …

and be not the first to disbelieve therein.

Ibn Abbas commented,

“Do not become the first to disbelieve in the Qur’an (or Muhammad), while you have more knowledge in it than other people.”

Abu Al-Aliyah commented,

Do not become the first to disbelieve in Muhammad,’ meaning from among the People of the Book,after you hear that he was sent as a Prophet.”’

Similar statements were attributed to Al-Hasan, As-Suddi and Ar-Rabi bin Anas.

Ibn Jarir stated that;

the Ayah (disbelieve therein 2:41) refers to the Qur’an, mentioned earlier in the Ayah, بِمَا أَنزَلْتُ (in what I have sent down (this Qur’an).

Both statements are correct because they are inter-related. For instance, whoever disbelieves in the Qur’an will have disbelieved in Muhammad, and whoever disbelieves in Muhammad will have disbelieved in the Qur’an.

Allah’s statement, أَوَّلَ كَافِرٍ بِهِ (the first to disbelieve therein) means,

do not become the first among the Children of Israel to disbelieve in it, for there were people from Quraysh and the Arabs in general who rejected Muhammad before the People of the Book disbelieved in him.

We should state here that the Ayah is talking about the Children of Israel in specific, because the Jews in Al-Madinah were the first among the Children of Israel to be addressed by the Qur’an. Hence, their disbelief in the Qur’an means that they were the first among the People of the Book to disbelieve in it.

Allah’s statement,

… وَلاَ تَشْتَرُواْ بِآيَاتِي ثَمَناً قَلِيلاً …

and buy not with My verses a small price,

means, “Do not substitute faith in My Ayat and belief in My Prophet with the life of this world and its lusts which are minute and bound to end.”

Allah said,

… وَإِيَّايَ فَاتَّقُونِ ﴿٤١﴾

and have Taqwa of Me and Me alone.

Ibn Abi Hatim reported that Talq bin Habib said,

“Taqwa is to work in Allah’s obedience, on a light from Allah, hoping in Allah’s mercy, and to avoid Allah’s disobedience, on a light from Allah, fearing Allah’s punishment.”

Allah’s statement, وَإِيَّايَ فَاتَّقُونِ (and fear Me and Me alone) means,

that Allah warns the People of the Book against intentionally hiding the truth and spreading the opposite of it, as well as, against defying the Messenger.

Previous 40-41

وَلاَ تَلْبِسُواْ الْحَقَّ بِالْبَـطِلِ وَتَكْتُمُواْ الْحَقَّ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

2:42 And mix not truth with falsehood, nor conceal the truth while you know (the truth).

وَأَقِيمُواْ الصَّلوةَ وَآتُواْ الزَّكَوةَ وَارْكَعُواْ مَعَ الرَّاكِعِينَ

2:43 And perform As-Salah, and give Zakah, and bow down along with Ar-Raki`in.

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Next 44

The Prohibition of hiding the Truth and distorting It with Falsehood

Allah forbade the Jews from intentionally distorting the truth with falsehood and from hiding the truth and spreading falsehood,

وَلاَ تَلْبِسُواْ الْحَقَّ بِالْبَاطِلِ وَتَكْتُمُواْ الْحَقَّ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ ﴿٤٢﴾

And mix not truth with falsehood, nor conceal the truth while you know (the truth).

So Allah forbade them from two things;

He ordered them to make the truth known, as well as explaining it.

Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn Abbas mentioned the Ayah, وَلاَ تَلْبِسُواْ الْحَقَّ بِالْبَاطِلِ (And mix not truth with falsehood) and said;

“Do not mix the truth with falsehood and the facts with lies.”

Qatadah said that, وَلاَ تَلْبِسُواْ الْحَقَّ بِالْبَاطِلِ (And mix not truth with falsehood) means,

“Do not mix Judaism and Christianity with Islam, وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ (while you know (the truth), that the religion of Allah is Islam, and that Judaism and Christianity are innovations that did not come from Allah.”

It was reported that Al-Hasan Al-Basri said similarly.

Also, Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated that Ibn Abbas said that, وَتَكْتُمُواْ الْحَقَّ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ (nor conceal the truth while you know (the truth),

means, “Do not hide the knowledge that you have of My Messenger and what he was sent with. His description, which you know about, can be found written in the Books that you have.”

It is possible that it means,

“..although you know the tremendous harm that this evil will cause people, misguiding them and leading them to the Fire, because they will follow the falsehood that you mixed with the truth in your claims.”

وَأَقِيمُواْ الصَّلاَةَ وَآتُواْ الزَّكَاةَ وَارْكَعُواْ مَعَ الرَّاكِعِينَ ﴿٤٣﴾

And perform As-Salat and give Zakah, and bow down along with Ar-Raki`in.

Muqatil said,

“Allah’s statement to the People of the Book,

وَأَقِيمُواْ الصَّلاَةَ (And perform As-Salah) commands them to perform the prayer behind the Prophet,

وَآتُواْ الزَّكَاةَ (and give Zakah) commands them to pay the Zakah to the Prophet, and

وَارْكَعُواْ مَعَ الرَّاكِعِينَ (and bow down along with Ar-Raki`in) commands them to bow down with those who bow down among the Ummah of Muhammad.

Allah therefore commands the People of the Book to be with, and among the Ummah of Muhammad.”

In addition, Allah’s statement, وَارْكَعُواْ مَعَ الرَّاكِعِينَ (And bow down along with Ar-Raki`in) means,

“And be among the believers performing the best deeds they perform, such as, and foremost, the prayer.”

Many scholars said that this Ayah (2:43) is proof for the obligation of performing the prayer in congregation (for men only).

I will explain this ruling in detail in Kitab Al-Ahkam Al-Kabir, Allah willing.

Previous 42-43

أَتَأْمُرُونَ النَّاسَ بِالْبِرِّ وَتَنسَوْنَ أَنفُسَكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ تَتْلُونَ الْكِتَـبَ أَفَلاَ تَعْقِلُونَ

2:44 Enjoin you Al-Birr (piety and righteousness and every act of obedience to Allah) on the people and you forget (to practice it) yourselves, while you recite the Scripture (Tawrah))! Have you then no sense!

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Next 45-46

The Condemnation of commanding Others to observe Righteousness while ignoring Righteousness

Allah said

أَتَأْمُرُونَ النَّاسَ بِالْبِرِّ وَتَنسَوْنَ أَنفُسَكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ تَتْلُونَ الْكِتَابَ …

Enjoin you Al-Birr (piety and righteousness and every act of obedience to Allah) on the people and you forget (to practice it) yourselves, while you recite the Scripture (Tawrah)! Have you then no sense!

Allah said, “How is it, O People of the Book, that you command people to perform Al-Birr, which encompasses all types of righteousness, yet forget yourselves and do not heed what you call others to! And you read Allah’s Book (the Tawrah) and know what it promises to those who do not fulfill Allah’s commandments.

… أَفَلاَ تَعْقِلُونَ ﴿٤٤﴾

Have you then no sense!

of what you are doing to yourselves, so that you might become aware of your slumber and restore your sight from blindness”

Abdur-Razzaq said that Ma`mar stated that Qatadah commented on Allah’s statement, أَتَأْمُرُونَ النَّاسَ بِالْبِرِّ وَتَنسَوْنَ أَنفُسَكُمْ (Enjoin you Al-Birr (piety and righteousness and every act of obedience to Allah) on the people and you forget (to practice it) yourselves),

“The Children of Israel used to command people to obey Allah, fear Him and perform Al-Birr. Yet, they contradicted these orders, so Allah reminded them of this fact.”

As-Suddi said similarly.

Ibn Jurayj said that the Ayah: أَتَأْمُرُونَ النَّاسَ بِالْبِرِّ (Enjoin you Al-Birr on the people),

“Is about the People of the Book and the hypocrites. They used to command people to pray and fast. However, they did not practice what they commanded others. Allah reminded them of this behavior. So whoever commands people to do righteousness, let him be among the first of them to implement that command.”

Also, Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated that Ibn Abbas said that, وَتَنسَوْنَ أَنفُسَكُمْ (And you forget yourselves0,

means, “You forget to practice it yourselves, وَأَنتُمْ تَتْلُونَ الْكِتَابَ أَفَلاَ تَعْقِلُونَ (While you recite the Scripture (Tawrah)! Have you then no sense!).

You forbid the people from rejecting the Prophethood and the covenant that you have mentioned with you in the Tawrah, while you yourselves have forgotten it, meaning that `you have forgotten the covenant that I made with you that you will accept My Messenger. You have breeched My covenant, and rejected what you know is in My Book.”’

Therefore, Allah admonished the Jews for this behavior and alerted them to the wrongs that they were perpetrating against themselves by ordering righteousness, yet refraining themselves from righteousness.

We should state that Allah is not criticizing the People of the Book for ordering righteousness, because enjoining good is a part of righteousness and is an obligation for the scholars. However, the scholar is himself required to heed, and adhere to, what he invites others to. For instance, Prophet Shu`ayb said,

وَمَآ أُرِيدُ أَنْ أُخَالِفَكُمْ إِلَى مَآ أَنْهَـكُمْ عَنْهُ إِنْ أُرِيدُ إِلاَّ الإِصْلَـحَ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُ وَمَا تَوْفِيقِى إِلاَّ بِاللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلْتُ وَإِلَيْهِ أُنِيبُ

I wish not, in contradiction to you, to do that which I forbid you. I only desire reform to the best of my power. And my guidance cannot come except from Allah, in Him I trust and unto Him I repent. (11:88)

Therefore, enjoining righteousness and performing righteousness are both required. Neither category is rendered not necessary by the practice of the other, according to the most correct view of the scholars among the Salaf (predecessors) and the Khalaf.

Imam Ahmad reported that Abu Wa’il said,

“While I was riding behind Usamah, he was asked, Why not adviseUthman?’

He said, Do you think that if I advise him I should allow you to hear it I advise him in secret, and I will not start something that I would hate to be the first to start. I will not say to a man,You are the best man,’ even if he was my leader, after what I heard from the Messenger of Allah.’

They said, `What did he say?’

He said, `I heard him say,

يُجَاءُ بِالرَّجُلِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامةِ فَيُلْقَى فِي النَّار فَتَنْدَلِقُ بِه أَقْتَابُهُ فيَدُورُ بِهَا فِي النَّار كَمَا يَدُورُ الْحِمَارُ بِرَحَاهُ فيُطِيفُ بِهِ أَهْلُ النَّار فَيَقُولُون: يَا فُلَانُ ما أَصَابَكَ؟ أَلَمْ تَكُنْ تَأْمُرُنَا بِالْمَعْرُوف وَتَنْهَانَا عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ؟ فَيَقُولُ: كُنْتُ آمرُكُمْ باِلْمَعْرُوفِ وَلَا آتِيهِ وَأَنْهَاكُمْ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَآتِيه

A man will be brought on the Day of Resurrection and thrown in the Fire. His intestines will fall out and he will continue circling pulling them behind him, just as the donkey goes around the pole. The people of the Fire will go to that man and ask him, `What happened to you? Did you not used to command us to do righteous acts and forbid us from committing evil?’

He will say, `Yes. I used to enjoin righteousness, but refrained from performing righteousness, and I used to forbid you to perform from evil while I myself did it.”’

This Hadith was also recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.

Also, Ibrahim An-Nakhai said,

“I hesitate in advising people because of three Ayat:

أَتَأْمُرُونَ النَّاسَ بِالْبِرِّ وَتَنسَوْنَ أَنفُسَكُمْ

Enjoin you Al-Birr on the people and you forget (to practice it) yourselves.

يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لِمَ تَقُولُونَ مَا لاَ تَفْعَلُونَ

كَبُرَ مَقْتاً عِندَ اللَّهِ أَن تَقُولُواْ مَا لاَ تَفْعَلُونَ

O you who believe! Why do you say that which you do not do! Most hateful it is to Allah that you say that which you do not do! (61:2-3).”

And Allah informed us that the Prophet Shu`ayb said,

وَمَآ أُرِيدُ أَنْ أُخَالِفَكُمْ إِلَى مَآ أَنْهَـكُمْ عَنْهُ إِنْ أُرِيدُ إِلاَّ الإِصْلَـحَ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُ وَمَا تَوْفِيقِى إِلاَّ بِاللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلْتُ وَإِلَيْهِ أُنِيبُ

I wish not, in contradiction to you, to do that which I forbid you. I only desire reform to the best of my power. And my guidance cannot come except from Allah, in Him I trust and unto Him I repent. (11:88)

Previous 44

وَاسْتَعِينُواْ بِالصَّبْرِ وَالصَّلَوةِ وَإِنَّهَا لَكَبِيرَةٌ إِلاَّ عَلَى الْخَـشِعِينَ

2:45 And seek help in patience and As-Salat (the prayer) and truly, it is extremely heavy and hard except for Al-Khashi`in.

الَّذِينَ يَظُنُّونَ أَنَّهُم مُّلَـقُوا رَبِّهِمْ وَأَنَّهُمْ إِلَيْهِ رَجِعُونَ

2:46 (They are those) who are certain that they are going to meet their Lord, and that unto Him they are going to return.

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The Support that comes with Patience and Prayer

Allah says;

وَاسْتَعِينُواْ بِالصَّبْرِ وَالصَّلاَةِ …

And seek help in patience and As-Salah (the prayer).

Allah commanded His servants to use patience and prayer to acquire the good of this life and the Hereafter.

Muqatil bin Hayan said that this Ayah means,

“Utilize patience and the obligatory prayer in seeking the Hereafter.

As for patience (here), they say that it means fasting.”

There are similar texts reported from Mujahid.

Al-Qurtubi and other scholars commented,

“This is why Ramadan is called the month of patience,” as is mentioned in the Hadith literature.

It was also said that;

patience’ in the Ayah means, refraining from evil, and this is whypatience’ was mentioned along with practicing acts of worship, especially and foremost, the prayer.

Also, Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Umar bin Al-Khattab said,

“There are two types of patience:

good patience when the disaster strikes,

and a better patience while avoiding the prohibitions of Allah.”

Ibn Abi Hatim said that Al-Hasan Al-Basri was reported to have said similarly.

Allah then said, وَالصَّلاَةِ (And As-Salah (the prayer). The prayer is one of the best means of assistance for firmly adhering to Allah’s orders, just as Allah said;

اتْلُ مَا أُوْحِىَ إِلَيْكَ مِنَ الْكِتَـبِ وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَوةَ إِنَّ الصَّلَوةَ تَنْهَى عَنِ الْفَحْشَآءِ وَالْمُنْكَرِ وَلَذِكْرُ اللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ

Recite (O Muhammad) what has been revealed to you of the Book (the Qur’an), and perform As-Salah. Verily, As-Salah (the prayer) prevents from Al-Fahsha (i.e. great sins of every kind), and Al-Munkar and the remembrance of (praising) of (you by) Allah is greater indeed. (29:45)

The personal pronoun in the Ayah,

… وَإِنَّهَا لَكَبِيرَةٌ …

And truly, it is extremely heavy and hard,

refers to prayer, as Mujahid is reported to have said, and it was also the choice of Ibn Jarir.

It is possible that the pronoun might be referring to the advice – to observe patience and the prayer – mentioned in the same Ayah. Similarly, Allah said about Qarun (Korah),

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْعِلْمَ وَيْلَكُمْ ثَوَابُ اللَّهِ خَيْرٌ لِّمَنْ ءَامَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَـلِحاً وَلاَ يُلَقَّاهَآ إِلاَّ الصَّـبِرُونَ

But those who had been given (religious) knowledge said: “Woe to you! The reward of Allah (in the Hereafter) is better for those who believe and do righteous good deeds, and this, none shall attain except As-Sabirun (the patient).” (28:80)

Also, Allah said,

وَلاَ تَسْتَوِى الْحَسَنَةُ وَلاَ السَّيِّئَةُ ادْفَعْ بِالَّتِى هِىَ أَحْسَنُ فَإِذَا الَّذِى بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَهُ عَدَاوَةٌ كَأَنَّهُ وَلِىٌّ حَمِيمٌ

وَمَا يُلَقَّاهَا إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ صَبَرُواْ وَمَا يُلَقَّاهَآ إِلاَّ ذُو حَظِّ عَظِيمٍ

The good deed and the evil deed cannot be equal. Repel (the evil) with one which is better then verily he, between whom and you there was enmity, (will become) as though he was a close friend. But none is granted it (the above quality) except those who are patient ـ and none is granted it except the owner of the great portion (of happiness in the Hereafter and) in this world. (41:34-35),

meaning, this advice is only implemented by those who are patient and the fortunate.

In any case, Allah’s statement here means, prayer is `heavy and burdensome’,

… إِلاَّ عَلَى الْخَاشِعِينَ ﴿٤٥﴾

except for Al-Khashi`in.

Ibn Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas commented on this Ayah,

“They (Al-Khashi`in) are those who believe in what Allah has revealed.”

Allah’s statement,

الَّذِينَ يَظُنُّونَ أَنَّهُم مُّلاَقُو رَبِّهِمْ وَأَنَّهُمْ إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ ﴿٤٦﴾

They are those who are certain that they are going to meet their Lord, and that unto Him they are going to return.

continues the subject that was started in the previous Ayah. Therefore, the prayer, or the advice to observe it is heavy, إِلاَّ عَلَى الْخَاشِعِينَ الَّذِينَ يَظُنُّونَ أَنَّهُم مُّلاَقُو رَبِّهِمْ (except for Al-Khashi`in. (They are those) who are certain (Yazunnuna) that they are going to meet their Lord), meaning, they know that they will be gathered and face their Lord on the Day of Resurrection, وَأَنَّهُمْ إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ (and that unto Him they are going to return), meaning, their affairs are all subject to His will and He justly decides what He wills.

Since they are certain that they will be returned to Allah and be reckoned, it is easy for them to perform the acts of obedience and refrain from the prohibitions.

Ibn Jarir commented on Allah’s statement; يَظُنُّونَ أَنَّهُم مُّلاَقُو رَبِّهِم (Yazunnuna that they are going to meet their Lord),

Ibn Jarir said; “The Arabs call certainty as well as doubt, Zann. There are similar instances in the Arabic language where a subject as well as its opposite share the same name. For instance, Allah said,

وَرَأَى الْمُجْرِمُونَ النَّارَ فَظَنُّواْ أَنَّهُمْ مُّوَاقِعُوهَا

And the Mujrimun (criminals, polytheists, sinners), shall see the Fire and Zannu (apprehend) that they have to fall therein.” (18:53)

It is recorded in the Sahih that;

on the Day of Resurrection, Allah will say to a servant, “Have I not allowed you to marry, honored you, made the horses and camels subservient to you and allowed you to become a chief and a master?”

He will say, “Yes.”

Allah will say, “Did you have Zann (think) that you will meet Me?”

He will say, “No.”

Allah will say, “This Day, I will forget you, just as you forgot Me.”

If Allah wills, we will further elaborate on this subject when we explain Allah’s statement, نَسُوا اللَّهَ فَأَنسَاهُمْ أَنفُسَهُمْ (those who forget Allah; and He made them forget their own souls!), (59:19).

Previous 45-46

يَـبَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ اذْكُرُواْ نِعْمَتِى الَّتِى أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَنِّى فَضَّلْتُكُمْ عَلَى الْعَـلَمِينَ

2:47 O Children of Israel! Remember My favor which I bestowed upon you and that I preferred you over the Alamin (nations).

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Next 48

Reminding the Children of Israel that They were preferred above the Other Nations

Allah says;

يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ اذْكُرُواْ نِعْمَتِيَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَنِّي فَضَّلْتُكُمْ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ ﴿٤٧﴾

O Children of Israel! Remember My favor which I bestowed upon you and that I preferred you over the Alamin (nations).

Allah reminds the Children of Israel of the favors that He granted their fathers and grandfathers, how He showed preference to them by sending them Messengers from among them and revealing Books to them, more so than any of the other previous nations.

Similarly, Allah said,

وَلَقَدِ اخْتَرْنَـهُمْ عَلَى عِلْمٍ عَلَى الْعَـلَمِينَ

And We chose them (the Children of Israel) over the Alamin, (nations) with knowledge. (44:32)

and,

وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَى لِقَوْمِهِ يَـقَوْمِ اذْكُرُواْ نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ جَعَلَ فِيكُمْ أَنْبِيَآءَ وَجَعَلَكُمْ مُّلُوكاً وَءَاتَـكُمْ مَّا لَمْ يُؤْتِ أَحَداً مِّن الْعَـلَمِينَ

And (remember) when Musa (Moses) said to his people: “O my people! Remember the favor of Allah to you: when He made Prophets among you, made you kings, honored you above the Alamin (nations).” (5:20)

Abu Jafar Ar-Razi reported that Ar-Rabi bin Anas said that Abu Al-Aliyah said that Allah’s statement, وَأَنِّي فَضَّلْتُكُمْ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ (and that I preferred you over the Alamin) means,

“The kingship, Messengers and Books that were granted to them, instead of granting such to the other kingdoms that existed during their time, for every period there is a nation.”

It was also reported that Mujahid, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, Qatadah and Ismail bin Abi Khalid said similarly.

The Ummah of Muhammad is Better than the Children of Israel

This is the only way the Ayah can be understood, because this Ummah is better than theirs, as Allah said;

كُنتُمْ خَيْرَ أُمَّةٍ أُخْرِجَتْ لِلنَّاسِ تَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَتَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَلَوْ ءَامَنَ أَهْلُ الْكِتَـبِ لَكَانَ خَيْراً لَّهُمْ

You are the best of people ever raised up for mankind; you enjoin good and forbid evil, and you believe in Allah. And had the People of the Book (Jews and Christians) believed, it would have been better for them. (3:110)

Also, the Musnad and Sunan Collections of Hadith recorded that Muawiyah bin Haydah Al-Qushayri said that the Messenger of Allah said,

أَنْتُمْ تُوَفُّونَ سَبْعِينَ أُمَّةً أَنْتُمْ خَيْرُهَا وَأَكْرَمُهَا عَلَى الله

You (Muslims) are the seventieth nation, but you are the best and most honored of them according to Allah.

There are many Hadiths on this subject, and they will be mentioned when we discuss Allah’s statement, كُنتُمْ خَيْرَ أُمَّةٍ أُخْرِجَتْ لِلنَّاسِ (You are the best of peoples ever raised up for mankind), (3:110).

Previous 47

وَاتَّقُواْ يَوْمًا لاَّ تَجْزِى نَفْسٌ عَن نَّفْسٍ شَيْئًا وَلاَ يُقْبَلُ مِنْهَا شَفَـعَةٌ وَلاَ يُؤْخَذُ مِنْهَا عَدْلٌ وَلاَ هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ

2:48 And fear a Day (of Judgment) when a person shall not avail another, nor will intercession be accepted from him, nor will compensation be taken from him, nor will they be helped.

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Next 49-50

After Allah reminded the Children of Israel of the favors that He has granted them, He warned them about the duration of the torment which He will punish them with on the Day of Resurrection.

He said,

وَاتَّقُواْ يَوْماً …

And fear a Day,

meaning, the Day of Resurrection.

… لاَّ تَجْزِي نَفْسٌ عَن نَّفْسٍ شَيْئاً …

When a person shall not avail another,

meaning, on that Day, no person shall be of any help to another.

Similarly, Allah said,

وَلاَ تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرَى

And no bearer of burdens shall bear another’s burden. (35:18)

لِكُلِّ امْرِىءٍ مِّنْهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ شَأْنٌ يُغْنِيهِ

Every man that Day will have enough to make him careless of others. (80:37)

and,

يأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُواْ رَبَّكُمْ وَاخْشَوْاْ يَوْماً لاَّ يَجْزِى وَالِدٌ عَن وَلَدِهِ وَلاَ مَوْلُودٌ هُوَ جَازٍ عَن وَالِدِهِ شَيْئاً

O mankind! Have Taqwa of your Lord (by keeping your duty to Him and avoiding all evil), and fear a Day when no father can avail aught for his son, nor a son avail aught for his father. (31:33)

This indeed should serve as a great warning that both the father and the son will not be of help to each other on that Day.

Neither Intercession, Ransom, or Assistance will be accepted on behalf of the Disbelievers

Allah said,

… وَلاَ يُقْبَلُ مِنْهَا شَفَاعَةٌ …

nor will intercession be accepted from him,

meaning, from the disbelievers.

Similarly, Allah said,

فَمَا تَنفَعُهُمْ شَفَـعَةُ الشَّـفِعِينَ

So no intercession of intercessors will be of any use to them. (74:48)

and described the people of the Fire saying,

فَمَا لَنَا مِن شَـفِعِينَ

وَلاَ صَدِيقٍ حَمِيمٍ

Now we have no intercessors. Nor a close friend (to help us). (26:100-101)

Allah’s statement here, (2:48),

… وَلاَ يُؤْخَذُ مِنْهَا عَدْلٌ …

nor will compensation be taken from him,

means, that Allah does not accept the disbelievers to ransom themselves.

Similarly, Allah said,

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَمَاتُواْ وَهُمْ كُفَّارٌ فَلَن يُقْبَلَ مِنْ أَحَدِهِم مِّلْءُ الاٌّرْضِ ذَهَبًا وَلَوِ افْتَدَى بِهِ

Verily, those who disbelieved, and died while they were disbelievers, the (whole) earth full of gold will not be accepted from anyone of them even if they offered it as a ransom. (3:91)

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ لَوْ أَنَّ لَهُمْ مَّا فِى الاٌّرْضِ جَمِيعاً وَمِثْلَهُ مَعَهُ لِيَفْتَدُواْ بِهِ مِنْ عَذَابِ يَوْمِ الْقِيَـمَةِ مَا تُقُبِّلَ مِنْهُمْ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

Verily, those who disbelieve, if they had all that is in the earth, and as much again therewith to ransom themselves from the torment on the Day of Resurrection, it would never be accepted of them, and theirs would be a painful torment. (5:36)

وَإِن تَعْدِلْ كُلَّ عَدْلٍ لاَّ يُؤْخَذْ مِنْهَآ

And even if he offers every ransom, it will not be accepted from him. (6:70)

and,

فَالْيَوْمَ لاَ يُؤْخَذُ مِنكُمْ فِدْيَةٌ وَلاَ مِنَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مَأْوَاكُمُ النَّارُ هِىَ مَوْلَـكُمْ

So this Day no ransom shall be taken from you (hypocrites), nor of those who disbelieved. Your abode is the Fire. That is your Mawla (friend ـ proper place). (57:15)

Allah stated that if the people do not believe in His Messenger and follow what He sent him with, then when they meet Him on the Day of Resurrection, after remaining on the path of disbelief, their family lineage and/or the intercession of their masters will not help them at all. It will not be accepted of them, even if they paid the earth’s fill of gold as ransom.

Similarly, Allah said,

مِّن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِىَ يَوْمٌ لاَّ بَيْعٌ فِيهِ وَلاَ خُلَّةٌ وَلاَ شَفَـعَةٌ

Before a Day comes when there will be no bargaining, nor friendship, nor intercession. (2:254)

and,

لاَّ بَيْعٌ فِيهِ وَلاَ خِلَـلٌ

On which there will be neither mutual bargaining nor befriending. (19:31)

Allah’s statement next,

… وَلاَ هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ ﴿٤٨﴾

nor will they be helped.

means, “no person shall get angry – or anxious – on their behalf and offer them any help, or try to save them from Allah’s punishment.”

As stated earlier on that Day, neither the relative, nor persons of authority will feel pity for the disbelievers, nor will any ransom be accepted for them. Consequently, they will receive no help from others and they will be helpless themselves.

Allah said,

وَهُوَ يُجْيِرُ وَلاَ يُجَارُ عَلَيْهِ

While He (Allah) grants refuge (or protection), but none grants refuge from Him. (23:88)

فَيَوْمَئِذٍ لاَّ يُعَذِّبُ عَذَابَهُ أَحَدٌ

وَلاَ يُوثِقُ وَثَاقَهُ أَحَدٌ

So on that Day none will punish as He will punish. And none will bind (the wicked, disbelievers and polytheists) as He will bind. (89:25-26)

مَا لَكُمْ لَا تَنَاصَرُونَ

بَلْ هُمُ الْيَوْمَ مُسْتَسْلِمُونَ

“What is the matter with you? Why do you not help one another (as you used to do in the world)!” Nay, but that Day they shall surrender! (37:25-26)

and,

فَلَوْلاَ نَصَرَهُمُ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُواْ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ قُرْبَاناً ءَالِهَةَ بَلْ ضَلُّواْ عَنْهُمْ

Then why did those whom they had taken for alihah (gods) besides Allah, as a way of approach (to Allah) not help them Nay, but they vanished completely from them) (46:28).

Also, Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn Abbas said that Allah’s statement, مَا لَكُمْ لَا تَنَاصَرُونَ (“What is the matter with you? Why do you not help one another?”), (37:25) means,

“This Day, you shall not have a refuge from Us. Not this Day.”

Ibn Jarir said that Allah’s statement, وَلاَ هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ (nor will they be helped),

meaning, on that Day, they shall neither be helped by any helper, nor shall anyone intercede on their behalf. No repeal or ransom will be accepted for them, all courtesy towards them will have ceased, along with any helpful intercession. No type of help or cooperation will be available for them on that Day. The judgment will, on that Day, be up to the Most Great, the Most Just, against whom no intercessor or helper can ever assist. He will then award the evil deed its kind and will multiply the good deeds.

This is similar to Allah’s statement,

وَقِفُوهُمْ إِنَّهُم مَّسْئُولُونَ

مَا لَكُمْ لَا تَنَاصَرُونَ

بَلْ هُمُ الْيَوْمَ مُسْتَسْلِمُونَ

But stop them, verily, they are to be questioned. “What is the matter with you? Why do you not help one another?” Nay, but that Day they shall surrender. (37:24-26)

Previous 48

وَإِذْ نَجَّيْنَـكُم مِّنْ ءَالِ فِرْعَوْنَ يَسُومُونَكُمْ سُوءَ الْعَذَابِ يُذَبِّحُونَ أَبْنَآءَكُمْ وَيَسْتَحْيُونَ نِسَآءَكُمْ وَفِى ذَلِكُمْ بَلاَءٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ عَظِيمٌ

2:49 And (remember) when We delivered you from Fir`awn’s (Pharaoh) people, who were afflicting you with a horrible torment, killing your sons and sparing your women, and therein was a mighty trial from your Lord.

وَإِذْ فَرَقْنَا بِكُمُ الْبَحْرَ فَأَنجَيْنَـكُمْ وَأَغْرَقْنَا ءَالَ فِرْعَوْنَ وَأَنتُمْ تَنظُرُونَ

2:50 And (remember) when We separated the sea for you and saved you and drowned Fir`awn’s (Pharaoh) people while you were watching.

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Next 51-53

The Children of Israel were saved from Pharaoh and His Army Who drowned

Allah said to the Children of Israel, “Remember My favor on you

وَإِذْ نَجَّيْنَاكُم مِّنْ آلِ فِرْعَوْنَ يَسُومُونَكُمْ سُوَءَ الْعَذَابِ …

And (remember) when We delivered you from Fir`awn’s (Pharaoh) people, who were afflicting you with a horrible torment,

meaning, `I – Allah – saved you from them and delivered you from their hands in the company of Musa, after they subjected you to horrible torture.’

This favor came after the cursed Pharaoh had a dream in which he saw a fire emerge from Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem), and then the fire entered the houses of the Coptics in Egypt, with the exception of the Children of Israel. Its purport was that his kingship would be toppled by a man among the Children of Israel.

It was also said that some of Pharaoh’s entourage said that the Children of Israel were expecting a man among them to arise who would establish a state for them. We will mention the Hadith on this subject when we explain Surah Ta Ha, Allah willing.

After the dream, Pharaoh ordered that every newborn male among the Children of Israel be killed and that the girls be left alone. He also commanded that the Children of Israel be given tasks of hard labor and assigned the most humiliating jobs.

The torment here refers to killing the male infants.

In Surah Ibrahim this meaning is clearly mentioned,

يَسُومُونَكُمْ سُوءَ الْعَذَابِ وَيُذَبِّحُونَ أَبْنَاءكُمْ وَيَسْتَحْيُونَ نِسَاءكُمْ

Who were afflicting you with horrible torment, and were slaughtering your sons and letting your women live. (14:6)

We will explain this Ayah in the beginning of Surah Al-Qasas, Allah willing, and our reliance and trust are with Him.

The meaning of, يَسُومُونَكُمْ (who were afflicting you) is,

“They humiliated you,” as Abu Ubaydah stated.

It was also said that it means, “They used to exaggerate in tormenting you” according to Al-Qurtubi.

As for Allah saying,

… يُذَبِّحُونَ أَبْنَاءكُمْ وَيَسْتَحْيُونَ نِسَاءكُمْ …

killing your sons and sparing your women,

that explains His statement, يَسُومُونَكُمْ سُوَءَ الْعَذَابِ (who were afflicting you with horrible torment) then it explains the meaning of the favor He gave them, as mentioned in His statement, اذْكُرُواْ نِعْمَتِيَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ (Remember My favor which I bestowed upon you).

As for what Allah said in Surah Ibrahim, وَذَكِّرْهُمْ بِأَيَّامِ اللّهِ (And remind them of the annals of Allah), (14:5) meaning,

the favors and blessing He granted them,

He then said, يَسُومُونَكُمْ سُوءَ الْعَذَابِ وَيُذَبِّحُونَ أَبْنَاءكُمْ وَيَسْتَحْيُونَ نِسَاءكُمْ (Who were afflicting you with horrible torment, and were slaughtering your sons and letting your women live), (14:6).

So Allah mentioned saving their children from being slaughtered in order to remind them of the many favors that He granted them.

We should state here that Pharaoh (Fir`awn) is a title that was given to every disbelieving king who ruled Egypt, whether from the Amaliq (Canaanites) or otherwise, just as Caesar (Qaysar) is the title of the disbelieving kings who ruled Rome and Damascus. Also, Khosrau (Kisra) is the title of the kings who ruled Persia, while Tubba is the title of the kings of Yemen, and the kings of Abyssinia (Ethiopia) were called Negus (An-Najashi).

Allah said,

… وَفِي ذَلِكُم بَلاء مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ عَظِيمٌ ﴿٤٩﴾

And therein was a mighty trial from your Lord.)

Ibn Jarir commented that this part of the Ayah means,

“Our saving your fathers from the torment that they suffered by the hand of Pharaoh, is a great blessing from your Lord.”

We should mention that in the blessing there a is test, the same as with hardship, for Allah said,

وَنَبْلُوكُم بِالشَّرِّ وَالْخَيْرِ فِتْنَةً

And We shall make a trial of you with evil and with good. (21:35)

and,

وَبَلَوْنَـهُمْ بِالْحَسَنَـتِ وَالسَّيِّئَاتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ

And We tried them with good (blessings) and evil (calamities) in order that they might turn (to obey Allah). (7:168).

Allah’s statement next,

وَإِذْ فَرَقْنَا بِكُمُ الْبَحْرَ فَأَنجَيْنَاكُمْ وَأَغْرَقْنَا آلَ فِرْعَوْنَ وَأَنتُمْ تَنظُرُونَ ﴿٥٠﴾

And (remember) when We separated the sea for you and saved you and drowned Fir`awn’s (Pharaoh) people while you were watching.

means, After We saved you from Firawn and you escaped with Musa; Fir`awn went out in your pursuit and We parted the sea for you.’

Allah mentioned this story in detail, as we will come to know, Allah willing.

One of the shortest references to this story is Allah’s statement, فَأَنجَيْنَاكُمْ (And saved you) meaning,

“We saved you from them, drowning them while you watched, bringing relief to your hearts and humiliation to your enemy.”

Fasting the Day of `Ashura

It was reported that the day the Children of Israel were saved from Fir`awn was called the day of Ashura.

Imam Ahmad reported that Ibn Abbas said that;

the Messenger of Allah came to Al-Madinah and found that the Jews were fasting the day of Ashura. He asked them, “What is this day that you fast?”

They said, “This is a good day during which Allah saved the Children of Israel from their enemy, and Musa used to fast this day.”

The Messenger of Allah said,

أَنَا أَحَقُّ بِمُوسَى مِنْكُم

I have more right to Musa than you have.

So the Messenger of Allah fasted that day and ordered that it be fasted.

This Hadith was collected by Al-Bukhari, Muslim, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah.

Previous 49-50

وَإِذْ وَعَدْنَا مُوسَى أَرْبَعِينَ لَيْلَةً ثُمَّ اتَّخَذْتُمُ الْعِجْلَ مِن بَعْدِهِ وَأَنتُمْ ظَـلِمُونَ

2:51 And (remember) when We appointed for Musa (Moses) forty nights, and (in his absence) you took the calf (for worship), and you were Zalimun (polytheists and wrongdoers).

ثُمَّ عَفَوْنَا عَنكُمِ مِّن بَعْدِ ذَلِكَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

2:52 Then after that We forgave you so that you might be grateful.

وَإِذْ ءَاتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَـبَ وَالْفُرْقَانَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ

2:53 And (remember) when We gave Musa the Scripture (the Tawrah) and the criterion (of right and wrong) so that you may be guided aright.

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Next 54

The Children of Israel worshipped the Calf

Allah then said,

وَإِذْ وَاعَدْنَا مُوسَى أَرْبَعِينَ لَيْلَةً ثُمَّ اتَّخَذْتُمُ الْعِجْلَ مِن بَعْدِهِ وَأَنتُمْ ظَالِمُونَ ﴿٥١﴾

ثُمَّ عَفَوْنَا عَنكُمِ مِّن بَعْدِ ذَلِكَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ ﴿٥٢﴾

And (remember) when We appointed for Musa (Moses) forty nights, and (in his absence) you took the calf (for worship), and you were Zalimun (polytheists and wrongdoers). Then after that We forgave you so that you might be grateful.

Allah said, “Remember My favor on you when I forgave you for worshipping the calf.”

This happened after Musa went to the meeting place with his Lord at the end of that period which was forty days. These forty days were mentioned in Surah Al-A`raf, when Allah said,

وَوَعَدْنَا مُوسَى ثَلَـثِينَ لَيْلَةً وَأَتْمَمْنَاهَا بِعَشْرٍ

And We appointed for Musa thirty nights and added (to the period) ten (more). (7:142)

It was said that these days were during the month of Dhul-Qadah plus the first ten days in Dhul-Hijjah, after the Children of Israel were delivered from Firawn and they safely crossed the sea.

Allah’s statement,

وَإِذْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ …

And (remember) when We gave Musa the Scripture,

means, the Tawrah.

… وَالْفُرْقَانَ ..

And the criterion,

that is that which differentiates between truth and falsehood, guidance and deviation.

…. لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ ﴿٥٣﴾

So that you may be guided aright.

after escaping the sea, as another Ayah in Surah Al-A`raf clearly stated,

وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَـبَ مِن بَعْدِ مَآ أَهْلَكْنَا الْقُرُونَ الاٍّولَى بَصَآئِرَ لِلنَّاسِ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لَّعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ

And indeed We gave Musa ـ after We had destroyed the generations of old ـ the Scripture (the Tawrah) as an enlightenment for mankind, and a guidance and a mercy, that they might remember (or receive admonition). (28:43)

Previous 51-53

وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَى لِقَوْمِهِ يَـقَوْمِ إِنَّكُمْ ظَلَمْتُمْ أَنفُسَكُمْ بِاتِّخَاذِكُمُ الْعِجْلَ

2:54 And (remember) when Musa said to his people: “O my people! Verily, you have wronged yourselves by worshipping the calf.

فَتُوبُواْ إِلَى بَارِئِكُمْ فَاقْتُلُواْ أَنفُسَكُمْ ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ عِندَ بَارِئِكُمْ

So turn in repentance to your Creator and kill yourselves (the innocent kill the wrongdoers among you), that will be better for you with your Creator.”

فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ

Then He accepted your repentance. Truly, He is the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.

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Next 55-56

The Children of Israel kill each other in Repentance

Allah tells;

وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَى لِقَوْمِهِ يَا قَوْمِ إِنَّكُمْ ظَلَمْتُمْ أَنفُسَكُمْ بِاتِّخَاذِكُمُ الْعِجْلَ فَتُوبُواْ إِلَى بَارِئِكُمْ فَاقْتُلُواْ أَنفُسَكُمْ ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ عِندَ بَارِئِكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ ﴿٥٤﴾

And (remember) when Musa said to his people: “O my people! Verily, you have wronged yourselves by worshipping the calf. So turn in repentance to your Creator and kill yourselves (the innocent kill the wrongdoers among you), that will be better for you with your Creator.” Then He accepted your repentance. Truly, He is the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.

This was the repentance required from the Children of Israel for worshipping the calf.

Commenting on Allah’s statement; وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَى لِقَوْمِهِ يَا قَوْمِ إِنَّكُمْ ظَلَمْتُمْ أَنفُسَكُمْ بِاتِّخَاذِكُمُ الْعِجْلَ (And (remember) when Musa said to his people: “O my people! Verily, you have wronged yourselves by worshipping the calf…), Al-Hasan Al-Basri said,

“When their hearts thought of worshipping the calf,

وَلَمَّا سُقِطَ فَى أَيْدِيهِمْ وَرَأَوْاْ أَنَّهُمْ قَدْ ضَلُّواْ قَالُواْ لَئِن لَّمْ يَرْحَمْنَا رَبُّنَا وَيَغْفِرْ لَنَا

And when they regretted and saw that they had gone astray, they (repented and) said: “If our Lord does not have mercy upon us and forgive us,” (7:149),

This is when Musa said to them, يَا قَوْمِ إِنَّكُمْ ظَلَمْتُمْ أَنفُسَكُمْ بِاتِّخَاذِكُمُ الْعِجْلَ (O my people! Verily, you have wronged yourselves by worshipping the calf…).”

Abu Al-Aliyah, Said bin Jubayr and Ar-Rabi bin Anas commented on, فَتُوبُواْ إِلَى بَارِئِكُمْ (So turn in repentance to your Bari) that it means,

“To your Creator.”

Allah’s statement,

… إِلَى بَارِئِكُمْ …

to your Bari (Creator),

alerts the Children of Israel to the enormity of their error and means,

“Repent to He Who created you after you associated others with Him in worship.”

An-Nasa’i, Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim recorded Ibn Abbas saying,

“Allah told the Children of Israel that their repentance would be to slay by the sword every person they meet, be he father or son. They should not care whom they kill. Those were guilty whom Musa and Harun were not aware of their guilt, they admitted their sin and did as they were ordered. So Allah forgave both the killer and the one killed.”

This is part of the Hadith about the trials that we will mention in Surah Ta Ha, Allah willing.

Ibn Jarir narrated that Ibn Abbas said,

“Musa said to his people,

… فَتُوبُواْ إِلَى بَارِئِكُمْ فَاقْتُلُواْ أَنفُسَكُمْ ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ عِندَ بَارِئِكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ

“So turn in repentance to your Creator and kill each other (the innocent kill the wrongdoers among you), that will be better for you with your Creator.”

Then He accepted your repentance. Truly, He is the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.

Allah ordered Musa to command his people to kill each other. He ordered those who worshipped the calf to sit down and those who did not worship the calf to stand holding knives in their hands. When they started killing them, a great darkness suddenly overcame them. After the darkness lifted, they had killed seventy thousand of them. Those who were killed among them were forgiven, and those who remained alive were also forgiven.”

Previous 54

وَإِذْ قُلْتُمْ يَـمُوسَى لَن نُّؤْمِنَ لَكَ حَتَّى نَرَى اللَّهَ جَهْرَةً فَأَخَذَتْكُمُ الصَّـعِقَةُ وَأَنتُمْ تَنظُرُونَ

2:55 And (remember) when you said: “O Musa! We shall never believe in you until we see Allah plainly.” But you were seized with a bolt of lightning while you were looking.

ثُمَّ بَعَثْنَـكُم مِّن بَعْدِ مَوْتِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

2:56 Then We raised you up after your death, so that you might be grateful.

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The Best among the Children of Israel ask to see Allah; their subsequent Death and Resurrection

Allah tells;

وَإِذْ قُلْتُمْ يَا مُوسَى لَن نُّؤْمِنَ لَكَ حَتَّى نَرَى اللَّهَ جَهْرَةً فَأَخَذَتْكُمُ الصَّاعِقَةُ وَأَنتُمْ تَنظُرُونَ ﴿٥٥﴾

And (remember) when you said: “O Musa! We shall never believe in you until we see Allah plainly.” But you were seized with a bolt of lightning while you were looking.

Ibn Jurayj commented that Allah said,

`Remember My favor on you for resurrecting you after you were seized with lightning when you asked to see Me directly, which neither you nor anyone else can bear or attain.’

Ibn Abbas said that the Ayah وَإِذْ قُلْتُمْ يَا مُوسَى لَن نُّؤْمِنَ لَكَ حَتَّى نَرَى اللَّهَ جَهْرَةً (And (remember) when you said: “O Musa ! We shall never believe in you until we see Allah plainly”) means,

“Publicly”, “So that we gaze at Allah.”

Also, Urwah bin Ruwaym said that Allah’s statement, وَأَنتُمْ تَنظُرُونَ (While you were looking) means,

“Some of them were struck with lightning while others were watching.”

Allah resurrected those, and struck the others with lightning.

As-Suddi commented on, فَأَخَذَتْكُمُ الصَّاعِقَةُ (But you were seized with a bolt of lightning) saying;

“They died, and Musa stood up crying and supplicating to Allah, `O Lord! What should I say to the Children of Israel when I go back to them after You destroyed the best of them,

لَوْ شِئْتَ أَهْلَكْتَهُم مِّن قَبْلُ وَإِيَّـىَ أَتُهْلِكُنَا بِمَا فَعَلَ السُّفَهَآءُ مِنَّآ

If it had been Your will, You could have destroyed them and me before; would You destroy us for the deeds of the foolish ones among us.’ 7:155)

Allah revealed to Musa that these seventy men were among those who worshipped the calf. Afterwards, Allah brought them back to life one man at a time, while the rest of them were watching how Allah was bringing them back to life. That is why Allah’s said,

ثُمَّ بَعَثْنَاكُم مِّن بَعْدِ مَوْتِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ ﴿٥٦﴾

Then We raised you up after your death, so that you might be grateful.”

Ar-Rabi bin Anas said,

“Death was their punishment, and they were resurrected after they died so they could finish out their lives.”

Qatadah said similarly.

Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam commented on this Ayah,

“Musa returned from meeting with his Lord carrying the Tablets on which He wrote the Tawrah. He found that they had worshipped the calf in his absence. Consequently, he commanded them to kill themselves, and they complied, and Allah forgave them.

He said to them, `These Tablets have Allah’s Book, containing what He commanded you and what He forbade for you.’

They said, `Should we believe this statement because you said it By Allah, we will not believe until we see Allah in the open, until He shows us Himself and says: This is My Book, therefore, adhere to it. Why does He not talk to us as He talked to you, O, Musa!”’

Then he (Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd) recited Allah’s statement, لَن نُّؤْمِنَ لَكَ حَتَّى نَرَى اللَّهَ جَهْرَةً (We shall never believe in you until we see Allah plainly) and said,

“So Allah’s wrath fell upon them, a thunderbolt struck them, and they all died. Then Allah brought them back to life after He killed them.”

Then he (Abdur-Rahman) recited Allah’s statement, ثُمَّ بَعَثْنَاكُم مِّن بَعْدِ مَوْتِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ (Then We raised you up after your death, so that you might be grateful), and said,

“Musa said to them, `Take the Book of Allah.’

They said, `No.’

He said, `What is the matter with you?’

They said, `The problem is that we died and came back to life.’

He said, `Take the Book of Allah.’

They said, `No.’

So Allah sent some angels who made the mountain topple over them.”

This shows that the Children of Israel were required to fulfill the commandments after they were brought back to life.

However, Al-Mawardy said that there are two opinions about this matter.

The first opinion is that since the Children of Israel witnessed these miracles, they were compelled to believe, so they did not have to fulfill the commandments.

The second opinion states that they were required to adhere to the commandments, so that no responsible adult is free of such responsibilities.

Al-Qurtubi said that this is what is correct, because, he said, although the Children of Israel witnessed these tremendous calamities and incidents, that did not mean that they were not responsible for fulfilling the commandments any more. Rather they are responsible for that, and this is clear. Allah knows best.

Previous 55-56

وَظَلَّلْنَا عَلَيْكُمُ الْغَمَامَ وَأَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَنَّ وَالسَّلْوَى كُلُواْ مِن طَيِّبَـتِ مَا رَزَقْنَـكُمْ وَمَا ظَلَمُونَا وَلَـكِن كَانُواْ أَنفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ

2:57 And We shaded you with clouds and sent down on you Al-Manna and the quail, (saying): “Eat of the good lawful things We have provided for you,” (but they rebelled). And they did not wrong Us but they wronged themselves.

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Next 58-59

The Shade, the Manna and the Quail

After Allah mentioned the calamities that He saved the Children of Israel from, He mentioned the favors that He granted them, saying,

وَظَلَّلْنَا عَلَيْكُمُ الْغَمَامَ …

And We shaded you with clouds.

This Ayah mentions the white clouds that provided shade for the Children of Israel, protecting them from the sun s heat during their years of wandering.

In the Hadith about the trials, An-Nasa’i recorded Ibn Abbas saying, Allah shaded the Children of Israel with clouds during the years of wandering.

Ibn Abi Hلa0tim said, Narrations similar to that of Ibn Abbas were reported from Ibn Umar, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, Abu Mijlaz, Ad-Dahhak, and As-Suddi.

Al-Hasan and Qatadah said that, وَظَلَّلْنَا عَلَيْكُمُ الْغَمَامَ (And We shaded you with clouds),

“This happened when they were in the desert and the clouds shielded them from the sun.”

Ibn Jarir said that several scholars said that the type of cloud the Ayah mentioned,

“was cooler and better than the type we know.”

… وَأَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَنَّ وَالسَّلْوَى …

and sent down on you Al-Manna and the quail,

Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas commented on Allah’s statement, وَأَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَنَّ (And sent down on you Al-Manna),

The manna used to descend to them to the trees, and they used to eat whatever they wished of it.

Also, Qatadah said,

The manna, which was whiter than milk and sweeter than honey, used to rain down on the Children of Israel, just as the snow falls, from dawn until sunrise. One of them would collect enough for that particular day, for if it remained more than that, it would spoil. On the sixth day, Friday, one would collect enough for the sixth and the seventh day, which was the Sabbath during which one would not leave home to seek his livelihood, or for anything else. All this occurred in the wilderness.

The type of manna that we know provides sufficient food when eaten alone, because it is nutritious and sweet. When manna is mixed with water, it becomes a sweet drink. It also changes composition when mixed with other types of food. However, this is not the only type.

The evidence to this fact is that Al-Bukhari narrated, that Sa’d bin Zayd said that the Messenger of Allah said,

الْكَمْأَةُ مِنَ الْمَنِّ وَمَاؤُهَا شِفَاءٌ لِلْعَيْن

Kam’ah (truffles) is a type of manna, and its liquid is a remedy for the eyes.

This Hadith was also collected by Imam Ahmad.

The group of Hadith compilers, with the exception of Abu Dawud, also collected it, and At-Tirmidhi graded it Hasan Sahih.

At-Tirmidhi recorded Abu Hurayrah saying that the Messenger of Allah said,

الْعَجْوَةُ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ وَفِيهَا شِفَاءٌ مِنَ السُّمِّ

وَالْكَمْأَةُ مِنَ الْمَنِّ وَمَاؤُهَا شِفَاءٌ لِلْعَيْن

The Ajwah (pressed, dried date) is from Paradise and it cures poison,

Al-Kam’ah (truffles) is a form of manna, and its liquid heals the eye.”

At-Tirmidhi is the only one of them who recorded this Hadith.

As for the quail (Salwa) in question, Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said,

“The (Salwa) is a bird that looks like the quail.”

This is the same opinion reported from Mujahid, Ash-Sha`bi, Ad-Dahhak, Al-Hasan, Ikrimah and Ar-Rabi bin Anas, may Allah have mercy upon them.

Also, Ikrimah said that;

the Salwa is a bird in Paradise about the size of a sparrow.

Qatadah said ;

“The Salwa is a bird that is similar to a sparrow. During that time, an Israelite could catch as many quails as was sufficient for that particular day, otherwise the meat would spoil. On the sixth day, Friday, he would collect what is enough for the sixth and the seventh day, the Sabbath, during which one was not allowed to depart his home to seek anything.”

Allah said,

… كُلُواْ مِن طَيِّبَاتِ مَا رَزَقْنَاكُمْ …

Eat of the good lawful things We have provided for you,

this form of command is a simple order of allowance, guiding to what is good.

This Ayah is similar to Allah’s statement,

كُلُواْ مِن رِّزْقِ رَبِّكُمْ وَاشْكُرُواْ لَهُ

Eat of the provision of your Lord, and be grateful to Him. (34:15)

Allah said,

… وَمَا ظَلَمُونَا وَلَـكِن كَانُواْ أَنفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ ﴿٥٧﴾

And they did not wrong Us but they wronged themselves,

means, `We commanded them to eat from what We gave them, and to perform the acts of worship (but they rebelled).’

Yet, the Children of Israel rebelled, disbelieved and committed injustice against themselves, even though they saw the clear signs, tremendous miracles and extraordinary events.

The Virtue of Muhammad’s Companions over the Companions of all Other Prophets

Here it is important to point out the virtue of Muhammad’s Companions over the companions of the other Prophets. This includes firmness in the religion, patience and the lack of arrogance, may Allah be pleased with them.

Although the Companions accompanied the Prophet in his travels and battles, such as during the battle of Tabuk, in intense heat and hardship, they did not ask for a miracle, though this was easy for the Prophet by Allah’s leave. And when the Companions became hungry, they merely asked the Prophet – to invoke Allah – for an increase in the amount of food. They collected whatever food they had and brought it to the Prophet, and he asked Allah to bless it, told each of them to take some food, and they filled every pot they had.

Also, when they needed rain, the Prophet asked Allah to send down rain, and a rain cloud came. They drank, gave water to their camels and filled their water skins. When they looked around, they found that the cloud had only rained on their camp. This is the best example of those who were willing to accept Allah’s decision and follow the Messenger of Allah.

Previous 57

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا ادْخُلُواْ هَـذِهِ الْقَرْيَةَ فَكُلُواْ مِنْهَا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمْ رَغَدًا وَادْخُلُواْ الْبَابَ سُجَّدًا وَقُولُواْ حِطَّةٌ نَّغْفِرْ لَكُمْ خَطَـيَـكُمْ وَسَنَزِيدُ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

2:58 And (remember) when We said: “Enter this town (Jerusalem) and eat bountifully therein with pleasure and delight wherever you wish, and enter the gate in prostration (or bowing with humility) and say: `Forgive us,’ and We shall forgive you your sins and shall increase (reward) for the good-doers.”

فَبَدَّلَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ قَوْلاً غَيْرَ الَّذِي قِيلَ لَهُمْ فَأَنزَلْنَا عَلَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ رِجْزًا مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَفْسُقُونَ

2:59 But those who did wrong changed the word from that which had been told to them for another, so We sent upon the wrongdoers Rijz (a punishment) from the heaven because of their rebellion.

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The Jews were Rebellious instead of Appreciative when They gained Victory

Allah tells;

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا ادْخُلُواْ هَـذِهِ الْقَرْيَةَ فَكُلُواْ مِنْهَا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمْ رَغَداً وَادْخُلُواْ الْبَابَ سُجَّداً …

And (remember) when We said: “Enter this town (Jerusalem) and eat bountifully therein with pleasure and delight wherever you wish, and enter the gate in prostration (or bowing with humility),

Allah admonished the Jews for avoiding Jihad and not entering the holy land as they had been ordered to do when they came from Egypt with Musa.

They were also commanded to fight the disbelieving Amaliq (Canaanites) dwelling in the holy land at that time. But they did not want to fight, because they were weak and exhausted.

Allah punished them by causing them to become lost, and to continue wandering, as Allah has stated in Surah Al-Ma’idah.

The correct opinion about the meaning of,

`the holy land’ mentioned here is that it was Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem), as As-Suddi, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, Qatadah and Abu Muslim Al-Asfahani, as well as others have stated.

Musa said,

يَاقَوْمِ ادْخُلُوا الاٌّرْضَ المُقَدَّسَةَ الَّتِى كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ وَلاَ تَرْتَدُّوا

O people! Enter the holy land which Allah has assigned to you and turn not back (in flight). (5:21)

However, some scholars said that;

the holy land is Jericho, (Ariha’) and this opinion was mentioned from Ibn Abbas and Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd.

After the years of wandering ended forty years later, in the company of Yuwsha` (Joshua) bin Nun, Allah allowed the Children of Israel to conquer the holy land on the eve of a Friday. On that day, the sun was kept from setting for a little more time, until victory was achieved. When the Children of Israel conquered the holy land, they were commanded to enter its gate while, سُجَّداً (prostrating) in appreciation to Allah for making them victorious, triumphant, returning them to their land and saving them from being lost and wandering.

Al-Awfi said that Ibn Abbas said that, وَادْخُلُواْ الْبَابَ سُجَّداً (and enter the gate Sujjadan) means,

“While bowing”.

Ibn Jarir reported Ibn Abbas saying, وَادْخُلُواْ الْبَابَ سُجَّداً (and enter the gate in prostration) means,

“Through a small door while bowing.”

Al-Hakim narrated it, and Ibn Abi Hatim added,

“And they went through the door backwards!”

Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that;

they were ordered to prostrate on their faces when they entered the city, but Ar-Razi discounted this explanation.

It was also said that;

the Sujud mentioned here means, `submissiveness’, for actually entering while prostrating is not possible.

Khasif said that Ikrimah said that Ibn Abbas said,

“The door mentioned here was facing the Qiblah.”

Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, As-Suddi, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak said that;

the door is the door of Hittah in Iylya, which is Jerusalem.

Ar-Razi also reported that;

some of them said that it was a door in the direction of the Qiblah.

Khasif said that Ikrimah said that Ibn Abbas said that;

the Children of Israel entered the door sideways.

As-Suddi said that Abu Said Al-Azdy said that Abu Al-Kanud said that Abdullah bin Masud said that;

they were commanded to, وَادْخُلُواْ الْبَابَ سُجَّداً (enter the gate in prostration (or bowing with humility)) but instead, they entered while their heads were raised in defiance.

Allah said next,

… وَقُولُواْ حِطَّةٌ …

and say: `Hittah‘,

Ibn Abbas commented,

“Seek Allah’s forgiveness.”

Al-Hasan and Qatadah said that it means,

“Say, `Relieve us from our errors.”

… نَّغْفِرْ لَكُمْ خَطَايَاكُمْ وَسَنَزِيدُ الْمُحْسِنِينَ ﴿٥٨﴾

and We shall forgive you your sins and shall increase (reward) for the good-doers.

Here is the reward for fulfilling Allah’s commandment.

This Ayah means, “If you implement what We commanded you, We will forgive your sins and multiply your good deeds.”

In summary, upon achieving victory, the Children of Israel were commanded to submit to Allah in tongue and deed and, to admit to their sins and seek forgiveness for them, to be grateful to Allah for the blessings He gave them, hastening to do the deeds that Allah loves, as He said,

إِذَا جَآءَ نَصْرُ اللَّهِ وَالْفَتْحُ

وَرَأَيْتَ النَّاسَ يَدْخُلُونَ فِى دِينِ اللَّهِ أَفْوَجاً

فَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ وَاسْتَغْفِرْهُ إِنَّهُ كَانَ تَوِبَا

When there comes the help of Allah (to you, O Muhammad against your enemies) and the conquest (of Makkah). And you see that the people enter Allah’s religion (Islam) in crowds. So glorify the praises of your Lord, and ask His forgiveness. Verily, He is the One Who accepts the repentance. (110:1-3).

Allah said,

فَبَدَّلَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ قَوْلاً غَيْرَ الَّذِي قِيلَ لَهُمْ …

But those who did wrong changed the word from that which had been told to them for another.

Al-Bukhari recorded Abu Hurayrah saying that the Prophet said,

قِيلَ لِبَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ ادْخُلُوا الْبَابَ سُجَّدًا وَقُولُوا: حِطَّةٌ، فَدَخَلُوا يَزْحَفُون عَلى أَسْتَاهِهِم فَبَدَّلُوا وَقَالُوا، حَبَّةٌ فِي شَعْرَة

The Children of Israel were commanded to enter the door while bowing and to say Hittah‘. Yet, they entered the door on their behinds, distorting the words. They said;Habbah (seed), in Sha`rah (a hair).’

An-Nasa’i recorded this part of it from Abu Hurayrah only, but he has a chain from the Prophet, explaining Allah’s statement, حِطَّةٌ (Hittah),

saying, “So they deviated and said `Habbah.”

Similar was recorded by Abdur-Razzaq, and his route was also collected by Al-Bukhari.

Muslim and At-Tirmidhi narrated similar versions of this Hadith, At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih.”

The summary of what the scholars have said about this subject is that the Children of Israel distorted Allah’s command to them to submit to Him in tongue and deed. They were commanded to enter the city while bowing down, but they entered while sliding on their rear ends and raising their heads! They were commanded to say, Hittah‘ meaning, "Relieve us from our errors and sins.” However, they mocked this command and said, "Hintah (grain seed) in Shairah (barley).” This demonstrates the worst type of rebellion and disobedience, and it is why Allah released His anger and punishment upon them, all because of their sinning and defying His commands.

Allah said,

… فَأَنزَلْنَا عَلَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ رِجْزاً مِّنَ السَّمَاء بِمَا كَانُواْ يَفْسُقُونَ ﴿٥٩﴾

So We sent upon the wrongdoers Rijz (a punishment) from the heaven because of their rebellion.

Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn Abbas said,

“Every word in Allah’s Book that says Rijz means, `a punishment.”’

Mujahid, Abu Malik, As-Suddi, Al-Hasan and Qatadah were reported to have said that;

Rijz means `Torment.’

Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Sa`d bin Malik, Usamah bin Zayd and Khuzaymah bin Thabit said that the Messenger of Allah said,

الطَّاعُونُ رِجْزٌ.عَذَابٌ عُذِّبَ بِهِ مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَكُم

The plague is a Rijz, a punishment with which Allah punished those before you.

This is also how An-Nasa’i recorded this Hadith. In addition, the basis of this Hadith was collected in the Two Sahihs,

إِذَا سَمِعْتُمُ الطَّاعُونَ بأَرْضٍ فَلَا تَدْخُلُوهَا

If you hear of the plague in a land, then do not enter it.

Ibn Jarir recorded Usamah bin Zayd saying that the Messenger of Allah said,

إنَّ هَذَا الْوَجَعَ وَالسَّقَمَ رِجْزٌ عُذِّبَ بِهِ بَعْضُ الْأُمَمِ قَبْلَكُم

This calamity and sickness (i.e. the plague) is a Rijz, a punishment with which some nations who were before you were punished.

The basis of this Hadith was also collected in the Two Sahihs.

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وَإِذِ اسْتَسْقَى مُوسَى لِقَوْمِهِ فَقُلْنَا اضْرِب بِّعَصَاكَ الْحَجَرَ

2:60 And (remember) when Musa asked for water for his people, We said: “Strike the stone with your stick.”

فَانفَجَرَتْ مِنْهُ اثْنَتَا عَشْرَةَ عَيْنًا قَدْ عَلِمَ كُلُّ أُنَاسٍ مَّشْرَبَهُمْ

Then gushed forth therefrom twelve springs. Each (group of) people knew its own place for water.

كُلُواْ وَاشْرَبُواْ مِن رِّزْقِ اللَّهِ وَلاَ تَعْثَوْاْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ مُفْسِدِينَ

“Eat and drink of that which Allah has provided and do not act corruptly, making mischief on the earth.”

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Twelve Springs gush forth

Allah tells;

وَإِذِ اسْتَسْقَى مُوسَى لِقَوْمِهِ فَقُلْنَا اضْرِب بِّعَصَاكَ الْحَجَرَ فَانفَجَرَتْ مِنْهُ اثْنَتَا عَشْرَةَ عَيْناً قَدْ عَلِمَ كُلُّ أُنَاسٍ مَّشْرَبَهُمْ كُلُواْ وَاشْرَبُواْ مِن رِّزْقِ اللَّهِ …

And (remember) when Musa asked for water for his people, We said: “Strike the stone with your stick.” Then gushed forth therefrom twelve springs. Each (group of) people knew its own place for water. “Eat and drink of that which Allah has provided,

Allah said, “Remember My favor on you when I answered the supplication of your Prophet, Musa, when he asked Me to provide you with water. I made the water available for you, making it gush out through a stone.

Twelve springs burst out of that stone, a designated spring for each of your tribes. You eat from the manna and the quails and drink from the water that I provided for you, without any effort or hardship for you. So worship the One Who did this for you.

… وَلاَ تَعْثَوْاْ فِي الأَرْضِ مُفْسِدِينَ ﴿٦٠﴾

And do not act corruptly, making mischief on the earth,

meaning, “Do not return the favor by committing acts of disobedience that cause favors to disappear.”

Ibn Abbas said that;

the Children of Israel, “Had a square stone that Musa was commanded to strike with his staff and, as a result, twelve springs burst out of that stone, three on each side. Each tribe was, therefore, designated a certain spring, and they used to drink from their springs. They never had to travel from their area, they would find the same bounty in the same manner they had in the first area.”

This narration is part of the long Hadith that An-Nasa’i, Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim recorded about the trials.

This story is similar to the story in Surah Al-A`raf although the latter was revealed in Makkah.

In Surah Al-A`raf, Allah used the third person when He mentioned the Children of Israel to the Prophet and narrated what He favored them with.

In this Surah Al-Baqarah, which was revealed in Al-Madinah, Allah directed His Speech at the Children of Israel.

Further, Allah said in Surah Al-A`raf,

فَانبَجَسَتْ مِنْهُ اثْنَتَا عَشْرَةَ عَيْنًا

And there gushed forth out of it twelve springs. (7:160),

describing what first occurred when the water begins to gush out.

In the Ayah in Surah Al-Baqarah, Allah described what happened later on, meaning when the water burst out in full force.

Allah knows best.

Previous 60

وَإِذْ قُلْتُمْ يَـمُوسَى لَن نَّصْبِرَ عَلَى طَعَامٍ وَحِدٍ فَادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُخْرِجْ لَنَا مِمَّا تُنبِتُ الأَرْضُ مِن بَقْلِهَا وَقِثَّآئِهَا وَفُومِهَا وَعَدَسِهَا وَبَصَلِهَا

2:61 They said, “O Musa! We cannot endure one kind of food. So invoke your Lord for us to bring forth for us of what the earth grows, its herbs, its cucumber its Fum, its lentils and its onions.”

قَالَ أَتَسْتَبْدِلُونَ الَّذِى هُوَ أَدْنَى بِالَّذِى هُوَ خَيْرٌ اهْبِطُواْ مِصْرًا فَإِنَّ لَكُم مَّا سَأَلْتُمْ

He said, “Would you exchange that which is better for that which is lower! Go you down to any town and you shall find what you want!”

وَضُرِبَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الذِّلَّةُ وَالْمَسْكَنَةُ وَبَآءُوا بِغَضَبٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ

And they were covered with humiliation and misery, and they drew on themselves the wrath of Allah.

ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَانُواْ يَكْفُرُونَ بِآيَـتِ اللَّهِ وَيَقْتُلُونَ النَّبِيِّينَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ

That was because they used to disbelieve in the Ayat (proofs, evidence) of Allah and killed the Prophets wrongfully.

ذلِكَ بِمَا عَصَواْ وَّكَانُواْ يَعْتَدُونَ

That was because they disobeyed and used to transgress the bounds (in their disobedience to Allah, i.e. commit crimes and sins.

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The Children of Israel preferred Foods inferior to Manna and Quails

Allah said, “And remember My favor on you when I sent down the manna and quails to you, a good, pure, beneficial, easily acquired food. And remember your ungratefulness for what We granted you. Remember how you asked Musa to exchange this type of food for an inferior type that consists of vegetation, and so forth.”

Al-Hasan Al-Basri said about the Children of Israel,

“They were bored and impatient with the type of food they were provided. They also remembered the life they used to live, when their diet consisted of lentils, onions, garlic and herbs.”

Allah tells,

وَإِذْ قُلْتُمْ يَا مُوسَى لَن نَّصْبِرَ عَلَىَ طَعَامٍ وَاحِدٍ فَادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُخْرِجْ لَنَا مِمَّا تُنبِتُ الأَرْضُ مِن بَقْلِهَا وَقِثَّآئِهَا وَفُومِهَا وَعَدَسِهَا وَبَصَلِهَا …

They said, “O Musa ! We cannot endure one kind of food. So invoke your Lord for us to bring forth for us of what the earth grows, its herbs, its cucumbers, its Fum, its lentils and its onions.

They said, عَلَىَ طَعَامٍ وَاحِدٍ (One kind of food) meaning,

the manna and quails, because they ate the same food day after day.

The Ayah mentioned lentils, onions and herbs, which are all known types of foods.

As for the Fum, Ibn Mas`ud read it, Thum (garlic).

Also, Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Al-Hasan said about the Ayah, وَفُومِهَا (Its Fum),

“Ibn Abbas said that Fum means, garlic.”

He also said that;

the expression, Fumu-lanna‘ means,bake for us’, according to the languages of old.

Ibn Jarir commented,

“If this is true, then Fum‘ is one of the words whose pronunciations were altered, the letterfa‘ was replaced by the letter `tha‘, since they are similar in sound.” And Allah knows best.

Others said that Fum is wheat, the kind used for bread.

Al-Bukhari said,

“Some of them said that Fum includes all grains or seeds that are eaten.”

Allah’s statement,

… قَالَ أَتَسْتَبْدِلُونَ الَّذِي هُوَ أَدْنَى بِالَّذِي هُوَ خَيْرٌ …

He said, “Would you exchange that which is better for that which is lower!”

criticized the Jews for asking for inferior foods, although they were living an easy life, eating tasty, beneficial and pure food.

Allah’s statement,

… اهْبِطُواْ مِصْراً …

Go you down to any Misr,

Ibn Abbas said,

means, `any city’.

Ibn Jarir also reported that Abu Al-Aliyah and Ar-Rabi bin Anas said that;

the Ayah refers to Misr, the Egypt of Fir`awn.

The truth is that the Ayah means any city, as Ibn Abbas and other scholars stated. Therefore, the meaning of Musa’s statement to the Children of Israel becomes,

“What you are asking for is easy, for it is available in abundance in any city that you might enter. So since what you asked for is available in all of the villages and cities, I will not ask Allah to provide us with it, especially when it is an inferior type of food. ”

This is why Musa said to them,

…أَتَسْتَبْدِلُونَ الَّذِي هُوَ أَدْنَى بِالَّذِي هُوَ خَيْرٌ اهْبِطُواْ مِصْراً فَإِنَّ لَكُم مَّا سَأَلْتُمْ …

Would you exchange that which is better for that which is lower Go you down to any town and you shall find what you want!

Since their request was the result of boredom and arrogance and since fulfilling it was unnecessary, their request was denied.

Allah knows best.

Covering the Jews in Humiliation and Misery

Allah said,

… وَضُرِبَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الذِّلَّةُ وَالْمَسْكَنَةُ …

And they were covered with humiliation and misery.

This Ayah indicates that the Children of Israel were plagued with humiliation, and that this will continue, meaning that it will never cease. They will continue to suffer humiliation at the hands of all who interact with them, along with the disgrace that they feel inwardly.

Al-Hasan commented,

“Allah humiliated them, and they shall have no protector. Allah put them under the feet of the Muslims, who appeared at a time when the Majus (Zoroastrians) were taking the Jizyah (tax) from the Jews.”

Also, Abu Al-Aliyah, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and As-Suddi said that;

misery’ used in the Ayah means,poverty.’

Atiyah Al-Awfi said that;

misery’ means,paying the tilth (tax).’

In addition, Ad-Dahhak commented on Allah’s statement,

… وَبَآؤُوْاْ بِغَضَبٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ …

and they drew on themselves the wrath of Allah,

“They deserved Allah’s anger.”

Also, Ibn Jarir said that the Ayah means,

“They went back with the wrath. Similarly, Allah said, إِنِّي أُرِيدُ أَن تَبُوءَ بِإِثْمِي وَإِثْمِكَ (Verily, I intend to let you draw my sin on yourself as well as yours), (5:29) meaning,

`You will end up carrying my, and your, mistakes instead of me’.

Thus, the meaning of the Ayah becomes,

`They went back carrying Allah’s anger; Allah’s wrath descended on them; they deserved Allah’s anger.”’

Allah’s statement,

… ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَانُواْ يَكْفُرُونَ بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ وَيَقْتُلُونَ النَّبِيِّينَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ …

That was because they used to disbelieve in the Ayat (proofs, evidences, etc.) of Allah and killed the Prophets wrongfully.

means, “This is what We rewarded the Children of Israel with: humiliation and misery.”

Allah’s anger that descended on the Children of Israel was a part of the humiliation they earned, because of their defiance of the truth, disbelief in Allah’s Ayat and belittling the carriers of Allah’s Law i.e. the Prophets and their following. The Children of Israel rejected the Messengers and even killed them. Surely, there is no form of disbelief worse than disbelieving in Allah’s Ayat and murdering the Prophets of Allah.

Meaning of Kibr

Similarly, in a Hadith recorded in the Two Sahihs the Messenger of Allah said,

الْكِبْرُ بَطَرُ الْحَقِّ وَغَمْطُ النَّاس

Kibr, is refusing the truth and degrading (belittling) people.

Imam Ahmad recorded, Abdullah bin Mas`ud saying that the Messenger of Allah said,

أَشَدُّ النَّاسِ عَذَابًا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ رَجُلٌ قَتَلَهُ نَبِيٌّ أَوْ قَتَلَ نَبِيًّا: وَإِمَامُ ضَلَالَةٍ وَمُمَثِّلٌ مِنَ الْمُمَثِّلِين

The people who will receive the most torment on the Day of Resurrection are: a man who was killed by a Prophet or who killed a Prophet, an unjust ruler and one who mutilates (the dead).

Allah’s statement,

… ذَلِكَ بِمَا عَصَواْ وَّكَانُواْ يَعْتَدُونَ ﴿٦١﴾

That was because they disobeyed and used to transgress the bounds.

mentions another reason why the Children of Israel were punished in this manner, for they used to disobey and transgress the limits. Disobedience is to do what is prohibited, while transgression entails overstepping the set limits of what is allowed and what is prohibited. Allah knows best.

Previous 61

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَالَّذِينَ هَادُواْ وَالنَّصَـرَى وَالصَّـبِئِينَ مَنْ ءَامَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ وَعَمِلَ صَـلِحاً فَلَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

2:62 Verily, those who believe and those who are Jews and Christians, and Sabians (Sabi’in), whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day and does righteous good deeds shall have their reward with their Lord, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.

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Faith and doing Righteous Deeds equals Salvation in all Times

Allah says;

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَالَّذِينَ هَادُواْ وَالنَّصَارَى وَالصَّابِئِينَ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحاً فَلَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ ﴿٦٢﴾

Verily, those who believe and those who are Jews and Christians, and Sabians (Sabi’in), whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day and does righteous good deeds shall have their reward with their Lord, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.

After Allah described the condition – and punishment – of those who defy His commands, fall into His prohibitions and transgress set limits by committing prohibited acts, He stated that the earlier nations who were righteous and obedient received the rewards for their good deeds. This shall be the case, until the Day of Judgment. Therefore, whoever follows the unlettered Messenger and Prophet shall acquire eternal happiness and shall neither fear from what will happen in the future nor become sad for what has been lost in the past.

Similarly, Allah said,

أَلا إِنَّ أَوْلِيَآءَ اللَّهِ لاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

No doubt! Verily, the Awliya of Allah, no fear shall come upon them nor shall they grieve. (10:62)

The angels will proclaim to the dying believers, as mentioned,

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ قَالُواْ رَبُّنَا اللَّهُ ثُمَّ اسْتَقَـمُواْ تَتَنَزَّلُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْمَلَـئِكَةُ أَلاَّ تَخَافُواْ وَلاَ تَحْزَنُواْ وَأَبْشِرُواْ بِالْجَنَّةِ الَّتِى كُنتُمْ تُوعَدُونَ

Verily, those who say: “Our Lord is Allah (alone),” and then they stand firm, on them the angels will descend (at the time of their death) (saying): “Fear not, nor grieve! But receive the glad tidings of Paradise which you have been promised!” (41:30)

The Meaning of Mu’min, or Believer

Ali bin Abi Talhah narrated from Ibn Abbas, about, إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَالَّذِينَ هَادُواْ وَالنَّصَارَى وَالصَّابِئِينَ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ (Verily, those who believe and those who are Jews and Christians, and Sabians, whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day) that Allah revealed the following Ayah afterwards,

وَمَن يَبْتَغِ غَيْرَ الإِسْلَـمِ دِينًا فَلَن يُقْبَلَ مِنْهُ وَهُوَ فِى الاٌّخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخَـسِرِينَ

And whoever seeks religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers. (3:85).

This statement by Ibn Abbas indicates that Allah does not accept any deed or work from anyone, unless it conforms to the Law of Muhammad that is, after Allah sent Muhammad. Before that, every person who followed the guidance of his own Prophet was on the correct path, following the correct guidance and was saved.

Why the Jews were called `Yahud

The Jews are the followers of Prophet Musa, who used to refer to the Tawrah for judgment. Yahud is a word that means,

`repenting’, just as Musa said, إِنَّا هُدْنَـا إِلَيْكَ (We have Hudna (we repent, go back and return) unto You), (7:156).

Why the Christians were called Nasara

Allah said;

مَنْ أَنصَارِى إِلَى اللَّهِ قَالَ الْحَوَارِيُّونَ نَحْنُ أَنْصَارُ اللَّهِ

“Who will be my helpers in Allah’s cause” Al-Hawariyyun said: “We are the helpers of Allah.” (61:14)

It was said that;

they were called `Nasara‘, because they inhabited a land called An-Nasirah (Nazareth), as Qatadah, Ibn Jurayj and Ibn Abbas were reported to have said, Allah knows best.

Nasara is certainly plural for Nasran.

When Allah sent Muhammad as the Last and Final Prophet and Messenger to all of the Children of Adam, mankind was required to believe in him, obey him and refrain from what he prohibited them; those who do this are true believers. The Ummah of Muhammad was called `Mu’minin‘ (believers), because of the depth of their faith and certainty, and because they believe in all of the previous Prophets and matters of the Unseen.

The Sabi’un or Sabians

There is a difference of opinion over the identity of the Sabians.

Sufyan Ath-Thawri said that Layth bin Abu Sulaym said that Mujahid said that,

“The Sabians are between the Majus, the Jews and the Christians. They do not have a specific religion.”

Similar is reported from Ibn Abi Najih.

Similar statements were attributed to Ata and Sa`id bin Jubayr.

They (others) say that;

the Sabians are a sect among the People of the Book who used to read the Zabur (Psalms), others say that they are a people who worshipped the angels or the stars.

It appears that the closest opinion to the truth, and Allah knows best, is Mujahid’s statement and those who agree with him like Wahb bin Munabbih, that;

the Sabians are neither Jews nor Christians nor Majus nor polytheists. Rather, they did not have a specific religion that they followed and enforced, because they remained living according to their Fitrah (instinctual nature). This is why the idolators used to call whoever embraced Islam a `Sabi‘, meaning, that he abandoned all religions that existed on the earth.

Some scholars stated that;

the Sabians are those who never received a message by any Prophet.

And Allah knows best.

Previous 62

وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَـقَكُمْ وَرَفَعْنَا فَوْقَكُمُ الطُّورَ خُذُواْ مَآ ءَاتَيْنَـكُم بِقُوَّةٍ وَاذْكُرُواْ مَا فِيهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

2:63 And (O Children of Isra’il, remember) when We took your covenant and We raised above you the Mount (saying): “Hold fast to that which We have given you, and remember that which is therein so that you may acquire Taqwa.

ثُمَّ تَوَلَّيْتُم مِّن بَعْدِ ذلِكَ

2:64 Then after that you turned away.

فَلَوْلاَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَتُهُ لَكُنتُم مِّنَ الْخَـسِرِينَ

Had it not been for the grace and mercy of Allah upon you, indeed you would have been among the losers.

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Next 65-66

Taking the Covenant from the Jews

Allah tells;

وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ وَرَفَعْنَا فَوْقَكُمُ الطُّورَ خُذُواْ مَا آتَيْنَاكُم بِقُوَّةٍ وَاذْكُرُواْ مَا فِيهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ ﴿٦٣﴾

And (O Children of Isra’il, remember) when We took your covenant and We raised above you the Mount (saying): “Hold fast to that which We have given you, and remember that which is therein so that you may acquire Taqwa.

Allah reminded the Children of Israel of the pledges, covenants and promises that He took from them to believe in Him alone, without a partner, and follow His Messengers. Allah stated that when He took their pledge from them, He raised the mountain above their heads, so that they affirm the pledge that they gave Allah and abide by it with sincerity and seriousness. Hence, Allah’s statement,

وَإِذ نَتَقْنَا الْجَبَلَ فَوْقَهُمْ كَأَنَّهُ ظُلَّةٌ وَظَنُّواْ أَنَّهُ وَاقِعٌ بِهِمْ خُذُواْ مَآ ءَاتَيْنَاكُم بِقُوَّةٍ وَاذْكُرُواْ مَا فِيهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

And (remember) when We raised the mountain over them as if it had been a canopy, and they thought that it was going to fall on them. (We said): “Hold firmly to what We have given you (Tawrah), and remember that which is therein (act on its commandments), so that you may fear Allah and obey Him.” (7:171).

The mount mentioned here is At-Tur, just as it was explained in Surah Al-A`raf, according to the Tafsir of Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Ata, Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and others. This is more obvious.

There is another report from Ibn Abbas saying;

`The Tur is a type of mountain that vegetation grows on, if no vegetation grows on it, it is not called Tur.’

And in the Hadith about the trials, Ibn Abbas said;

“When they (the Jews) refused to obey, Allah raised the mountain above their heads so that they would listen.”

Al-Hasan said that Allah’s statement, خُذُواْ مَا آتَيْنَاكُم بِقُوَّةٍ (Hold fast to that which We have given you),

means, the Tawrah.

Mujahid said that the Ayah commanded,

“Strictly adhere to it.”

Abu Al-Aliyah and Ar-Rabi said that, وَاذْكُرُواْ مَا فِيهِ (and remember that which is therein) means,

“Read the Tawrah and implement it.”

Allah’s statement,

ثُمَّ تَوَلَّيْتُم مِّن بَعْدِ ذَلِكَ فَلَوْلاَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ …

Then after that you turned away. Had it not been for the grace of Allah,

means, “Yet, after the firm pledge that you gave, you still deviated and broke your pledge”;

… فَلَوْلاَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَتُهُ …

Had it not been for the grace and mercy of Allah upon you,

meaning, by forgiving you and by sending the Prophets and Messengers to you.

… لَكُنتُم مِّنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ ﴿٦٤﴾

Indeed you would have been among the losers.

meaning, in this life and the Hereafter due to their breach of the covenant.

Previous 63-64

وَلَقَدْ عَلِمْتُمُ الَّذِينَ اعْتَدَواْ مِنكُمْ فِى السَّبْتِ فَقُلْنَا لَهُمْ كُونُواْ قِرَدَةً خَـسِئِينَ

2:65 And indeed you knew those amongst you who transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath (i.e. Saturday). We said to them: “Be you monkeys, despised and rejected.”

فَجَعَلْنَـهَا نَكَـلاً لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهَا وَمَا خَلْفَهَا وَمَوْعِظَةً لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ

2:66 So We made this punishment an example for those in front of it and those behind it, and a lesson for Al-Muttaqin (the pious.

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Next 67

The Jews breach the Sanctity of the Sabbath

Allah said,

وَلَقَدْ عَلِمْتُمُ الَّذِينَ اعْتَدَواْ مِنكُمْ فِي السَّبْتِ فَقُلْنَا لَهُمْ كُونُواْ قِرَدَةً خَاسِئِينَ ﴿٦٥﴾

And indeed you knew those amongst you who transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath (i.e. Saturday). We said to them: “Be you monkeys, despised and rejected.”

وَلَقَدْ عَلِمْتُمُ الَّذِينَ (And indeed you knew).

This Ayah means, O Jews! Remember that Allah sent His torment on the village that disobeyed Him and broke their pledge and their covenant to observe the sanctity of the Sabbath.

They began using deceitful means to avoid honoring the Sabbath by placing nets, ropes and artificial pools of water for the purpose of fishing before the Sabbath. When the fish came in abundance on Saturday as usual, they were caught in the ropes and nets for the rest of Saturday. During the night, the Jews collected the fish after the Sabbath ended.

When they did that, Allah changed them from humans into monkeys, the animals having the form closest to humans. Their evil deeds and deceit appeared lawful on the surface, but they were in reality wicked. This is why their punishment was compatible with their crime.

This story is explained in detail in Surah Al-A`raf, where Allah said,

وَسْئَلْهُمْ عَنِ الْقَرْيَةِ الَّتِى كَانَتْ حَاضِرَةَ الْبَحْرِ إِذْ يَعْدُونَ فِى السَّبْتِ إِذْ تَأْتِيهِمْ حِيتَانُهُمْ يَوْمَ سَبْتِهِمْ شُرَّعًا وَيَوْمَ لاَ يَسْبِتُونَ لاَ تَأْتِيهِمْ كَذَلِكَ نَبْلُوهُم بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْسُقُونَ

And ask them (O Muhammad) about the town that was by the sea; when they transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath (i.e. Saturday): when their fish came to them openly on the Sabbath day, and did not come to them on the day they had no Sabbath. Thus We made a trial of them, for they used to rebel (disobey Allah). (7:163)

In his Tafsir, Al-Awfi reported from Ibn Abbas that he said, فَقُلْنَا لَهُمْ كُونُواْ قِرَدَةً خَاسِئِينَ (We said to them: “Be you monkeys, despised and rejected”) means,

“Allah changed their bodies into those of monkeys and swine. The young people turned into monkeys while the old people turned into swine.”

Shayban An-Nahwi reported that Qatadah commented on, فَقُلْنَا لَهُمْ كُونُواْ قِرَدَةً خَاسِئِينَ (We said to them: “Be you monkeys, despised and rejected”),

“These people were turned into howling monkeys with tails, after being men and women.”

The Monkeys and Swine that exist now are not the Descendants of Those that were transformed

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn Abbas said,

“Those who violated the sanctity of the Sabbath were turned into monkeys, then they perished without offspring.”

Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn Abbas said,

“Allah turned them into monkeys because of their sins. They only lived on the earth for three days, for no transformed person ever lives more than three days. They did not eat, drink or have offspring. Allah transformed their shapes into monkeys, and He does what He wills, with whom He wills and He changes the shape of whomever He wills. On the other hand, Allah created the monkeys, swines and the rest of the creation in the six days (of creation) that He mentioned in His Book.”

Allah’s statement,

فَجَعَلْنَاهَا نَكَالاً …

So We made this punishment an example,

means, Allah made the people of this village, who violated the sanctity of the Sabbath, نَكَالاً (an example) via the way they were punished.

Similarly, Allah said about Pharaoh,

فَأَخَذَهُ اللَّهُ نَكَالَ الاٌّخِرَةِ وَالاٍّوْلَى

So Allah, seized him with punishing example for his last and first transgression. (79:25)

Allah’s statement,

… لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهَا وَمَا خَلْفَهَا …

for those in front of it and those behind it,

meaning, for the other villages.

Ibn Abbas commented,

“Meaning, `We made this village an example for the villages around it by the manner in which We punished its people.”’

Similarly, Allah said,

وَلَقَدْ أَهْلَكْنَا مَا حَوْلَكُمْ مِّنَ الْقُرَى وَصَرَّفْنَا الاٌّيَـتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ

And indeed We have destroyed towns (populations) round about you, and We have (repeatedly) shown (them) the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) in various ways that they might return (to the truth and believe in the Oneness of Allah ـ Islamic Monotheism).(46:27)

Therefore, Allah made them an example for those who lived during their time as well as a reminder for those to come, by preserving their story. This is why Allah said,

… وَمَوْعِظَةً لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ ﴿٦٦﴾

and a lesson for Al-Muttaqin (the pious),

meaning, a reminder.

This Ayah means,

“The torment and punishment that this village suffered was a result of indulging in Allah’s prohibitions and their deceit. Hence, those who have Taqwa should be aware of their evil behavior, so that what occurred to this village does not befall them as well.”

Also, Imam Abu Abdullah bin Battah reported that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

لَا تَرْتَكِبُوا مَا ارْتَكَبَتِ الْيَهُودُ فَتَسْتَحِلُّوا مَحَارِمَ اللهِ بِأَدْنَى الْحِيَل

Do not commit what the Jews committed, breaching what Allah has forbidden, by resorting to the lowest types of deceit.

This Hadith has a good (Jayid) chain of narration.

Allah knows best.

Delve into the profound wisdom and translation of Surah Al-Baqarah Ayat 67 on Quran House, illustrating the story of obedience and the command to slaughter a cow.”

وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَى لِقَوْمِهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَن تَذْبَحُواْ بَقَرَةً

2:67 And (remember) when Musa said to his people: “Verily, Allah commands you that you slaughter a cow.”

قَالُواْ أَتَتَّخِذُنَا هُزُوًا

They said, “Do you make fun of us!”

قَالَ أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ أَنْ أَكُونَ مِنَ الْجَـهِلِينَ

He said, “I take Allah’s refuge from being among Al-Jahilin (the ignorant or the foolish).”

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Next 68-71

The Story of the murdered Israeli Man and the Cow

Allah said,

وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَى لِقَوْمِهِ إِنَّ اللّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَنْ تَذْبَحُواْ بَقَرَةً قَالُواْ أَتَتَّخِذُنَا هُزُواً قَالَ أَعُوذُ بِاللّهِ أَنْ أَكُونَ مِنَ الْجَاهِلِينَ ﴿٦٧﴾

And (remember) when Musa said to his people: “Verily, Allah commands you that you slaughter a cow.” They said, “Do you make fun of us” He said, “I take Allah’s refuge from being among Al-Jahilin (the ignorant or the foolish).

Allah said, `O Children of Israel! Remember how I blessed you with miracle of the cow that was the means for discovering the identity of the murderer, when the murdered man was brought back to life.’

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded Ubaydah As-Salmani saying,

“There was a man from among the Children of Israel who was impotent. He had substantial wealth, and only a nephew who would inherit from him. So his nephew killed him and moved his body at night, placing it at the doorstep of a certain man.

The next morning, the nephew cried out for revenge, and the people took up their weapons and almost fought each other. The wise men among them said, `Why would you kill each other, while the Messenger of Allah is still among you?’

So they went to Musa and mentioned the matter to him and Musa said, إِنَّ اللّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَنْ تَذْبَحُواْ بَقَرَةً قَالُواْ أَتَتَّخِذُنَا هُزُواً قَالَ أَعُوذُ بِاللّهِ أَنْ أَكُونَ مِنَ الْجَاهِلِينَ (“Verily, Allah commands you that you slaughter a cow.” They said, “Do you make fun of us!” He said, “I take Allah’s refuge from being among Al-Jahilin (the ignorant or the foolish)).”

“Had they not disputed, it would have been sufficient for them to slaughter any cow. However, they disputed, and the matter was made more difficult for them, until they ended up looking for the specific cow that they were later ordered to slaughter.

They found the designated cow with a man, only who owned that cow. He said, `By Allah! I will only sell it for its skin’s fill of gold.’

So they paid the cow’s fill of its skin in gold, slaughtered it and touched the dead man with a part of it. He stood up, and they asked him, `Who killed you?’

He said, `That man,’ and pointed to his nephew.

He died again, and his nephew was not allowed to inherit him. Thereafter, whoever committed murder for the purpose of gaining inheritance was not allowed to inherit.”

Ibn Jarir reported something similar to that. Allah knows best.

Previous 67

قَالُواْ ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّنَ لَّنَا مَا هِىَ

2:68 They said, “Call upon your Lord for us that He may make plain to us what it is!”

قَالَ إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌ لاَّ فَارِضٌ وَلاَ بِكْرٌ عَوَانٌ بَيْنَ ذلِكَ فَافْعَلُواْ مَا تُؤْمَرونَ

He said, “He says, `Verily, it is a cow neither too old nor too young, but (it is) between the two conditions’, so do what you are commanded.”

قَالُواْ ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّن لَّنَا مَا لَوْنُهَا

2:69 They said, “Call upon your Lord for us to make plain to us its colour.”

قَالَ إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌ صَفْرَآءُ فَاقِـعٌ لَّوْنُهَا تَسُرُّ النَّـظِرِينَ

He said, “He says, `It is a yellow cow, bright in its colour, pleasing the beholders.”’

قَالُواْ ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّن لَّنَا مَا هِىَ إِنَّ البَقَرَ تَشَـبَهَ عَلَيْنَا وَإِنَّآ إِن شَآءَ اللَّهُ لَمُهْتَدُونَ

2:70 They said, “Call upon your Lord for us to make plain to us what it is. Verily, to us all cows are alike. And surely, if Allah wills, we will be guided.”

قَالَ إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌ لاَّ ذَلُولٌ تُثِيرُ الاٌّرْضَ وَلاَ تَسْقِى الْحَرْثَ مُسَلَّمَةٌ لاَّ شِيَةَ فِيهَا

2:71 He (Musa) said, “He says, `It is a cow neither trained to till the soil nor water the fields, sound, having no blemish in it.”’

قَالُواْ الَـنَ جِئْتَ بِالْحَقِّ فَذَبَحُوهَا وَمَا كَادُواْ يَفْعَلُونَ

They said, “Now you have brought the truth.” So they slaughtered it though they were near to not doing it.

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Next 72-73

The Stubbornness of the Jews regarding the Cow; Allah made the Matter difficult for Them

Allah mentioned the stubbornness of the Children of Israel and the many unnecessary questions they asked their Messengers. This is why when they were stubborn, Allah made the decisions difficult for them.

Had they slaughtered a cow, any cow, it would have been sufficient for them, as Ibn Abbas and Ubaydah have said. Instead, they made the matter difficult, and this is why Allah made it even more difficult for them.

Allah tells;

قَالُواْ ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّن لّنَا مَا هِيَ قَالَ …

They said, “call upon your Lord for us that He may make plain to us what it is!”

meaning, “What is this cow and what is its description?”

Musa said,

… إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌ لاَّ فَارِضٌ وَلاَ بِكْرٌ …

He says, `Verily, it is a cow neither too old nor too young’,

meaning, that it is neither old nor below the age of breeding.

This is the opinion of Abu Al-Aliyah, As-Suddi, Mujahid, Ikrimah, Atiyah Al-Awfi, Ata, Al-Khurasani, Wahb bin Munabbih, Ad-Dahhak, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Ibn Abbas.

… عَوَانٌ بَيْنَ ذَلِكَ …

but (it is) between the two conditions’,

Ad-Dahhak reported that Ibn Abbas said that,

it means, “Neither old nor young. Rather, she was at the age when the cow is strongest and fittest.”

… فَافْعَلُواْ مَا تُؤْمَرونَ ﴿٦٨﴾

so do what you are commanded.”

قَالُواْ ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّن لَّنَا مَا لَوْنُهَا قَالَ إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ إِنّهَا بَقَرَةٌ صَفْرَاء فَاقِـعٌ لَّوْنُهَا تَسُرُّ النَّاظِرِينَ ﴿٦٩﴾

They said, “Call upon your Lord for us to make plain to us its colour.” He said, “He says, `It is a yellow cow, bright in its colour, pleasing the beholders.”’

In his Tafsir Al-Awfi reported from Ibn Abbas that, فَاقِـعٌ لَّوْنُهَا (bright in its colour),

“A deep yellowish white.”

As-Suddi said, تَسُرُّ النَّاظِرِينَ (pleasing the beholder),

meaning, that it pleases those who see it.

This is also the opinion of Abu Al-Aliyah, Qatadah and Ar-Rabi bin Anas.

Furthermore, Wahb bin Munabbih said,

“If you look at the cow’s skin, you will think that the sun’s rays radiate through its skin.”

The modern version of the Tawrah mentions that the cow in the Ayah was red, but this is an error. Or, it might be that the cow was so yellow that it appeared blackish or reddish in color. Allah’s knows best.

قَالُواْ ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّن لَّنَا مَا هِيَ …

They said, “Call upon your Lord for us to make plain to us what it is.

… إِنَّ البَقَرَ تَشَابَهَ عَلَيْنَا …

Verily, to us all cows are alike,

this means, that since cows are plentiful, then describe this cow for us further.

… وَإِنَّآ إِن شَاء اللَّهُ …

And surely, if Allah wills,

and if you further describe it to us,

… لَمُهْتَدُونَ ﴿٧٠﴾

we will be guided.

قَالَ إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌ لاَّ ذَلُولٌ تُثِيرُ الأَرْضَ وَلاَ تَسْقِي الْحَرْثَ …

He says, `It is a cow neither trained to till the soil nor water the fields,’

meaning, it is not used in farming, or for watering purposes. Rather, it is honorable and fair looking.

Abdur-Razzaq said that Ma`mar said that Qatadah said that,

… مُسَلَّمَةٌ لاَّ شِيَةَ فِيهَا …

sound, having no blemish in it.”’

means, “The cow does not suffer from any defects.”

This is also the opinion of Abu Al-Aliyah and Ar-Rabi.

Mujahid also said that;

the Ayah means the cow is free from defects.

Further, Ata’ Al-Khurasani said that;

the Ayah means that its legs and body are free of physical defects.

……قَالُواْ الآنَ جِئْتَ بِالْحَقِّ …

They said, “Now you have brought the truth.”

… فَذَبَحُوهَا وَمَا كَادُواْ يَفْعَلُونَ ﴿٧١﴾

So they slaughtered it though they were near to not doing it.

Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn Abbas said that the Ayah means,

“They did not want to slaughter it.”

This means that even after all the questions and answers about the cow’s description, the Jews were still reluctant to slaughter the cow.

This part of the Qur’an criticized the Jews for their behavior, because their only goal was to be stubborn, and this is why they nearly did not slaughter the cow.

Also, Ubaydah, Mujahid, Wahb bin Munabbih, Abu Al-Aliyah and Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said,

“The Jews bought the cow with a large amount of money.”

There is a difference of opinion over this.

Previous 68-71

وَإِذْ قَتَلْتُمْ نَفْسًا فَادَرَأْتُمْ فِيهَا وَاللَّهُ مُخْرِجٌ مَّا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ

2:72 And (remember) when you killed a man and disagreed among yourselves as to the crime. But Allah brought forth that which you were Taktumun.

فَقُلْنَا اضْرِبُوهُ بِبَعْضِهَا كَذَلِكَ يُحْىِ اللَّهُ الْمَوْتَى وَيُرِيكُمْ آيَـتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ

2:73 So We said: “Strike him (the dead man) with a piece of it (the cow).” Thus Allah brings the dead to life and shows you His Ayat (proofs, evidences, etc.) so that you may understand.

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Next 74

Bringing the murdered Man back to Life

Allah tells;

وَإِذْ قَتَلْتُمْ نَفْساً فَادَّارَأْتُمْ فِيهَا وَاللّهُ مُخْرِجٌ مَّا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ ﴿٧٢﴾

And (remember) when you killed a man and disagreed among yourselves as to the crime. But Allah brought forth that which you were Taktumun.

Al-Bukhari said that, فَادَّارَأْتُمْ فِيهَا (And disagreed among yourselves as to the crime) means,

“Disputed.”

This is also the Tafsir of Mujahid.

Ata’ Al-Khurasani and Ad-Dahhak said,

“Disputed about this matter.”

Also, Ibn Jurayj said that, وَإِذْ قَتَلْتُمْ نَفْساً فَادَّارَأْتُمْ فِيهَا (And (remember) when you killed a man and disagreed among yourselves as to the crime) means,

some of them said, “You killed him,” while the others said, “No you killed him.”

This is also the Tafsir of Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam.

Mujahid said that, وَاللّهُ مُخْرِجٌ مَّا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ (But Allah brought forth that which you were Taktumun) means,

“what you were hiding.”

Allah said,

فَقُلْنَا اضْرِبُوهُ بِبَعْضِهَا …

So We said: “Strike him (the dead man) with a piece of it (the cow).”

meaning, “any part of the cow will produce the miracle (if they struck the dead man with it).”

We were not told which part of the cow they used, as this matter does not benefit us either in matters of life or religion. Otherwise, Allah would have made it clear for us. Instead, Allah made this matter vague, so this is why we should leave it vague.

Allah’s statement,

… كَذَلِكَ يُحْيِي اللّهُ الْمَوْتَى …

Thus Allah brings the dead to life,

means, “They struck him with it, and he came back to life.”

This Ayah demonstrates Allah’s ability in bringing the dead back to life. Allah made this incident proof against the Jews that the Resurrection shall occur, and ended their disputing and stubbornness over the dead person.

Allah mentioned His bringing the dead back to life in five instances in Surah Al-Baqarah.

First Allah said,

ثُمَّ بَعَثْنَاكُم مِّن بَعْدِ مَوْتِكُمْ

Then We raised you up after your death. (2:56)

He then mentioned the story about the cow.

Allah also mentioned the story of those who escaped death in their land, while they were numbering in the thousands.

He also mentioned the story of the Prophet who passed by a village that was destroyed, the story of Abraham and the four birds, and the land that comes back to life after it has died.

All these incidents and stories alert us to the fact that bodies shall again become whole, after they were rotten.

The proof of Resurrection is also reiterated in Allah’s statement,

وَءَايَةٌ لَّهُمُ الاٌّرْضُ الْمَيْتَةُ أَحْيَيْنَـهَا وَأَخْرَجْنَا مِنْهَا حَبّاً فَمِنْهُ يَأْكُلُونَ

وَجَعَلْنَا فِيهَا جَنَّـتٍ مِّن نَّخِيلٍ وَأَعْنَـبٍ وَفَجَّرْنَا فِيهَا مِنَ الْعُيُونِ

لِيَأْكُلُواْ مِن ثَمَرِهِ وَمَا عَمِلَتْهُ أَيْدِيهِمْ أَفَلاَ يَشْكُرُونَ

And a sign for them is the dead land. We give it life, and We bring forth from it grains, so that they eat thereof. And We have made therein gardens of date palms and grapes, and We have caused springs of water to gush forth therein. So that they may eat of the fruit thereof ـ and their hands made it not. Will they not then give thanks! (36:33-35)

… وَيُرِيكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ ﴿٧٣﴾

and shows you His Ayat (proofs, evidences, etc.) so that you may understand.

Previous 72-73

ثُمَّ قَسَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ مِّن بَعْدِ ذلِكَ فَهِىَ كَالْحِجَارَةِ أَوْ أَشَدُّ قَسْوَةً

2:74 Then after that your hearts were hardened and became as stones or even worse in hardness.

وَإِنَّ مِنَ الْحِجَارَةِ لَمَا يَتَفَجَّرُ مِنْهُ الأَنْهَـرُ وَإِنَّ مِنْهَا لَمَا يَشَّقَّقُ فَيَخْرُجُ مِنْهُ الْمَآءُ وَإِنَّ مِنْهَا لَمَا يَهْبِطُ مِنْ خَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ

And indeed, there are stones out of which rivers gush forth, and indeed, there are of them (stones) which split asunder so that water flows from them, and indeed, there are of them (stones) which fall down for fear of Allah.

وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَـفِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ

And Allah is not unaware of what you do.

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Next 75-77

The Harshness of the Jews

Allah criticized the Children of Israel because they witnessed the tremendous signs and the Ayat of Allah, including bringing the dead back to life, yet,

ثُمَّ قَسَتْ قُلُوبُكُم مِّن بَعْدِ ذَلِكَ …

Then after that your hearts were hardened.

So their hearts were like stones that never become soft.

This is why Allah forbade the believers from imitating the Jews when He said,

أَلَمْ يَأْنِ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ أَن تَخْشَعَ قُلُوبُهُمْ لِذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَمَا نَزَلَ مِنَ الْحَقِّ وَلاَ يَكُونُواْ كَالَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَـبَ مِن قَبْلُ فَطَالَ عَلَيْهِمُ الاٌّمَدُ فَقَسَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَكَثِيرٌ مِّنْهُمْ فَـسِقُونَ

Has not the time come for the hearts of those who believe (in the Oneness of Allah ـ Islamic Monotheism) to be affected by Allah’s Reminder (this Qur’an), and that which has been revealed of the truth, lest they become as those who received the Scripture (the Tawrah) and the Injil (Gospel)) before (i.e. Jews and Christians), and the term was prolonged for them and so their hearts were hardened! And many of them were Fasiqun (the rebellious, the disobedient to Allah). (57:16)

In his Tafsir, Al-Awfi said that Ibn Abbas said,

“When the dead man was struck with a part of the cow, he stood up and became more alive than he ever was. He was asked, Who killed you’ He said,My nephews killed me.’ He then died again. His nephews said, after Allah took his life away, `By Allah! We did not kill him’ and denied the truth while they knew it.

Allah said,

… فَهِيَ كَالْحِجَارَةِ أَوْ أَشَدُّ قَسْوَةً …

And became as stones or even worse in hardness.”

And by the passage of time, the hearts of the Children of Israel were unlikely to accept any admonishment, even after the miracles and signs they withnessed. Their hearts became harder than stones, with no hope of ever softening. Sometimes, springs and rivers burst out of stones, some stones split and water comes out of them, even if there are no springs or rivers around them, sometimes stones fall down from mountaintops out of their fear of Allah.

… وَإِنَّ مِنَ الْحِجَارَةِ لَمَا يَتَفَجَّرُ مِنْهُ الأَنْهَارُ وَإِنَّ مِنْهَا لَمَا يَشَّقَّقُ فَيَخْرُجُ مِنْهُ الْمَاء وَإِنَّ مِنْهَا لَمَا يَهْبِطُ مِنْ خَشْيَةِ اللّهِ …

And indeed, there are stones out of which rivers gush forth, and indeed, there are of them (stones) which split asunder so that water flows from them, and indeed, there are of them (stones) which fall down for fear of Allah,

Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated that Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah means,

“Some stones are softer than your hearts, they acknowledge the truth that you are being called to,

… وَمَا اللّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ ﴿٧٤﴾

And Allah is not unaware of what you do.”

Solid Inanimate Objects possess a certain Degree of Awareness

Some claimed that the Ayat mentioned the stones being humble as a metaphor. However, Ar-Razi, Al-Qurtubi and other Imams said that there is no need for this explanation, because Allah creates this characteristic – humbleness – in stones.

For instance, Allah said,

إِنَّا عَرَضْنَا الاٌّمَانَةَ عَلَى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَالْجِبَالِ فَأبَيْنَ أَن يَحْمِلْنَهَا وَأَشْفَقْنَ مِنْهَا

Truly, We did offer Al-Amanah (the trust) to the heavens and the earth, and the mountains, but they declined to bear it and were afraid of it (i.e. afraid of Allah’s torment). (33:72)

تُسَبِّحُ لَهُ السَّمَـوَتُ السَّبْعُ وَالاٌّرْضُ وَمَن فِيهِنَّ

The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein, glorify Him. (17:44)

وَالنَّجْمُ وَالشَّجَرُ يَسْجُدَانِ

And the stars and the trees both prostrate themselves (to Allah). (55:6)

أَوَ لَمْيَرَوْاْ إِلَىخَلَقَ اللَّهُ مِن شَىْءٍ يَتَفَيَّأُ

Have they not observed things that Allah has created: (how) their shadows incline. (16:48)

قَالَتَآ أَتَيْنَا طَآئِعِينَ

They both said: “We come willingly.” (41:11)

لَوْ أَنزَلْنَا هَـذَا الْقُرْءَانَ عَلَى جَبَلٍ

Had We sent down this Qur’an on a mountain. (59:21)

and,

وَقَالُواْ لِجُلُودِهِمْ لِمَ شَهِدتُّمْ عَلَيْنَا قَالُواْ أَنطَقَنَا اللَّهُ

And they will say to their skins, “Why do you testify against us” They will say: “Allah has caused us to speak.” (41:21)

It is recorded in the Sahih that the Prophet said,

هذَا جَبَلٌ يُحِبُّنَا وَنُحِبُّه

This (Mount Uhud) is a mount that loves us and that we love.)

Similarly, the compassion of the stump of the palm tree for the Prophet as confirmed in authentic narrations.

In Sahih Muslim it is recorded that the Prophet said,

إِنِّي لَأَعْرِفُ حَجَرًا بِمَكَّةَ كَانَ يُسَلِّمُ عَلَيَّ قَبْلَ أَنْ أُبْعَثَ إِنِّي لَأَعْرِفُهُ الْآن

I know a stone in Makkah that used to greet me with the Salam before I was sent. I recognize this stone now.

He said about the Black Stone that,

إِنَّهُ يَشْهَدُ لِمَنِ اسْتَلَمَ بِحَقَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَة

On the Day of Resurrection it will testify for those who kiss it.

There are several other texts with this meaning.

The scholars of the Arabic language disagreed over the meaning of Allah’s statement, فَهِيَ كَالْحِجَارَةِ أَوْ أَشَدُّ قَسْوَةً (And became as stones or even worse in hardness) after agreeing that `or’ here is not being used to reflect doubt.

Some scholars said that or’ here means,and’. So the meaning becomes, “As hard as stones, and harder.” For instance, Allah said,

وَلاَ تُطِعْ مِنْهُمْ ءَاثِماً أَوْ كَفُوراً

And obey not a sinner or a disbeliever among them. (76:24)

and,

عُذْراً أَوْ نُذْراً

To cut off all excuses or to warn. (77:6)

Some other scholars said that or’ here means,rather’. Hence, the meaning becomes, `As hard as stones. Rather, harder.’ For instance, Allah said,

إِذَا فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُمْ يَخْشَوْنَ النَّاسَ كَخَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ أَوْ أَشَدَّ خَشْيَةً

A section of them fear men as they fear Allah or even more. (4:77)

وَأَرْسَلْنَـهُ إِلَى مِاْئَةِ أَلْفٍ أَوْ يَزِيدُونَ

And We sent him to a hundred thousand (people) or even more. (37:147)

and,

فَكَانَ قَابَ قَوْسَيْنِ أَوْ أَدْنَى

And was at a distance of two bows’ length or (even) nearer. (53:9)

Some other scholars said that this Ayah means their hearts are only of two types, as hard as stone or harder than stone.

Further, Ibn Jarir commented that this Tafsir means that some of their hearts are as hard as stone and some hearts are harder than stone.

Ibn Jarir said that he favored this last Tafsir, although the others are plausible.

I – Ibn Kathir – say that the last Tafsir is similar to Allah’s statement,

مَثَلُهُمْ كَمَثَلِ الَّذِى اسْتَوْقَدَ نَاراً

Their likeness is as the likeness of one who kindled a fire. (2:17)

and then His statement,

أَوْ كَصَيِّبٍ مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ

Or like a rainstorm from the sky. (2:19)

It is also similar to Allah’s statement,

وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ أَعْمَـلُهُمْ كَسَرَابٍ بِقِيعَةٍ

As for those who disbelieved, their deeds are like a mirage in a desert. (24:39)

and then His statement,

أَوْ كَظُلُمَـتٍ فِى بَحْرٍ لُّجِّىٍّ

Or (the state of a disbeliever) is like the darkness in a vast deep sea. (24:40)

This then means that some of them are like the first example, and some others are like the second example.

Allah knows best.

Previous 74

أَفَتَطْمَعُونَ أَن يُؤْمِنُواْ لَكُمْ وَقَدْ كَانَ فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُمْ يَسْمَعُونَ كَلَـمَ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُحَرِّفُونَهُ مِن بَعْدِ مَا عَقَلُوهُ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ

2:75 Do you (faithful believers) covet that they will believe in your religion inspite of the fact that a party of them (Jewish rabbis) used to hear the Word of Allah (the Tawrah), then they used to change it knowingly after they understood it.

وَإِذَا لَقُواْ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ قَالُواْ ءَامَنَّا وَإِذَا خَلاَ بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَى بَعْضٍ قَالُواْ أَتُحَدِّثُونَهُم بِمَا فَتَحَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكُمْ لِيُحَآجُّوكُم بِهِ عِندَ رَبِّكُمْ

2:76 And when they (Jews) meet those who believe (Muslims), they say, “We believe,” but when they meet one another in private, they say, “Shall you (Jews) tell them (Muslims) what Allah has revealed to you that they (Muslims) may argue with you (Jews) about it before your Lord.”

أَفَلاَ تَعْقِلُونَ

Have you (Jews) then no understanding!

أَوَلاَ يَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا يُسِرُّونَ وَمَا يُعْلِنُونَ

2:77 Know they (Jews) not that Allah knows what they conceal and what they reveal.

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Next 78-79

There was little Hope that the Jews Who lived during the Time of the Prophet could have believed

Allah said,

أَفَتَطْمَعُونَ …

Do you covet, (O believers),

… أَن يُؤْمِنُواْ لَكُمْ …

That they will believe in your religion,

meaning, that these people would obey you? They are the deviant sect of Jews whose fathers witnessed the clear signs but their hearts became hard afterwards.

Allah said next,

… وَقَدْ كَانَ فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُمْ يَسْمَعُونَ كَلاَمَ اللّهِ ثُمَّ يُحَرِّفُونَهُ …

Inspite of the fact that a party of them (Jewish rabbis) used to hear the Word of Allah (the Tawrah), then they used to change it,

meaning, distort its meaning,

… مِن بَعْدِ مَا عَقَلُوهُ …

after they understood it,

They understood well, yet they used to defy the truth,

… وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿٧٥﴾

knowingly.

being fully aware of their erroneous interpretations and corruption.

This statement is similar to Allah’s statement,

فَبِمَا نَقْضِهِم مِّيثَـقَهُمْ لَعنَّـهُمْ وَجَعَلْنَا قُلُوبَهُمْ قَاسِيَةً يُحَرِّفُونَ الْكَلِمَ عَن مَّوَضِعِهِ

So, because of their violation of their covenant, We cursed them and made their hearts grow hard. They change the words from their (right) places. (5:13)

Qatadah commented that Allah’s statement; ثُمَّ يُحَرِّفُونَهُ مِن بَعْدِ مَا عَقَلُوهُ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ (Then they used to change it knowingly after they understood it)

“They are the Jews who used to hear Allah’s Words and then alter them after they understood and comprehended them.”

Also, Mujahid said,

“Those who used to alter it and conceal its truths; they were their scholars.”

Also, Ibn Wahb said that Ibn Zayd commented, يَسْمَعُونَ كَلاَمَ اللّهِ ثُمَّ يُحَرِّفُونَهُ (used to hear the Word of Allah (the Tawrah), then they used to change it),

“They altered the Tawrah that Allah revealed to them, making it say that the lawful is unlawful and the prohibited is allowed, and that what is right is false and that what is false is right. So when a person seeking the truth comes to them with a bribe, they judge his case by the Book of Allah, but when a person comes to them seeking to do evil with a bribe, they take out the other (distorted) book, in which it is stated that he is in the right. When someone comes to them who is not seeking what is right, nor offering them bribe, then they enjoin righteousness on him. This is why Allah said to them,

أَتَأْمُرُونَ النَّاسَ بِالْبِرِّ وَتَنسَوْنَ أَنفُسَكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ تَتْلُونَ الْكِتَـبَ أَفَلاَ تَعْقِلُونَ

Enjoin you Al-Birr (piety and righteousness and every act of obedience to Allah) on the people and you forget (to practice it) yourselves, while you recite the Scripture (the Tawrah)! Have you then no sense!” (2:44)

The Jews knew the Truth of the Prophet , but disbelieved in Him

Allah said next,

وَإِذَا لَقُواْ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ قَالُواْ آمَنَّا وَإِذَا خَلاَ بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَىَ بَعْضٍ …

And when they (Jews) meet those who believe (Muslims), they say, “We believe”, but when they meet one another in private…,

Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn `Abbas commented, وَإِذَا لَقُواْ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ قَالُواْ آمَنَّا (And when they (Jews) meet those who believe (Muslims), they say, “We believe”),

“They believe that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, `But he was only sent for you (Arabs).”’

… قَالُواْ أَتُحَدِّثُونَهُم بِمَا فَتَحَ اللّهُ عَلَيْكُمْ لِيُحَآجُّوكُم بِهِ عِندَ رَبِّكُمْ …

they say, “Shall you (Jews) tell them (Muslims) what Allah has revealed to you, that they (Muslims) may argue with you (Jews) about it before your Lord.”

However, when they meet each other they say, “Do not convey the news about this Prophet to the Arabs, because you used to ask Allah to grant you victory over them when he came, but he was sent to them (not to you).”

Allah then revealed,

وَإِذَا لَقُواْ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ قَالُواْ آمَنَّا وَإِذَا خَلاَ بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَىَ بَعْضٍ قَالُواْ أَتُحَدِّثُونَهُم بِمَا فَتَحَ اللّهُ عَلَيْكُمْ لِيُحَآجُّوكُم بِهِ عِندَ رَبِّكُمْ أَفَلاَ تَعْقِلُونَ

And when they (Jews) meet those who believe (Muslims), they say, “We believe,” but when they meet one another in private, they say, “Shall you (Jews) tell them (Muslims) what Allah has revealed to you, that they (Muslims) may argue with you (Jews) about it before your Lord.”

meaning, “If you admit to them that he is a Prophet, knowing that Allah took the covenant from you to follow him, they will know that Muhammad is the Prophet that we were waiting for and whose coming we find foretold of in our Book. Therefore, do not believe in him and deny him.”

Al-Hasan Al-Basri said,

“When the Jews met the believers they used to say, We believe.’ When they met each other, some of them would say,Do not talk to the companions of Muhammad about what Allah has foretold in your Book, so that the news (that Muhammad is the Final Messenger) does not become a proof for them against you with your Lord, and, thus, you will win the dispute.”’

… أَفَلاَ تَعْقِلُونَ ﴿٧٦﴾

Have you (Jews) then no understanding!

Allah said,

أَوَلاَ يَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّ اللّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا يُسِرُّونَ وَمَا يُعْلِنُونَ ﴿٧٧﴾

Know they (Jews) not that Allah knows what they conceal and what they reveal.

Abu Al-Aliyah said about Allah’s statement,

“Meaning their secret denial and rejection of Muhammad, although they find his coming recorded in their Book.”

This is also the Tafsir of Qatadah.

Al-Hasan commented on, أَنَّ اللّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا يُسِرُّونَ (That Allah knows what they conceal),

“What they concealed refers to when they were alone with each other away from the Companions of Muhammad. Then they would forbid each other from conveying the news that Allah revealed to them in their Book to the Companions of Muhammad, fearing that the Companions would use this news (about the truth of Muhammad) against them before their Lord.”

وَمَا يُعْلِنُونَ (And what they reveal) meaning,

when they said to the Companions of Muhammad, آمَنَّا (We believe), as Abu Al-Aliyah, Ar-Rabi and Qatadah stated.

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وَمِنْهُمْ أُمِّيُّونَ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ الْكِتَـبَ إِلاَّ أَمَانِىَّ وَإِنْ هُمْ إِلاَّ يَظُنُّونَ

2:78 And there are among them (Jews) `Ummyyun (unlettered) people, who know not the Book, but they trust upon Amani (false desires) and they but guess.

فَوَيْلٌ لِّلَّذِينَ يَكْتُبُونَ الْكِتَـبَ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ ثُمَّ يَقُولُونَ هَـذَا مِنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ لِيَشْتَرُواْ بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلاً

2:79 Then woe to those who write the book with their own hands and then say, “This is from Allah,” to purchase with it a little price!

فَوَيْلٌ لَّهُمْ مِّمَّا كَتَبَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَوَيْلٌ لَّهُمْ مِّمَّا يَكْسِبُونَ

Woe to them for what their hands have written and woe to them for that they earn thereby.

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The Meaning of Ummi

Allah said,

وَمِنْهُمْ أُمِّيُّونَ …

And there are among them Ummyyun people,

meaning, among the People of the Book, as Mujahid stated.

Abu Al-Aliyah, Ar-Rabi, Qatadah, Ibrahim An-Nakhai and others said,

Ummyyun, is plural for Ummi, that is, a person who does not write.

This meaning is clarified by Allah’s statement,

… لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ الْكِتَابَ …

Who know not the Book,

meaning, are they not aware of what is in it.

Ummi was one of the descriptions of the Prophet because he was unlettered. For instance, Allah said,

وَمَا كُنتَ تَتْلُو مِن قَبْلِهِ مِن كِتَـبٍ وَلاَ تَخُطُّهُ بِيَمِينِكَ إِذاً لاَّرْتَـبَ الْمُبْطِلُونَ

Neither did you (O Muhammad) read any book before it (this Qur’an) nor did you write any book (whatsoever) with your right hand. In that case, indeed, the followers of falsehood might have doubted. (29:48)

Also, the Prophet said,

إِنَّا أُمَّةٌ أُمِّيَّةٌ لَا نَكْتُبُ وَلَا نَحْسِبُ، الشَّهْرُ هكَذَا وَهكَذَا وَهكَذَا

We are an Ummi nation, neither writing nor calculating. The (lunar) month is like this, this and this (i.e. thirty or twenty-nine days).

This Hadith stated that Muslims do not need to rely on books, or calculations to decide the timings of their acts of worship.

Allah also said,

هُوَ الَّذِى بَعَثَ فِى الأُمِّيِّينَ رَسُولاً مِّنْهُمْ

He it is Who sent among the Ummiyyin ones a Messenger (Muhammad) from among themselves. (62:2)

The Explanation of Amani

Allah’s statement,

… إِلاَّ أَمَانِيَّ …

But they trust upon Amani,

Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn Abbas said that the Ayah means,

“It is just a false statement that they utter with their tongues.”

It was also said that;

Amani means `wishes and hopes’.

Mujahid commented,

“Allah described the Ummiyyin as not understanding any of the Book that Allah sent down to Musa, yet they create lies and falsehood.”

Therefore, the word Amani mentioned here refers to lying and falsehood.

Allah’s statement,

… وَإِنْ هُمْ إِلاَّ يَظُنُّونَ ﴿٧٨﴾

And they but guess, means,

Mujahid said that Allah’s statement means,

“They lie.”

Qatadah, Abu Al-Aliyah and Ar-Rabi said that it means,

“They have evil false ideas about Allah.”

Woe unto Those Criminals among the Jews

Allah said,

فَوَيْلٌ لِّلَّذِينَ يَكْتُبُونَ الْكِتَابَ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ ثُمَّ يَقُولُونَ هَـذَا مِنْ عِندِ اللّهِ لِيَشْتَرُواْ بِهِ ثَمَناً قَلِيلاً …

Then Waylun (woe) to those who write the book with their own hands and then say, “This is from Allah,” to purchase with it a little price!.

This is another category of people among the Jews who called to misguidance with falsehood and lies about Allah, thriving on unjustly amassing people’s property.

`Waylun (woe)’ carries meanings of destruction and perishing, and it is a well-known word in the Arabic language.

Az-Zuhri said that Ubadydullah bin Abdullah narrated that Ibn Abbas said,

“O Muslims! How could you ask the People of the Book about anything, while the Book of Allah (Qur’an) that He revealed to His Prophet is the most recent Book from Him and you still read it fresh and young Allah told you that the People of the Book altered the Book of Allah, changed it and wrote another book with their own hands.

They then said, `This book is from Allah,’ so that they acquired a small profit by it. Hasn’t the knowledge that came to you prohibited you from asking them By Allah! We have not seen any of them asking you about what was revealed to you.”

This Hadith was also collected by Al-Bukhari.

Al-Hasan Al-Basri said,

“The little amount here means this life and all that it contains.”

Allah’s statement,

… فَوَيْلٌ لَّهُم مِّمَّا كَتَبَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَوَيْلٌ لَّهُمْ مِّمَّا يَكْسِبُونَ ﴿٧٩﴾

Woe to them for what their hands have written and woe to them for that they earn thereby.

means, “Woe to them because of what they have written with their own hands, the lies, falsehood and alterations. Woe to them because of the property that they unjustly acquired.”

Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn Abbas commented, فَوَيْلٌ لَّهُم (Woe to them),

“Means the torment will be theirs because of the lies that they wrote with their own hands, وَوَيْلٌ لَّهُمْ مِّمَّا يَكْسِبُونَ (And woe to them for that they earn thereby), which they unjustly acquired from people, be they commoners or otherwise.”

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وَقَالُواْ لَن تَمَسَّنَا النَّارُ إِلاَّ أَيَّامًا مَّعْدُودَةً

2:80 And they (Jews) say, “The Fire shall not touch us but for a few numbered days.”

قُلْ أَتَّخَذْتُمْ عِندَ اللَّهِ عَهْدًا فَلَن يُخْلِفَ اللَّهُ عَهْدَهُ أَمْ تَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ

Say (O Muhammad to them): “Have you taken a covenant from Allah, so that Allah will not break His covenant! Or is it that you say of Allah what you know not!”

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The Jews hope They will only remain in the Fire for a Few Days

Allah says;

وَقَالُواْ لَن تَمَسَّنَا النَّارُ إِلاَّ أَيَّاماً مَّعْدُودَةً قُلْ أَتَّخَذْتُمْ عِندَ اللّهِ عَهْدًا فَلَن يُخْلِفَ اللّهُ عَهْدَهُ أَمْ تَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللّهِ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ ﴿٨٠﴾

And they (Jews) say, “The Fire shall not touch us but for a few numbered days.”

Say (O Muhammad to them): “Have you taken a covenant from Allah, so that Allah will not break His covenant! Or is it that you say of Allah what you know not!”

Allah mentioned the claim of the Jews, that the Fire will only touch them for a few days, and then they will be saved from it. Allah refuted this claim by saying, قُلْ أَتَّخَذْتُمْ عِندَ اللّهِ عَهْدًا (Say (O Muhammad to them): “Have you taken a covenant from Allah’).

Hence, the Ayah proclaims, `if you had a promise from Allah for that, then Allah will never break His promise. However, such promise never existed. Rather, what you say, about Allah, you have no knowledge of and you thus utter a lie about Him.’

Al-Awfi said that Ibn Abbas said about the Ayah, وَقَالُواْ لَن تَمَسَّنَا النَّارُ إِلاَّ أَيَّاماً مَّعْدُودَةً (And they (Jews) say, “The Fire shall not touch us but for a few numbered days”).

“The Jews said, `The Fire will only touch us for forty days.”’

Others added that this was the period during which the Jews worshipped the calf.

Also, Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah reported Abu Hurayrah saying,

When Khyber was conquered, a roasted poisoned sheep was presented to the Prophet as a gift (by the Jews). The Messenger of Allah ordered, `Assemble before me all the Jews who were here.’

The Jews were summoned and the Prophet said (to them),

مَنْ أَبُوكُم

`Who is your father?’

They replied, `So-and-so.’

كَذَبْتُمْ بَلْ أَبُوكُمْ فُلَان

He said, `You have lied; your father is so-and-so.’

They said, `You have uttered the truth.’

هَلْ أَنْتُمْ صَادِقِيَّ عَنْ شَيءٍ إِنْ سَأَلْتُكُمْ عَنْه

He said, `Will you now tell me the truth, if I ask you about something?’

They replied, `Yes, O Abul-Qasim; and if we should tell a lie, you will know our lie as you have about our fathers.’

On that he asked,

مَنْ أَهْلُ النَّارِ

`Who are the people of the (Hell) Fire?’

They said, `We shall remain in the (Hell) Fire for a short period, and after that you will replace us in it.’

اخْسَئُوا وَاللهِ لَا نَخْلُفُكُمْ فِيهَا أَبَدًا

The Prophet said, `May you be cursed and humiliated in it! By Allah, we shall never replace you in it.’

Then he asked,

هَلْ أَنْتُمْ صَادِقِيَّ عَنْ شَيءٍ إِنْ سَأَلْتُكُمْ عَنْهُ ؟

`Will you tell me the truth if I ask you a question?’

They said, `Yes, O Abul-Qasim.’

He asked,

هَلْ جَعَلْتُمْ فِي هذِهِ الشَّاةِ سُمًّا ؟

`Have you poisoned this sheep?’

They said, `Yes.’

He asked,

فَمَا حَمَلَكُم عَلى ذلِك ؟

`What made you do so?’

They said, `We wanted to know if you were a liar, in which case we would get rid of you, and if you were a Prophet then the poison would not harm you.’

Imam Ahmad, Al-Bukhari and An-Nasa’i recorded similarly.

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بَلَى مَن كَسَبَ سَيِّئَةً وَأَحَـطَتْ بِهِ خَطِيـَـتُهُ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ أَصْحَـبُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَـلِدُونَ

2:81 Yes! Whosoever earns evil and his sin has surrounded him, they are dwellers of the Fire (i.e. Hell); they will dwell therein forever.

وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَاتِ أُوْلَـئِكَ أَصْحَـبُ الْجَنَّةِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَـلِدُونَ

2:82 And those who believe and do righteous good deeds, they are dwellers of Paradise, they will dwell therein forever.

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Allah says,

بَلَى مَن كَسَبَ سَيِّئَةً وَأَحَاطَتْ بِهِ خَطِيـئَتُهُ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ ﴿٨١﴾

Yes! Whosoever earns evil and his sin has surrounded him, they are dwellers of the Fire (i.e. Hell); they will dwell therein forever.

Allah says, the matter is not as you have wished and hoped it to be. Rather, whoever does an evil deed and abides purposefully in his error, coming on the Day of Resurrection with no good deeds, only evil deeds, then he will be among the people of the Fire.

Also, Abu Hurayrah, Abu Wa’il, Ata, and Al-Hasan said that, وَأَحَاطَتْ بِهِ خَطِيـئَتُهُ (And his sin has surrounded him) means,

“His Shirk (polytheism) has surrounded him.”

Also, Al-Amash reported from Abu Razin that Ar-Rabi bin Khuthaym said, وَأَحَاطَتْ بِهِ خَطِيـئَتُهُ (And his sin has surrounded him),

“Whoever dies before repenting from his wrongs.”

As-Suddi and Abu Razin said similarly.

Abu Al-Aliyah, Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Ar-Rabi bin Anas said that,

it refers to major sins.

All of these statements carry similar meanings, and Allah knows best.

When Small Sins gather, They bring about Destruction

Here we should mention the Hadith that Imam Ahmad recorded, in which Abdullah bin Mas`ud said that the Messenger of Allah said,

إِيَّاكُمْ وَمُحَقَّرَاتِ الذُّنُوبِ فَإِنَّهُنَّ يَجْتَمِعْنَ عَلَى الرَّجُلِ حَتّى يُهْلِكْنَه

Beware of the belittled sins, because they gather on a person until they destroy him.

He then said that the Messenger of Allah gave them an example,

كَمَثَلٍ قَوْمٍ نَزَلُوا بِأَرْضِ فَلَاةٍ، فَحَضَرَ صَنِيعُ الْقَوْمِ فَجَعَلَ الرَّجُلُ يَنْطَلِقُ فَيَجِيءُ بِالْعُودِ وَالرَّجُلُ يَجِيءُ بِالْعُودِ، حَتّى جَمَعُوا سَوَادًا وَأَجَّجُوا نَارًا فَأَنْضَجُوا مَا قَذَفُوا فِيهَا

This is the example of people who set up camp on a flat land, and then their servants came. One of them collected some wood and another man collected some wood until they collected a great deal. They then started a fire and cooked what they put on it.

Allah says,

وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّالِحَاتِ …

And those who believe and do righteous good deeds,

meaning, “They believe in Allah and His Messenger and perform the good deeds that conform with the Islamic Law. They shall be among the people of Paradise.”

Allah said in a similar statement,

لَّيْسَ بِأَمَـنِيِّكُمْ وَلا أَمَانِىِّ أَهْلِ الْكِتَـبِ مَن يَعْمَلْ سُوءًا يُجْزَ بِهِ وَلاَ يَجِدْ لَهُ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلِيّاً وَلاَ نَصِيراً

وَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِنَ الصَّـلِحَـتَ مِن ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنثَى وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ وَلاَ يُظْلَمُونَ نَقِيراً

It will not be in accordance with your desires (Muslims), nor those of the People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), whosoever works evil, will have the recompense thereof, and he will not find any protector or helper besides Allah. And whoever does righteous good deeds, male or female, and is a (true) believer (in the Oneness of Allah (Muslim)), such will enter Paradise and not the least injustice, even the size of a Naqira (speck on the back of a date stone), will be done to them). (4:123-124).

Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn Abbas said that,

وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّالِحَاتِ أُولَـئِكَ أَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ ﴿٨٢﴾

And those who believe and do righteous good deeds, they are dwellers of Paradise, they will dwell therein forever.

“Whoever believes in what you (Jews) did not believe in and implements what you refrained from implementing of Muhammad’s religion, shall acquire Paradise for eternity.

Allah stated that the recompense for good or evil works shall remain with its people for eternity.”

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وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَـقَ بَنِى إِسْرءِيلَ لاَ تَعْبُدُونَ إِلاَّ اللَّهَ وَبِالْوَلِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَذِى الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَـمَى وَالْمَسَـكِينِ وَقُولُواْ لِلنَّاسِ حُسْنًا وَأَقِيمُواْ الصَّلَوةَ وَءَاتُواْ الزَّكَوةَ

2:83 And (remember) when We took a covenant from the Children of Israel, (saying): Worship none but Allah (alone) and be dutiful and good to parents, and to kindred, and to orphans and (the poor), and speak good to people and perform As-Salah and give Zakah.

ثُمَّ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً مِّنْكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ مُّعْرِضُونَ

Then you slid back, except a few of you, while you are backsliders.

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The Covenant that Allah took from the Children of Israel

Allah says;

وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ لاَ تَعْبُدُونَ إِلاَّ اللّهَ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَاناً وَذِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينِ …

And (remember) when We took a covenant from the Children of Israel, (saying): Worship none but Allah (alone) and be dutiful and good to parents, and to kindred, and to orphans and (the poor),

Allah reminded the Children of Israel of the commandments that He gave them, and the covenants that He took from them to abide by those commands, and how they intentionally and knowingly turned away from all of that. Allah commanded them to worship Him and to associate none with Him in worship, just as He has commanded all of His creatures, for this is why Allah created them.

Allah said,

وَمَآ أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلاَّ نُوحِى إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لا إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ أَنَاْ فَاعْبُدُونِ

And We did not send any Messenger before you (O Muhammad) but We revealed to him (saying): La ilaha illa Ana (none has the right to be worshipped but I (Allah)), so worship Me (alone and none else). (21:25)

and,

وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِى كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولاً أَنِ اعْبُدُواْ اللَّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُواْ الْطَّـغُوتَ

And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (community, nation) a Messenger (proclaiming): “Worship Allah (alone), and avoid the Taghut (all false deities). (16:36)

This is the highest and most important right, that is, Allah’s right that He be worshipped alone without partners.

After that comes the right of the creatures, foremost, the right of the parents. Allah usually mentions the rights of the parents along with His rights. For instance, Allah said,

أَنِ اشْكُرْ لِى وَلِوَلِدَيْكَ إِلَىَّ الْمَصِيرُ

Give thanks to Me and to your parents. Unto Me is the final destination. (31:14)

Also, Allah said,

وَقَضَى رَبُّكَ أَلاَّ تَعْبُدُواْ إِلاَّ إِيَّـهُ وَبِالْوَلِدَيْنِ إِحْسَـناً

And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him. And that you be dutiful to your parents, (17:23), until,

وَءَاتِ ذَا الْقُرْبَى حَقَّهُ وَالْمِسْكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ

And give to the kinsman his due and to the Miskin (poor) and to the wayfarer. (17:26)

The Two Sahihs record that Ibn Mas`ud said,

I said, `O Messenger of Allah! What is the best deed?’

He said,

الصَّلَاةُ عَلى وَقْتِهَا

`Performing the prayer on time.’

I said, ‘Then what?’ He said,

بِرُّ الْوَالِدَيْن

`Being kind to one’s parents.’

I said, `Then what?’

He said,

الْجِهَادُ فِي سَبِيلِ الله

`Jihad in the cause of Allah.’

Allah then said,

… وَالْيَتَامَى …

and to orphans,

meaning, the young who have no fathers to fend for them.

… وَالْمَسَاكِينِ …

and Al-Masakin (the poor),

plural for Miskin, the one who does not find what he needs to spend on himself and his family.

We will discuss these categories when we explain the Ayah of Surah An-Nisa where Allah said,

وَاعْبُدُواْ اللَّهَ وَلاَ تُشْرِكُواْ بِهِ شَيْئاً وَبِالْوَلِدَيْنِ إِحْسَـناً

Worship Allah and join none with Him (in worship); and do good to parents. (4:36)

Allah’s statement,

… وَقُولُواْ لِلنَّاسِ حُسْناً …

and speak good to people,

meaning, say good words to them and be lenient with them, this includes commanding good and forbidding evil.

Al-Hasan Al-Basri commented on Allah’s statement,

`The good saying’ means commanding good and forbidding evil, and being patient and forgiving.

The `good words to people’, as Allah commanded, also includes every good type of behavior that Allah is pleased with.”

Imam Ahmad narrated that Abu Dharr said that the Prophet said,

لَا تَحْقِرَنَّ مِنَ الْمَعْرُوفِ شَيْئًا وَإِنْ لَمْ تَجِدْ فَالْقَ أَخَاكَ بِوَجْهٍ مُنْطَلِق

Do not belittle any form of righteousness, and even if you did not find any good deed except meeting your brother with a smiling face, then do so.

This Hadith was also collected by Muslim in his Sahih and At-Tirmidhi, who graded it Sahih.

Allah commands the servants to say good words to people, after He commanded them to be kind to them, thereby mentioning two categories of manners: good speech and good actions.

He then emphasized the command to worship Him and the command to do good, ordaining the prayer and the Zakah,

… وَأَقِيمُواْ الصَّلاَةَ وَآتُواْ الزَّكَاةَ …

and perform As-Salah and give Zakah.

… ثُمَّ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً مِّنكُمْ وَأَنتُم مِّعْرِضُونَ ﴿٨٣﴾

Then you slid back, except a few of you, while you are backsliders.

Allah informed us that the People of the Book, except for a few among them, ignored these orders, that is, they knowingly and intentionally abandoned them.

Allah ordered this Ummah similarly in Surah An-Nisa when He said,

وَاعْبُدُواْ اللَّهَ وَلاَ تُشْرِكُواْ بِهِ شَيْئاً وَبِالْوَلِدَيْنِ إِحْسَـناً وَبِذِى الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَـمَى وَالْمَسَـكِينِ وَالْجَارِ ذِى الْقُرْبَى وَالْجَارِ الْجُنُبِ وَالصَّـحِبِ بِالجَنْبِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ وَمَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَـنُكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يُحِبُّ مَن كَانَ مُخْتَالاً فَخُوراً

Worship Allah and join none with Him (in worship); and do good to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, Al-Masakin (the poor), the neighbor who is near of kin, the neighbor who is a stranger, the companion by your side, the wayfarer (you meet), and those (servants) whom your right hands possess. Verily, Allah does not like such as are proud and boastful. (4:36).

Of these orders, this Ummah has practiced what no other nation before it has, and all praise is due to Allah.

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وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَـقَكُمْ لاَ تَسْفِكُونَ دِمَآءِكُمْ وَلاَ تُخْرِجُونَ أَنفُسَكُمْ مِّن دِيَـرِكُمْ

2:84 And (remember) when We took your covenant (saying): Shed not the blood of your (people), nor turn out your own people from their dwellings.

ثُمَّ أَقْرَرْتُمْ وَأَنتُمْ تَشْهَدُونَ

Then, (this) you ratified and (to this) you bore witness.

ثُمَّ أَنتُمْ هَـؤُلاَءِ تَقْتُلُونَ أَنفُسَكُمْ وَتُخْرِجُونَ فَرِيقًا مِّنكُم مِّن دِيَـرِهِمْ تَظَـهَرُونَ علَيْهِم بِالإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَنِ

2:85 After this, it is you who kill one another and drive out a party of you from their homes, assist (their enemies) against them, in sin and transgression.

وَإِن يَأْتُوكُمْ أُسَـرَى تُفَـدُوهُمْ وَهُوَ مُحَرَّمٌ عَلَيْكُمْ إِخْرَاجُهُمْ أَفَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِبَعْضِ الْكِتَـبِ وَتَكْفُرُونَ بِبَعْضٍ

And if they come to you as captives, you ransom them, although their expulsion was forbidden to you. Then do you believe in a part of the Book and reject the rest!

فَمَا جَزَآءُ مَن يَفْعَلُ ذلِكَ مِنكُمْ إِلاَّ خِزْىٌ فِي الْحَيَوةِ الدُّنْيَا وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ يُرَدُّونَ إِلَى أَشَدِّ الّعَذَابِ

Then what is the recompense of those who do so among you, except disgrace in the life of this world, and on the Day of Resurrection they shall be consigned to the most grievous torment.

وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَـفِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ

And Allah is not unaware of what you do.

أُولَـئِكَ الَّذِينَ اشْتَرَوُاْ الْحَيَوةَ الدُّنْيَا بِالاٌّخِرَةِ فَلاَ يُخَفَّفُ عَنْهُمُ الْعَذَابُ وَلاَ هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ

2:86 Those are they who have bought the life of this world at the price of the Hereafter. Their torment shall not be lightened nor shall they be helped.

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Next 87

The Terms of the Covenant and their Breach of It

Allah says;

وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ لاَ تَسْفِكُونَ دِمَاءكُمْ وَلاَ تُخْرِجُونَ أَنفُسَكُم مِّن دِيَارِكُمْ …

And (remember) when We took your covenant (saying): Shed not the blood of your (people), nor turn out your own people from their dwellings.

Allah criticized the Jews who lived in Al-Madinah during the time of the Messenger of Allah. They used to suffer, because of the armed conflicts between the tribes of Al-Madinah, Aws and Khazraj.

Before Islam, the Aws and Khazraj worshipped idols, and many battles took place between them.

There were three Jewish tribes in Al-Madinah at that time, Banu Qaynuqa and Banu An-Nadir, the allies of the Khazraj, and Banu Qurayzah, who used to be the allies of the Aws. When war erupted between Aws and Khazraj, their Jewish allies would assist them.

The Jew would kill his Arab enemy, and sometimes they also killed Jews who were the allies of the other Arab tribe, although the Jews were prohibited from killing each other according to clear religious texts in their Books. They would also drive each other from their homes and loot whatever furniture and money they could. When the war ended, the victorious Jews would release the prisoners from the defeated party, according to the rulings of the Tawrah.

This is why Allah said, أَفَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِبَعْضِ الْكِتَابِ وَتَكْفُرُونَ بِبَعْضٍ (Then do you believe in a part of the Scripture and reject the rest), (2:85).

Allah said,

وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ لاَ تَسْفِكُونَ دِمَاءكُمْ وَلاَ تُخْرِجُونَ أَنفُسَكُم مِّن دِيَارِكُمْ …

And (remember) when We took your covenant (saying): Shed not the blood of your (people), nor turn out your own people from their dwellings.

meaning, “Do not kill each other, nor expel one another from their homes, nor participate in fighting against them.”

Allah mentioned the word `your own’ here, just as He said in another Ayah.

فَتُوبُواْ إِلَى بَارِئِكُمْ فَاقْتُلُواْ أَنفُسَكُمْ ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ عِندَ بَارِئِكُمْ

So turn in repentance to your Creator and kill yourselves, that will be better for you with your Creator), (2:54),

because the followers of one religion are just like one soul.

Also, the Messenger of Allah said,

مَثَلُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فِي تَوَادِّهِمْ وَتَرَاحُمِهِمْ وَتَوَاصُلِهِمْ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْجَسَدِ الْوَاحِدِ إِذَا اشْتَكى مِنْهُ عُضْوٌ تَدَاعَى لَهُ سَائِرُ الْجَسَدِ بِالْحُمَّى وَالسَّهَر

The example of the believers in their kindness, mercy and sympathy to each other is the example of one body, when an organ of it falls ill, the rest of the body rushes to its aid in fever and sleeplessness.

Allah’s statement,

… ثُمَّ أَقْرَرْتُمْ وَأَنتُمْ تَشْهَدُونَ ﴿٨٤﴾

Then, (this) you ratified and (to this) you bore witness.

means, “You testified that you know of the covenant and that you were witnesses to it.”

Then Allah says,

ثُمَّ أَنتُمْ هَـؤُلاء تَقْتُلُونَ أَنفُسَكُمْ وَتُخْرِجُونَ فَرِيقاً مِّنكُم مِّن دِيَارِهِمْ تَظَاهَرُونَ عَلَيْهِم بِالإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ وَإِن يَأتُوكُمْ أُسَارَى تُفَادُوهُمْ وَهُوَ مُحَرَّمٌ عَلَيْكُمْ إِخْرَاجُهُمْ …

After this, it is you who kill one another and drive out a party of you from their homes, assist (their enemies) against them, in sin and transgression. And if they come to you as captives, you ransom them, although their expulsion was forbidden to you.

Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar reported that Ibn Abbas commented on the Ayah,

“Allah mentioned what they were doing, and that in the Tawrah He had prohibited them from shedding each other’s blood, and required them to free their prisoners.

Now they were divided into two camps in Al-Madinah, Banu Qaynuqa, who were the allies of the Khazraj, and An-Nadir and Qurayzah, who were the allies of the Aws. When fighting erupted between Aws and Khazraj, Banu Qaynuqa would fight along with the Khazraj, while Banu An-Nadir and Qurayzah would fight along with the Aws.

Each Jewish camp would fight against their Jewish brethren from the other camp. They would shed each other’s blood, although they had the Tawrah with them, and they knew their rights and dues.

Meanwhile, the Aws and Khazraj were polytheists who worshipped idols. They did not know about Paradise, the Fire, Resurrection, Divine Books the lawful and prohibited. When the war would end, the Jews would ransom their prisoners and implement the Tawrah. Consequently, Banu Qaynuqa would ransom their prisoners who were captured by the Aws, while Banu An-Nadir and Qurayzah would ransom their prisoners who were captured by the Khazraj. They would also ask for blood money.

During these wars, they would kill whomever (Jews or Arabs) they could, while helping the polytheists against their brethren. Therefore, Allah reminded them of this when He said,

…أَفَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِبَعْضِ الْكِتَابِ وَتَكْفُرُونَ بِبَعْضٍ ..

Then do you believe in a part of the Book and reject the rest!

This Ayah means, `Do you ransom them according to the rulings of the Tawrah, yet kill them while the Tawrah forbade you from killing them and from expelling them from their homes. The Tawrah also commanded that you should not aid the polytheists and those who associate with Allah in the worship against your brethren. You do all this to acquire the life of this world.’

I was informed that the behavior of the Jews regarding the Aws and Khazraj was the reason behind revealing these Ayat.”

These noble Ayat criticized the Jews for implementing the Tawrah sometimes and defying it at other times, although they believed in the Tawrah and knew what they were doing was wrong. This is why they should not be trusted to preserve or convey the Tawrah.

Further, they should not be believed when it comes to the description of the Messenger of Allah, his coming, his expulsion from his land, and his Hijrah, and the rest of the information that the previous Prophets informed them about him, all of which they hid.

The Jews, may they suffer the curse of Allah, hid all of these facts among themselves, and this is why Allah said,

… فَمَا جَزَاء مَن يَفْعَلُ ذَلِكَ مِنكُمْ إِلاَّ خِزْيٌ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا …

Then what is the recompense of those who do so among you, except disgrace in the life of this world,

because they defied Allah’s Law and commandments.

… وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يُرَدُّونَ إِلَى أَشَدِّ الْعَذَابِ …

And on the Day of Resurrection they shall be consigned to the most grievous torment,

as punishment for defying the Book of Allah that they had.

… وَمَا اللّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ ﴿٨٥﴾

أُولَـئِكَ الَّذِينَ اشْتَرَوُاْ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا بِالآَخِرَةِ …

And Allah is not unaware of what you do. Those are they who have bought the life of this world at the price of the Hereafter,

meaning, they prefer this life to the Hereafter.

Therefore,

… فَلاَ يُخَفَّفُ عَنْهُمُ الْعَذَابُ …

Their torment shall not be lightened,

not even for an hour.

… وَلاَ هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ ﴿٨٦﴾

Nor shall they be helped.

and they shall find no helper who will save them from the eternal torment they will suffer, nor shall they find any to grant them refuge from it.

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وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَـبَ وَقَفَّيْنَا مِن بَعْدِهِ بِالرُّسُلِ

2:87 And indeed, We gave Musa the Book and followed him up with a succession of Messengers.

وَءَاتَيْنَا عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ الْبَيِّنَـتِ وَأَيَّدْنَـهُ بِرُوحِ الْقُدُسِ

And We gave `Isa, the son of Maryam, clear signs and supported him with Ruh-il-Qudus.

أَفَكُلَّمَا جَآءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ بِمَا لاَ تَهْوَى أَنفُسُكُم اسْتَكْبَرْتُمْ فَفَرِيقًا كَذَّبْتُمْ وَفَرِيقًا تَقْتُلُونَ

Is it that whenever there came to you a Messenger with what you yourselves desired not, you grew arrogant! Some you disbelieved and some you killed.

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Next 88

The Arrogance of the Jews who denied and killed Their Prophets

Allah described the insolence of Children of Israel, their rebelliousness, defiance and arrogance towards the Prophets, following their lusts and desires.

Allah says;

وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ وَقَفَّيْنَا مِن بَعْدِهِ بِالرُّسُلِ …

And indeed, We gave Musa the Book and followed him up with a succession of Messengers.

Allah mentioned that He gave Musa the Book, the Tawrah, and that the Jews changed, distorted, and defied its commands, as well as altered its meanings.

Allah sent Messengers and Prophets after Musa who followed his law, as Allah stated,

إِنَّآ أَنزَلْنَا التَّوْرَاةَ فِيهَا هُدًى وَنُورٌ

الَّذِينَ أَسْلَمُواْ لِلَّذِينَ هَادُواْ وَالرَّبَّانِيُّونَ وَالاٌّحْبَارُ بِمَا اسْتُحْفِظُواْ مِن كِتَـبِ اللَّهِ وَكَانُواْ عَلَيْهِ شُهَدَآءَ

Verily, We did reveal the Tawrah (to Musa), therein was guidance and light, by which the Prophets, who submitted themselves to Allah’s will, judged for the Jews. And the rabbis and the priests (too judged for the Jews by the Tawrah after those Prophets), for to them was entrusted the protection of Allah’s Book, and they were witnesses thereto. (5:44)

This is why Allah said here, وَقَفَّيْنَا مِن بَعْدِهِ بِالرُّسُلِ (And Qaffayna him with Messengers).

As-Suddi said that Abu Malik said that;

Qaffayna means, “Succeeded”,

while others said, “Followed”.

Both meanings are plausible, since Allah said,

ثُمَّ أَرْسَلْنَا رُسُلَنَا تَتْرَى

Then We sent Our Messengers in succession. (23:44)

… وَآتَيْنَا عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ الْبَيِّنَاتِ وَأَيَّدْنَاهُ بِرُوحِ الْقُدُسِ …

And We gave `Isa, the son of Maryam, clear signs and supported him with Ruh-il-Qudus.

Thereafter, Allah sent the last Prophet among the Children of Israel, `Isa the son of Mary, who was sent with some laws that differed with some in the Tawrah.

This is why Allah also sent miracles to support `Isa. These included;

bringing the dead back to life,

forming the shape of birds from clay and blowing into them, after which they became living birds by Allah’s leave,

healing the sick and foretelling the Unseen, as Ibn Abbas stated.

Allah also aided him with Ruh Al-Qudus, and that refers to Jibril.

All of these signs testified to the truthfulness of Isa and what he was sent with. Yet, the Children of Israel became more defiant and envious of him and did not want to differ with even one part of the Tawrah, as Allah said aboutIsa,

وَلاٌّحِلَّ لَكُم بَعْضَ الَّذِي حُرِّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَجِئْتُكُمْ بِأَيَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ

And to make lawful to you part of what was forbidden to you, and I have come to you with a proof from your Lord. (3:50)

Hence, the Children of Israel treated the Prophets in the worst manner, rejecting some of them and killing some of them.

All of this occurred because the Prophets used to command the Jews with what differed from their desires and opinions. The Prophets also upheld the rulings of the Tawrah that the Jews had changed, and this is why it was difficult for them to believe in these Prophets. Therefore, they rejected the Prophets and killed some of them.

Allah said,

… أَفَكُلَّمَا جَاءكُمْ رَسُولٌ بِمَا لاَ تَهْوَى أَنفُسُكُمُ اسْتَكْبَرْتُمْ …

Is it that whenever there came to you a Messenger with what you yourselves desired not, you grew arrogant!

Jibril is Ruh Al-Qudus

The proof that Jibril is the Ruh Al-Qudus is the statement of Ibn Mas`ud in explanation of this Ayah.

This is also the view of Ibn Abbas, Muhammad bin Kab, Ismail bin Khalid, As-Suddi, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, Atiyah Al-Awfi and Qatadah.

Additionally, Allah said,

نَزَلَ بِهِ الرُّوحُ الاٌّمِينُ

عَلَى قَلْبِكَ لِتَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُنْذِرِينَ

Which the trustworthy Ruh (Jibril) has brought down. Upon your heart (O Muhammad) that you may be (one) of the warners. (26:193-194)

Al-Bukhari recorded Aishah saying that;

the Messenger of Allah erected a Minbar in the Masjid on which Hassan bin Thabit (the renowned poet) used to defend the Messenger of Allah (with his poems).

The Messenger of Allah said,

اللَّهُمَّ أَيِّدْ حَسَّانَ بِرُوحِ الْقُدُسِ كَمَا نَافَحَ عَنْ نَبِيِّك

O Allah! Aid Hassan with Ruh Al-Qudus, for he defended Your Prophet.

Abu Dawud recorded this Hadith in his Sunan as did At-Tirmidhi who graded it Hasan Sahih.

Further, Ibn Hibban recorded in his Sahih that Ibn Mas`ud said that the Prophet said,

إِنَّ رُوحَ الْقُدُسِ نَفَثَ فِي رُوعِي أَنَّهُ لَنْ تَمُوتَ نَفْسٌ حَتَّى تَسْتَكْمِلَ رِزْقَهَا وَأَجَلَهَا، فَاتَّقُوا اللهَ وَأَجْمِلُوا فِي الطَّلَب

Ruh Al-Qudus informed me that no soul shall die until it finishes its set provisions and term limit. Therefore, have Taqwa of Allah and seek your sustenance in the most suitable way.

The Jews tried to kill the Prophet

Allah said,

… فَفَرِيقاً كَذَّبْتُمْ وَفَرِيقاً تَقْتُلُونَ ﴿٨٧﴾

Some you disbelieved and some you kill.

Az-Zamakhshari commented on Allah’s statement,

“Allah did not say `killed’ here, because the Jews would still try to kill the Prophet in the future, using poison and magic.”

During the illness that preceded his death, the Prophet said,

مَا زَالَتْ أَكْلَةُ خَيْبَرَ تُعَاوِدُنِي، فَهذَا أَوَانُ انْقِطَاعِ أَبْهَرِي

I kept feeling the effect of what I ate (from the poisoned sheep) during the day of Khyber, until now, when it is the time that the aorta will be cut off (meaning when death is near).

This Hadith was collected by Al-Bukhari and others

Previous 87

وَقَالُواْ قُلُوبُنَا غُلْفٌ

2:88 And they say, “Our hearts are Ghulf.”

بَل لَّعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَقَلِيلاً مَّا يُؤْمِنُونَ

Nay, Allah has cursed them for their disbelief, so little is that which they believe.

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Allah says;

وَقَالُواْ قُلُوبُنَا غُلْفٌ …

And they say, “Our hearts are Ghulf.”

Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn Abbas said that it,

means, “Our hearts are screened.”

Mujahid also said that it means,

“They are covered.”`

Ikrimah said,

“There is a stamp on them.”

Abu Al-Aliyah said,

“They do not comprehend.”

Mujahid and Qatadah said that;

Ibn Abbas read the Ayah in a way that means,

“Our hearts contain every type of knowledge and do not need the knowledge that you (O Muhammad) have.”

This is the opinion of Ata and Ibn Abbas.

… بَل لَّعَنَهُمُ اللَّه بِكُفْرِهِمْ …

Nay, Allah has cursed them for their disbelief,

meaning, “Allah expelled them and deprived them of every type of righteousness.”

… فَقَلِيلاً مَّا يُؤْمِنُونَ ﴿٨٨﴾

So little is that which they believe.

Qatadah said that the Ayah means,

“Only a few of them believe.”

Allah’s statement, وَقَالُواْ قُلُوبُنَا غُلْفٌ (And they say, “Our hearts are Ghulf.”) is similar to His statement,

وَقَالُواْ قُلُوبُنَا فِى أَكِنَّةٍ مِمَّا تَدْعُونَا إِلَيْهِ

And they say: “Our hearts are under coverings (screened) from that to which you invite us. (41:5).

This is why Allah said here, بَل لَّعَنَهُمُ اللَّه بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَقَلِيلاً مَّا يُؤْمِنُونَ (Nay, Allah has cursed them for their disbelief, so little is that which they believe),

meaning, “It is not as they claim. Rather, their hearts are cursed and stamped,” just as Allah said in Surah An-Nisa,

وَقَوْلِهِمْ قُلُوبُنَا غُلْفٌ بَلْ طَبَعَ اللّهُ عَلَيْهَا بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَلاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً

And of their saying: “Our hearts are wrapped (with coverings, i.e. we do not understand what the Messengers say) ـ nay, Allah has set a seal upon their hearts because of their disbelief, so they believe not but a little. (4:155)

There is a difference of opinion regarding the meaning of Allah’s statement, فَقَلِيلاً مَّا يُؤْمِنُونَ (So little is that which they believe.) and His statement, فَلاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً (So they believe not except a few), (4:155).

Some scholars said that;

the Ayat indicate that a few of them would believe, or that their faith is minute, because they believe in Resurrection and in Allah’s reward and punishment that Musa foretold. Yet, this faith will not benefit them since it is overshadowed by their disbelief in what Muhammad brought them.

Some scholars said that;

the Jews did not actually believe in anything and that Allah said, فَقَلِيلاً مَّا يُؤْمِنُونَ (So little is that which they believe), meaning, they do not believe.

This meaning is similar to the Arabic expression, “Hardly have I seen anything like this,”

meaning, “I have never seen anything like this.”

Previous 88

وَلَمَّا جَآءَهُمْ كِتَـبٌ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ وَكَانُواْ مِن قَبْلُ يَسْتَفْتِحُونَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ فَلَمَّا جَآءَهُم مَّا عَرَفُواْ كَفَرُواْ بِهِ

2:89 And when there came to them (the Jews), a Book (this Qur’an) from Allah confirming what is with them (the Tawrah) and the Injil (Gospel), although aforetime they had invoked Allah (for the coming of Muhammad) in order to gain victory over those who disbelieved, then when there came to them that which they had recognized, they disbelieved in it.

فَلَعْنَةُ اللَّهِ عَلَى الْكَـفِرِينَ

So let the curse of Allah be on the disbelievers.

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The Jews were awaiting the Prophet’s coming, but They disbelieved in Him when He was sent

Allah said,

وَلَمَّا جَاءهُمْ …

And when there came to them,

meaning, the Jews,

… كِتَابٌ مِّنْ عِندِ اللّهِ …

a Book from Allah,

meaning, the Qur’an that Allah sent down to Muhammad.

… مُصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ …

confirming what is with them,

meaning, the Tawrah.

Further, Allah said,

… وَكَانُواْ مِن قَبْلُ يَسْتَفْتِحُونَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ …

although aforetime they had invoked Allah (for coming of Muhammad) in order to gain victory over those who disbelieved),

meaning, before this Messenger came to them, they used to ask Allah to aid them by his arrival, against their polytheistic enemies in war. They used to say to the polytheists, “A Prophet shall be sent just before the end of this world and we, along with him, shall exterminate you, just as the nations of `Ad and Iram were exterminated.”

Also, Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated that Ibn Abbas said,

“The Jews used to invoke Allah (for the coming of Muhammad) in order to gain victory over the Aws and Khazraj, before the Prophet was sent. When Allah sent him to the Arabs, they rejected him and denied what they used to say about him.

Hence, Muadh bin Jabal and Bishr bin Al-Bara bin Marur, from Bani Salamah, said to them, `O Jews! Fear Allah and embrace Islam. You used to invoke Allah for the coming of Muhammad when we were still disbelievers and you used to tell us that he would come and describe him to us.’

Salam bin Mushkim from Bani An-Nadir replied, `He did not bring anything that we recognize. He is not the Prophet we told you about.’

Allah then revealed this Ayah about their statement, وَلَمَّا جَاءهُمْ كِتَابٌ مِّنْ عِندِ اللّهِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ (And when there came to them (the Jews), a Book (this Qur’an) from Allah confirming what is with them (the Tawrah) and the Injil (Gospel)).”’

Abu Al-Aliyah said,

“The Jews used to ask Allah to send Muhammad so that they would gain victory over the Arab disbelievers. They used to say, `O Allah! Send the Prophet that we read about – in the Tawrah – so that we can torment and kill the disbelievers alongside him.’

When Allah sent Muhammad and they saw that he was not one of them, they rejected him and envied the Arabs, even though they knew that he was the Messenger of Allah.

Hence, Allah said,

… فَلَمَّا جَاءهُم مَّا عَرَفُواْ كَفَرُواْ بِهِ فَلَعْنَةُ اللَّه عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ ﴿٨٩﴾

Then when there came to them that which they had recognized, they disbelieved in it. So let the curse of Allah be on the disbelievers.”

Previous 89

بِئْسَمَا اشْتَرَوْاْ بِهِ أَنفُسَهُمْ أَن يَكْفُرُواْ بِمَآ أنزَلَ اللَّهُ بَغْيًا أَن يُنَزِّلُ اللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ عَلَى مَن يَشَآءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ

2:90 How bad is that for which they have sold their own selves, that they should disbelieve in that which Allah has revealed (the Qur’an), grudging that Allah should reveal of His grace unto whom He wills of His servants.

فَبَآءُو بِغَضَبٍ عَلَى غَضَبٍ وَلِلْكَـفِرِينَ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌ

So they have drawn on themselves wrath upon wrath. And for the disbelievers, there is disgracing torment.

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Allah said,

بِئْسَمَا اشْتَرَوْاْ بِهِ أَنفُسَهُمْ أَن يَكْفُرُواْ بِمَا أنَزَلَ اللّهُ بَغْياً …

How bad is that for which they have sold their own selves, that they should disbelieve in that which Allah has revealed (the Qur’an),

Mujahid said that the Ayah, بِئْسَمَا اشْتَرَوْاْ بِهِ أَنفُسَهُمْ (How bad is that for which they have sold their own selves), means

“The Jews sold the truth for falsehood and hid the truth about Muhammad.”

As-Suddi said that the Ayah, بِئْسَمَا اشْتَرَوْاْ بِهِ أَنفُسَهُمْ (How bad is that for which they have sold their own selves) means,

“The Jews sold themselves.”

meaning, what is worse is what they chose for themselves by disbelieving in what Allah revealed to Muhammad instead of believing, aiding and supporting him. This behavior of theirs is the result of their injustice, envy and hatred,

… أَن يُنَزِّلُ اللّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ عَلَى مَن يَشَاء مِنْ عِبَادِهِ …

grudging that Allah should reveal of His grace unto whom He wills of His servants.”

There is no envy worse than this.

Therefore,

… فَبَآؤُواْ بِغَضَبٍ عَلَى غَضَبٍ …

So they have drawn on themselves wrath upon wrath.

Ibn Abbas commented on this Ayah,

“Allah became angry with them because they ignored some of the Tawrah and disbelieved in the Prophet that He sent to them.”

I (Ibn Kathir) say that;

the meaning of, بَآؤُواْ (And they drew on themselves) is that they deserved and acquired multiplied anger.

Also, Abu Al-Aliyah said,

“Allah became angry with them, because of their disbelief in the Injil and `Isa and He became angry with them again, because they disbelieved in Muhammad and the Qur’an.”

Similar was said by Ikrimah and Qatadah.

Allah said,

… وَلِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌ ﴿٩٠﴾

And for the disbelievers, there is disgracing torment.

Since their disbelief was a result of their transgression and envy, which was caused by arrogance, they were punished with disgrace and humiliation in this world and the Hereafter.

Similarly, Allah said,

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ عَنْ عِبَادَتِى سَيَدْخُلُونَ جَهَنَّمَ دَخِرِينَ

Verily, those who scorn My worship (i.e. do not invoke Me, and do not believe in My Oneness) they will surely enter Hell in humiliation!” (40:60),

meaning, “Disgraced, degraded and humiliated.”

Imam Ahmad narrated that Amr bin Shu`ayb said that his father said that his grandfather said that the Prophet said,

يُحْشَرُ الْمُتَكَبِّرُونَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أَمْثَالَ الذَّرِّ فِي صُوَرِ النَّاسِ، يَعْلُوهُمْ كُلُّ شَيْءٍ مِنَ الصِّغَارِ حَتَّى يَدْخُلُوا سِجْنًا فِي جَهَنَّمَ يُقَالُ لَهُ. بَوْلَسُ تَعْلُوهُمْ نَارُ الْأَنْيَارِ يُسْقَونَ مِنْ طِينَةِ الْخَبَالِ عُصَارَةِ أَهْلِ النَّار

The arrogant people will be gathered on the Day of Resurrection in the size of ants, but in the shape of men. Everything shall be above them, because of the humiliation placed on them, until they enter a prison in Jahannam called `Bawlas‘ where the fire will surround them from above. They shall drink from the puss of the people of the Fire.

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وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ ءَامِنُواْ بِمَآ أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ قَالُواْ نُؤْمِنُ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ عَلَيْنَا

2:91 And when it is said to them (the Jews), “Believe in what Allah has sent down,” they say, “We believe in what was sent down to us.”

وَيَكْفُرونَ بِمَا وَرَآءَهُ وَهُوَ الْحَقُّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ

And they disbelieve in that which came after it, while it is the truth confirming what is with them.

قُلْ فَلِمَ تَقْتُلُونَ أَنبِيَآءَ اللَّهِ مِن قَبْلُ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

Say (O Muhammad to them): “Why then have you killed the Prophets of Allah aforetime, if you indeed have been believers!”

وَلَقَدْ جَآءَكُم مُّوسَى بِالْبَيِّنَـتِ ثُمَّ اتَّخَذْتُمُ الْعِجْلَ مِن بَعْدِهِ وَأَنتُمْ ظَـلِمُونَ

2:92 And indeed Musa came to you with clear proofs, yet you worshipped the calf after he left, and you were Zalimun.

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Although The Jews denied the Truth, They claimed to be Believers!

Allah said,

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ …

And when it is said to them,

meaning, the Jews and the People of the Book,

… آمِنُواْ بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ …

Believe in what Allah has sent down,

to Muhammad , believe in and follow him.

… قَالُواْ نُؤْمِنُ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ عَلَيْنَا …

They say, “We believe in what was sent down to us.”

meaning, it is enough for us to believe in what was revealed to us in the Tawrah and the Injil, and this is the path that we choose.

… وَيَكْفُرونَ بِمَا وَرَاءهُ …

And they disbelieve in that which came after it.

… وَهُوَ الْحَقُّ مُصَدِّقاً لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ …

while it is the truth confirming what is with them.

meaning, while knowing that what was revealed to Muhammad.

الْحَقُّ مُصَدِّقاً لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ (it is the truth confirming what is with them),

This means that since what was sent to Muhammad conforms to what was revealed to the People of the Book, then this fact constitutes a proof against them.

Similarly, Allah said,

الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَـهُمُ الْكِتَـبَ يَعْرِفُونَهُ كَمَا يَعْرِفُونَ أَبْنَآءَهُمْ

Those to whom We gave the Scripture (Jews and Christians) recognize him (Muhammad) as they recognize their sons. (2:146)

Allah said next,

… قُلْ فَلِمَ تَقْتُلُونَ أَنبِيَاء اللّهِ مِن قَبْلُ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ ﴿٩١﴾

“Why then have you killed the Prophets of Allah aforetime, if you indeed have been believers!”

This means, “If your claim that you believe in what was revealed to you is true, then why did you kill the Prophets who came to you affirming the Tawrah’s Law, although you knew they were true Prophets! You killed them simply out of transgression, stubbornness and injustice with Allah’s Messengers. Therefore, you only follow your lusts, opinions and desires.”

Similarly, Allah said,

أَفَكُلَّمَا جَآءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ بِمَا لاَ تَهْوَى أَنفُسُكُم اسْتَكْبَرْتُمْ فَفَرِيقًا كَذَّبْتُمْ وَفَرِيقًا تَقْتُلُونَ

Is it that whenever there came to you a Messenger with what you yourselves desired not, you grew arrogant! Some you disbelieved and some you killed. (2;87)

Also, As-Suddi said,

“In this Ayah, Allah chastised the People of the Book, قُلْ فَلِمَ تَقْتُلُونَ أَنبِيَاء اللّهِ مِن قَبْلُ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ (Say (O Muhammad to them): “Why then have you killed the Prophets of Allah aforetime, if you indeed have been believers.””

وَلَقَدْ جَاءكُم مُّوسَى بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ …

And indeed Musa came to you with clear proofs,

meaning, with clear signs and clear proofs that he was the Messenger of Allah and that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.

The clear signs -or miracles- mentioned here are;

the flood,

the locusts,

the lice,

the frogs,

the blood,

the staff and

the hand.

Musa’s miracles also include;

parting the sea,

shading the Jews with clouds,

the manna and quails,

the gushing stone, etc.

… ثُمَّ اتَّخَذْتُمُ الْعِجْلَ …

yet you worshipped the calf,

meaning, as a deity instead of Allah, during the time of Musa.

Allah’s statement,

… مِن بَعْدِهِ …

after he left,

after Musa went to Mount Tur to speak to Allah.

Similarly, Allah said,

وَاتَّخَذَ قَوْمُ مُوسَى مِن بَعْدِهِ مِنْ حُلِيِّهِمْ عِجْلاً جَسَداً لَّهُ خُوَارٌ

And the people of Musa made in his absence, out of their ornaments, the image of a calf (for worship). It had a sound (as if it was mooing). (7:148)

… وَأَنتُمْ ظَالِمُونَ ﴿٩٢﴾

and you were Zalimun.

meaning, you were unjust in this behavior of worshipping the calf, although you knew that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.

Similarly, Allah said,

وَلَمَّا سُقِطَ فَى أَيْدِيهِمْ وَرَأَوْاْ أَنَّهُمْ قَدْ ضَلُّواْ قَالُواْ لَئِن لَّمْ يَرْحَمْنَا رَبُّنَا وَيَغْفِرْ لَنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَـسِرِينَ

And when they regretted and saw that they had gone astray, they (repented and) said: “If our Lord have not mercy upon us and forgive us, we shall certainly be of the losers.” (7:149)

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وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَـقَكُمْ وَرَفَعْنَا فَوْقَكُمُ الطُّورَ خُذُواْ مَآ ءَاتَيْنَاكُم بِقُوَّةٍ وَاسْمَعُواْ

2:93 And (remember) when We took your covenant and We raised above you the Mount (saying), “Hold firmly to what We have given you and hear (Our Word).”

قَالُواْ سَمِعْنَا وَعَصَيْنَا

They said, “We have heard and disobeyed.”

وَأُشْرِبُواْ فِى قُلُوبِهِمُ الْعِجْلَ بِكُفْرِهِمْ

And their hearts absorbed (the worship of) the calf because of their disbelief.

قُلْ بِئْسَمَا يَأْمُرُكُم بِهِ إِيمَـنُكُمْ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

Say: “Worst indeed is that which your faith enjoins on you if you are believers.”

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Next 94-96

The Jews rebel after Allah took Their Covenant and raised the Mountain above Their Heads

Allah says;

وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ وَرَفَعْنَا فَوْقَكُمُ الطُّورَ خُذُواْ مَا آتَيْنَاكُم بِقُوَّةٍ وَاسْمَعُواْ …

And (remember) when We took your covenant and We raised above you the Mount (saying), “Hold firmly to what We have given you and hear (Our Word).”

Allah reminded the Jews of their errors, breaking His covenant, transgression and defiance, when He raised Mount Tur above them so that they would believe and agree to the terms of the covenant. Yet, they broke it soon afterwards.

… قَالُواْ سَمِعْنَا وَعَصَيْنَا …

They said, “We have heard and disobeyed.”

We have mentioned the Tafsir of this subject before.

… وَأُشْرِبُواْ فِي قُلُوبِهِمُ الْعِجْلَ بِكُفْرِهِمْ …

And their hearts absorbed (the worship of) the calf,

Abdur-Razzaq said that Ma`mar narrated that Qatadah said that it,

means, “They absorbed its love, until its love resided in their hearts.”

This is also the opinion of Abu Al-Aliyah and Ar-Rabi bin Anas.

Allah’s statement,

… قُلْ بِئْسَمَا يَأْمُرُكُمْ بِهِ إِيمَانُكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ مُّؤْمِنِينَ ﴿٩٣﴾

Say: “Worst indeed is that which your faith enjoins on you if you are believers.”

means, “Worse yet is the manner in which you behaved in the past and even now, disbelieving in Allah’s Ayat and defying the Prophets. You also disbelieved in Muhammad, which is the worst of your deeds and the harshest sin that you committed. You disbelieved in the Final Messenger and the master of all Prophets and Messengers, the one who was sent to all mankind. How can you then claim that you believe, while committing the evil of breaking Allah’s covenant, disbelieving in Allah’s Ayat and worshipping the calf instead of Allah”

Previous 93

قُلْ إِن كَانَتْ لَكُمُ الدَّارُ الاٌّخِرَةُ عِندَ اللَّهِ خَالِصَةً مِّن دُونِ النَّاسِ فَتَمَنَّوُاْ الْمَوْتَ إِن كُنْتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ

2:94 Say to (them): “If the abode of the Hereafter with Allah is indeed for you especially and not for others of mankind, then long for death if you are truthful.”

وَلَن يَتَمَنَّوْهُ أَبَدًا بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالظَّـلِمينَ

2:95 But they will never long for it because of what their hands have sent before them (i.e. what they have done). And Allah is Aware of the Zalimin.

وَلَتَجِدَنَّهُمْ أَحْرَصَ النَّاسِ عَلَى حَيَوةٍ وَمِنَ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُواْ

2:96 And verily, you will find them (the Jews) the greediest of mankind for life and (even greedier) than those who ascribe partners to Allah.

يَوَدُّ أَحَدُهُمْ لَوْ يُعَمَّرُ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ وَمَا هُوَ بِمُزَحْزِحِهِ مِنَ الْعَذَابِ أَن يُعَمَّرَ

One of them wishes that he could be given a life of a thousand years. But the grant of such life will not save him even a little from (due) punishment.

وَاللَّهُ بَصِيرٌ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ

And Allah is Seer of what they do.

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Next 97-98

Calling the Jews to invoke Allah to destroy the Unjust Party

Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated that Ibn Abbas said,

“Allah said to His Prophet,

قُلْ إِن كَانَتْ لَكُمُ الدَّارُ الآَخِرَةُ عِندَ اللّهِ خَالِصَةً مِّن دُونِ النَّاسِ فَتَمَنَّوُاْ الْمَوْتَ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ ﴿٩٤﴾

Say to (them): “If the home of the Hereafter with Allah is indeed for you especially and not for others, of mankind, then long for death if you are truthful.”

meaning, `Invoke Allah to bring death to the lying camp among the two (Muslims and Jews).’

The Jews declined this offer by the Messenger of Allah.”

وَلَن يَتَمَنَّوْهُ أَبَدًا بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَاللّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالظَّالِمينَ ﴿٩٥﴾

But they will never long for it because of what their hands have sent before them (i.e. what they have done). And Allah is Aware of the Zalimin (polytheists and wrongdoers).

meaning, “Since they know that they recognize you, and yet disbelieve in you.”

Had they wished death that day, no Jew would have remained alive on the face of the earth.

Moreover, Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn Abbas said that, فَتَمَنَّوُاْ الْمَوْتَ (Then long for death), means,

“Invoke (Allah) for death.”

Also, Abdur-Razzaq narrated that Ikrimah said that Ibn Abbas commented, فَتَمَنَّوُاْ الْمَوْتَ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ (Then long for death if you are truthful),

“Had the Jews invoked Allah for death, they would have perished.”

Also, Ibn Abi Hatim recorded Sa`id bin Jubayr saying that Ibn Abbas said,

“Had the Jews asked for death, one of them would have choked on his own saliva.”

These statements have authentic chains of narration up to Ibn Abbas.

Further, Ibn Jarir said in his Tafsir,

“We were told that the Prophet said,

لَوْ أَنَّ الْيَهُودَ تَمَنَّوُا الْمَوْتَ لَمَاتُوا وَلَرَأَوْا مَقَاعِدَهُمْ مِنَ النَّارِ، وَلَوْ خَرَجَ الَّذِينَ يُبَاهِلُونَ رَسُولَ اللهِصلى الله عليه وسلّم لَرَجَعُوا لَا يَجِدُونَ أَهْلًا وَلَا مَالًا

Had the Jews wished for death, they would have died and seen their seats in the Fire. And, those who invoked such curse against Allah’s Messenger would have found no families or property had they returned to their homes.”

Similar to this Ayah is Allah’s statement in Surah Al-Jumuah,

قُلْ يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ هَادُواْ إِن زَعمْتُمْ أَنَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَآءُ لِلَّهِ مِن دُونِ النَّاسِ فَتَمَنَّوُاْ الْمَوْتَ إِن كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ

وَلاَ يَتَمَنَّونَهُ أَبَداً بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْديهِمْ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالظَّـلِمِينَ

قُلْ إِنَّ الْمَوْتَ الَّذِى تَفِرُّونَ مِنْهُ فَإِنَّهُ مُلَـقِيكُمْ ثُمَّ تُرَدُّونَ إِلَى عَالِمِ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَـدَةِ فَيُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ

(Say (O Muhammad ): “O you Jews! If you pretend that you are friends of Allah, to the exclusion of (all) other mankind, then long for death if you are truthful. ”But they will never long for it (death), because of what (deeds) their hands have sent before them! And Allah knows well the Zalimin.

Say (to them): “Verily, the death from which you flee will surely meet you, then you will be sent back to (Allah) the Knower of the unseen and the seen, and He will tell you what you used to do.” (62:6-8)

So they claimed that they are Allah’s sons and loved ones and said, “Only those who are Christian or Jews shall enter Paradise.”

Therefore, they were called to invoke Allah to destroy the lying group, be it them or the Muslims. When the Jews declined, every one was sure of their wrong, for had they been sure of their claims, then they would have accepted the proposal. Their lies were thus exposed after they declined the offer to invoke the curse.

Similarly, the Messenger of Allah called a delegation of Najran’s Christians to curse after he refuted them in a debate in which they demonstrated stubbornness and defiance.

Allah said,

فَمَنْ حَآجَّكَ فِيهِ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَآءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ فَقُلْ تَعَالَوْاْ نَدْعُ أَبْنَآءَنَا وَأَبْنَآءَكُمْ وَنِسَآءَنَا وَنِسَآءَكُمْ وَأَنفُسَنَا وأَنفُسَكُمْ ثُمَّ نَبْتَهِلْ فَنَجْعَل لَّعْنَتُ اللَّهِ عَلَى الْكَـذِبِينَ

Then whoever disputes with you concerning him (Isa) after (all this) knowledge that has come to you (i.e.Isa) being a servant of Allah, and having no share in divinity), say (O Muhammad): “Come, let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves ـ then we pray and invoke (sincerely) the curse of Allah upon those who lie.” (3:61)

When the Christians heard this challenge, some of them said to each other, “By Allah! If you do such with this Prophet, none of you will have an eye that blinks.”

This is when they resorted to peace and gave the Jizyah (tax) in disgrace. The Prophet accepted the Jizyah from them and sent Abu Ubaydah bin Al-Jarrah with them as a trustee.

Similar to this meaning is Allah’s command to His Prophet to proclaim to the polytheists:

قُلْ مَن كَانَ فِى الضَّلَـلَةِ فَلْيَمْدُدْ لَهُ الرَّحْمَـنُ مَدّاً

Say (O Muhammad ) whoever is in error, the Most Gracious (Allah) will prolong him (in it). (19:75)

meaning, “Whoever among us has deviated, may Allah increase and prolong his deviation.”

We will mention this subject later, Allah willing.

The Mubahalah (invocation to Allah to destroy the liars) was called a `wish’ here, because every just person wishes that Allah destroy the unjust opponent who is debating with him, especially when the just person has a clear, apparent proof for the truth he is calling to.

Also, the Mubahalah involves invoking Allah for death of the unjust group, because to disbelievers, life is the biggest prize, especially when they know the evil destination they will meet after death.

Disbelievers wish They could live longer

This is why Allah said next,

وَلَن يَتَمَنَّوْهُ أَبَدًا بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَاللّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالظَّالِمينَ

وَلَتَجِدَنَّهُمْ أَحْرَصَ النَّاسِ عَلَى حَيَاةٍ …

But they will never long for it because of what their hands have sent before them (i.e. what they have done). And Allah is Aware of the Zalimin. And verily, you will find them (the Jews) the greediest of mankind for life.

meaning, greedy to live longer, because they know their evil end, and the only reward they will have with Allah is total loss. This life is a prison for the believer and Paradise for the disbeliever. Therefore, the People of the Book wish they could delay the Hereafter, as much as possible. However, they shall certainly meet what they are trying to avoid, even if they are more eager to delay the Hereafter than the polytheists who do not have a divine book.

… وَمِنَ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُواْ يَوَدُّ أَحَدُهُمْ لَوْ يُعَمَّرُ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ …

and (even greedier) than those who ascribe partners to Allah. One of them wishes that he could be given a life of a thousand years.

… وَمَا هُوَ بِمُزَحْزِحِهِ مِنَ الْعَذَابِ أَن يُعَمَّرَ …

But the grant of such life will not save him even a little from (due) punishment.

Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated that Ibn Abbas commented,

“Long life shall not save them from torment. Certainly, the polytheists do not believe in resurrection after death, and they would love to enjoy a long life. The Jews know the humiliation they will suffer in the Hereafter for knowingly ignoring the truth.”

Also, Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said,

“The Jews are most eager for this life. They wish they could live for a thousand years. However, living for a thousand years will not save them from torment, just as Iblis – Satan – long life did not benefit him, due to being a disbeliever.”

… وَاللّهُ بَصِيرٌ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ ﴿٩٦﴾

And Allah is Seer of what they do.

meaning, “Allah knows what His servants are doing, whether good or evil, and will compensate each of them accordingly.”

Previous 94-96

قُلْ مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّجِبْرِيلَ فَإِنَّهُ نَزَّلَهُ عَلَى قَلْبِكَ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَهُدًى وَبُشْرَى لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

2:97 Say (O Muhammad): “Whoever is an enemy to Jibril (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury), for indeed he has brought it (this Qur’an) down to your heart by Allah’s permission, confirming what came before it (i.e. the Tawrah and the Injil) and guidance and glad tidings for the believers.

مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لّلَّهِ وَمَلـئِكَتِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَجِبْرِيلَ وَمِيكَـلَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَدُوٌّ لِّلْكَـفِرِينَ

2:98 “Whoever is an enemy to Allah, His Angels, His Messengers, Jibril and Mika’il, then verily, Allah is an enemy to the disbelievers.”

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Next 99-103

The Jews are the Enemies of Jibril

Allah said,

قُلْ مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّجِبْرِيلَ فَإِنَّهُ نَزَّلَهُ عَلَى قَلْبِكَ بِإِذْنِ اللّهِ مُصَدِّقاً لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَهُدًى وَبُشْرَى لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ ﴿٩٧﴾

Say (O Muhammad): “Whoever is an enemy to Jibril (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury), for indeed he has brought it (this Qur’an) down to your heart by Allah’s permission, confirming what came before it (i.e. the Tawrah and the Injil) and guidance and glad tidings for the believers.

Imam Abu Jafar bin Jarir At-Tabari said,

“The scholars of Tafsir agree that this Ayah (2: 97-98) was revealed in response to the Jews who claimed that Jibril (Gabriel) is an enemy of the Jews and that Mikhail (Michael) is their friend.”

Al-Bukhari said,

“Allah said, مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّجِبْرِيلَ (Whoever is an enemy of Jibril (let him die in his fury)).

Ikrimah said,

“Jibr, Mik and Israf all mean, worshipper, while il means, Allah.”

Anas bin Malik said,

“When Abdullah bin Salam heard of the arrival of the Prophet in Al-Madinah, he was working on his land. He came to the Prophet and said, `I am going to ask you about three things which nobody knows except a Prophet.

What will be the first portent of the Hour?

What will be the first meal taken by the people of Paradise?

Why does a child resemble its father, and why does it resemble its maternal uncle?’

Allah’s Messenger said, (Jibril has just told me the answers).

Abdullah said, `He (i.e. Jibril), among all the angels, is the enemy of the Jews.’

Allah’s Messenger recited the Ayah, قُلْ مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّجِبْرِيلَ فَإِنَّهُ نَزَّلَهُ عَلَى قَلْبِكَ (Whoever is an enemy to Jibril (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury), for indeed he has brought it (this Qur’an) down to your heart).

Allah’s Messenger then said,

The first portent of the Hour will be a fire that will bring together the people from the east to the west;

the first meal of the people of Paradise will be the caudate lobe of the liver of fish.

As for the child resembling his parents: If a man has sexual intercourse with his wife and his discharge is first, the child will resemble the father. If the woman has a discharge first, the child will resemble her side of the family.

On that Abdullah bin Salam said, `I testify that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and you are the Messenger of Allah.’

Abdullah bin Salam further said, `O Allah’s Messenger! The Jews are liars, and if they should come to know about my conversion to Islam before you ask them (about me), they will tell a lie about me.’

The Jews came to Allah’s Messenger, and Abdullah went inside the house. Allah’s Messenger asked (the Jews), `What kind of man is Abdullah bin Salam?’

They replied, `He is the best among us, the son of the best among us, our master and the son of our master.’

Allah’s Messenger said, What do you think if he would embrace Islam?

The Jews said, `May Allah save him from it.’

Then Abdullah bin Salam came out in front of them saying, `I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.’

Thereupon they said, `He is the evilest among us, and the son of the evilest among us.’ And they continued talking badly about him.

Ibn Salam said, `This is what I feared, O Messenger of Allah!”’

Only Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith with this chain of narration.

Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded this Hadith from Anas using another chain of narration.

Some people say that;

il‘ means worshipper while whatever word that is added to it becomes Allah’s Name, becauseil‘ is a constant in such conjunction.

This is similar to the names Abdullah, Abdur-Rahman, Abdul-Malik, Abdul-Quddus, Abdus-Salam, Abdul-Kafi, Abdul-Jalil, and so forth.

Hence, `Abd‘ is constant in these compound names, while the remainder differs from name to name.

This is the same case with Jibril, Mikhail, Azra’il, Israfil, and so forth.

Allah knows best.

Choosing Some Angels to believe in over Others is Disbelief like choosing Some Prophets over Others

Allah commanded,

قُلْ …

Say (O Muhammad):

… مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّجِبْرِيلَ فَإِنَّهُ نَزَّلَهُ عَلَى قَلْبِكَ بِإِذْنِ اللّهِ …

Whoever is an enemy to Jibril (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury), for indeed he has brought it (this Qur’an) down to your heart by Allah’s permission,

meaning, whoever becomes an enemy of Jibril, let him know that he is Ruh Al-Qudus who brought down the Glorious Dhikr (Qur’an) to your heart from Allah by His leave. Hence, he is a messenger from Allah. Whoever takes a messenger as an enemy, will have taken all the messengers as enemies.

Further, whoever believes in one messenger, is required to believe in all of the messengers. Whoever rejects one messenger, he has rejected all of the messengers.

Similarly, Allah said,

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يُفَرِّقُواْ بَيْنَ اللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيقُولُونَ نُؤْمِنُ بِبَعْضٍ وَنَكْفُرُ بِبَعْضٍ

Verily, those who disbelieve in Allah and His Messengers and wish to make distinction between Allah and His Messengers (by believing in Allah and disbelieving in His Messengers) saying, “We believe in some but reject others.” (4:150)

Allah decreed that they are disbelievers, because they believe in some Prophets and reject others. This is the same with those who take Jibril as an enemy, because Jibril did not choose missions on his own, but by the command of his Lord,

وَمَا نَتَنَزَّلُ إِلاَّ بِأَمْرِ رَبِّكَ

And we (angels) descend not except by the command of your Lord. (19: 64)

and,

وَإِنَّهُ لَتَنزِيلُ رَبِّ الْعَـلَمِينَ

نَزَلَ بِهِ الرُّوحُ الاٌّمِينُ

عَلَى قَلْبِكَ لِتَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُنْذِرِينَ

And truly, this (the Qur’an) is a revelation from the Lord of all that exists. Which the trustworthy Ruh (Jibril) has brought down. Upon your heart (O Muhammad) that you may be (one) of the warners. (26:192-194).

Al-Bukhari reported that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

مَنْ عَادَى لِي وَلِيًّا فَقَدْ بَارَزَنِي بِالْحَرْب

Allah said, `Whoever takes a friend of Mine as an enemy, will have started a war with Me.

Therefore, Allah became angry with those who took Jibril as an enemy. Allah said, مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّجِبْرِيلَ فَإِنَّهُ نَزَّلَهُ عَلَى قَلْبِكَ بِإِذْنِ اللّهِ مُصَدِّقاً لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ (Whoever is an enemy to Jibril (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury), for indeed he has brought it (this Qur’an) down to your heart by Allah’s permission, confirming what came before it) meaning, the previous Books,

وَهُدًى وَبُشْرَى لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ (and guidance and glad tidings for the believers) meaning, as guidance to their hearts and bringer of the good news of Paradise, which is exclusively for the believers.

Similarly, Allah said,

قُلْ هُوَ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ هُدًى وَشِفَآءٌ

Say: “It is for those who believe, a guide and a healing.” (41:44)

and,

وَنُنَزِّلُ مِنَ الْقُرْءَانِ مَا هُوَ شِفَآءٌ وَرَحْمَةٌ لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

And We send down of the Qur’an that which is a healing and a mercy to those who believe. (17:82)

Allah then said,

مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّلّهِ وَمَلآئِكَتِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ …

Whoever is an enemy to Allah, His Angels, His Messengers,

Allah stated that whoever takes Him, His angels and messengers as enemies, then…Allah’s messengers include angels and men, for Allah said,

اللَّهُ يَصْطَفِى مِنَ الْمَلَـئِكَةِ رُسُلاً وَمِنَ النَّاسِ

Allah chooses Messengers from angels and from men. (22:75)

Allah said,

… وَجِبْرِيلَ وَمِيكَالَ …

Jibril (Gabriel) and Mikhail (Michael).

Allah mentioned Jibril and Mikhail specifically – although they are included among the angels who were messengers – only because this Ayah was meant to support Jibril the emissary between Allah and His Prophets.

Allah also mentioned Mikhail here, because the Jews claimed that Jibril was their enemy and Mikhail was their friend.

Allah informed them that whoever is an enemy of either of them, then he is also an enemy of the other as well as Allah.

We should state here that Mikhail sometimes descended to some of Allah’s Prophets, although to a lesser extent than Jibril, because this was primarily Jibril’s task, and Israfil is entrusted with the job of blowing the Trumpet for the commencement of Resurrection on the Day of Judgment.

It is recorded in the Sahih that whenever the Messenger of Allah would wake up at night, he would supplicate,

اللَّهُمَّ رَبَّ جِبْرَائِيلَ وَمِيكَائِيلَ وَإِسْرَافِيلَ فَاطِرَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ عَالِمَ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ، أَنْتَ تَحْكُمُ بَيْنَ عِبَادِكَ فِيمَا كَانُوا فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ، اهْدِنِي لِمَا اخْتُلِفَ فِيهِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِكَ إِنَّكَ تَهْدِي مَنْ تَشَاءُ إِلى صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيم

O Allah, Lord of Jibril, Mikhail and Israfil, Creator of the heavens and earth and Knower of the seen and the unseen! You judge between Your servants regarding what they differ in, so direct me to the truth which they differ on, by Your leave. Verily, You guide whom You will to the straight path.

Allah’s statement,

… فَإِنَّ اللّهَ عَدُوٌّ لِّلْكَافِرِينَ ﴿٩٨﴾

then verily, Allah is an enemy to the disbelievers.

informed the disbelievers that whoever takes a friend of Allah as an enemy, then he has taken Allah as an enemy, and whoever treats Allah as an enemy, then he shall be Allah’s enemy.

Indeed, whoever is an enemy of Allah then he will lose in this life and the Hereafter, as stated earlier;

مَنْ عَادَى لِي وَلِيًّا فَقَدْ آذَنْتُهُ بِالْمُحَارَبَة

Whoever takes a friend of Mine as an enemy, I shall wage war on him.

Previous 97-98

وَلَقَدْ أَنزَلْنَآ إِلَيْكَ ءَايَـتٍ بَيِّنَـتٍ وَمَا يَكْفُرُ بِهَآ إِلاَّ الْفَـسِقُونَ

2:99 And indeed We have sent down to you manifest Ayat and none disbelieve in them but Fasiqun (those who rebel against Allah’s command).

أَوَكُلَّمَا عَـهَدُواْ عَهْدًا نَّبَذَهُ فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُم

2:100 Is it not (the case) that every time they make a covenant, some party among them throw it aside!

بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ

Nay! (the truth is:) most of them believe not.

وَلَمَّا جَآءَهُمْ رَسُولٌ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ نَبَذَ فَرِيقٌ مِّنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَـبَ كِتَـبَ اللَّهِ وَرَآءَ ظُهُورِهِمْ كَأَنَّهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ

2:101 And when there came to them a Messenger from Allah (i.e. Muhammad) confirming what was with them, a party of those who were given the Scripture threw away the Book of Allah behind their backs as if they did not know!

وَاتَّبَعُواْ مَا تَتْلُواْ الشَّيَـطِينُ عَلَى مُلْكِ سُلَيْمَـنَ

2:102 They followed what the Shayatin (devils) gave out (falsely of the magic) in the lifetime of Sulayman (Solomon).

وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَـنُ وَلَـكِنَّ الشَّيْاطِينَ كَفَرُواْ يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ السِّحْرَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ هَـرُوتَ وَمَـرُوتَ

Suleiman did not disbelieve, but the Shayatin (devils) disbelieved, teaching men magic and such things that came down at Babylon to the two angels, Harut and Marut,

وَمَا يُعَلِّمَانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ حَتَّى يَقُولاَ إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلاَ تَكْفُرْ

but neither of these two (angels) taught anyone (such things) till they had said, “We are for trial, so disbelieve not (by learning this magic from us).”

فَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مِنْهُمَا مَا يُفَرِّقُونَ بِهِ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَزَوْجِهِ وَمَا هُم بِضَآرِّينَ بِهِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ

And from these (angels) people learn that by which they cause separation between man and his wife, but they could not thus harm anyone except by Allah’s leave.

وَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مَا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلاَ يَنفَعُهُمْ

And they learn that which harms them and profits them not.

وَلَقَدْ عَلِمُواْ لَمَنِ اشْتَرَاهُ مَا لَهُ فِى الاٌّخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلَـقٍ وَلَبِئْسَ مَا شَرَوْاْ بِهِ أَنفُسَهُمْ لَوْ كَانُواْ يَعْلَمُونَ

And indeed they knew that the buyers of it (magic) would have no share in the Hereafter. And how bad indeed was that for which they sold their own selves, if they but knew.

وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ ءَامَنُواْ واتَّقَوْا لَمَثُوبَةٌ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ خَيْرٌ لَّوْ كَانُواْ يَعْلَمُونَ

2:103 And if they had believed and guarded themselves from evil and kept their duty to Allah, far better would have been the reward from their Lord, if they but knew!

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Next 104-105

Proofs of Muhammad’s Prophethood

Allah says;

وَلَقَدْ أَنزَلْنَآ إِلَيْكَ آيَاتٍ بَيِّنَاتٍ وَمَا يَكْفُرُ بِهَا إِلاَّ الْفَاسِقُونَ ﴿٩٩﴾

And indeed We have sent down to you manifest Ayat and none disbelieve in them but Fasiqun (those who rebel against Allah’s command).

Imam Abu Jafar bin Jarir said that Allah’s statement, وَلَقَدْ أَنزَلْنَآ إِلَيْكَ آيَاتٍ بَيِّنَاتٍ (And indeed We have sent down to you manifest Ayat) means,

“We have sent to you, O Muhammad, clear signs that testify to your Prophethood.”

These Ayat are contained in the Book of Allah (Qur’an) which narrates the secrets of the knowledge that the Jews possess, which they hid, and the stories of their earlier generations.

The Book of Allah also mentions the texts in the Books of the Jews that are known to only the rabbis and scholars, and the sections where they altered and distorted the rulings of the Tawrah. Since Allah mentioned all of this in His Book revealed to His Prophet Muhammad, then this fact alone should be enough evidence for those who are truthful with themselves and who wish to avoid bringing themselves to destruction due to envy and transgression.

Further human instinct testifies to the truth that Muhammad was sent with and the clear signs that he brought which he did not learn or acquire from mankind.

Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn Abbas said that, وَلَقَدْ أَنزَلْنَآ إِلَيْكَ آيَاتٍ بَيِّنَاتٍ (And indeed We have sent down to you manifest Ayat) means,

“You recite and convey this Book to them day and night, although you are an Ummi (unlettered) who never read a book. Yet, you inform them of what they have (in their own Books). Allah stated that this fact should serve as an example, a clear sign and a proof against them, if they but knew.”

The Jews break Their Covenants

When the Messenger of Allah was sent and Allah reminded the Jews of the covenant that they had with Him, especially concerning Muhammad, Malik bin As-Sayf said,

“By Allah! Allah never made a covenant with us about Muhammad, nor did He take a pledge from us at all.”

Allah then revealed,

أَوَكُلَّمَا عَاهَدُواْ عَهْداً نَّبَذَهُ فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُم …

Is it not (the case) that every time they make a covenant, some party among them throw it aside.

… بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ ﴿١٠٠﴾

Nay! (the truth is: most of them believe not!

Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that Allah’s statement means,

“There is not a promise that they make, but they break it and abandon it. They make a promise today and break it tomorrow.”

The Jews abandoned the Book of Allah and practiced Magic

Allah tells,

وَلَمَّا جَاءهُمْ رَسُولٌ مِّنْ عِندِ اللّهِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ نَبَذَ فَرِيقٌ مِّنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَابَ كِتَابَ اللّهِ وَرَاء ظُهُورِهِمْ كَأَنَّهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿١٠١﴾

And when there came to them a Messenger from Allah (i.e. Muhammad) confirming what was with them, a party of those who were given the Scripture threw away the Book of Allah behind their backs as if they did not know!

As-Suddi commented on, وَلَمَّا جَاءهُمْ رَسُولٌ مِّنْ عِندِ اللّهِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ (And when there came to them a Messenger from Allah (i.e. Muhammad) confirming what was with them),

“When Muhammad came to them, they wanted to contradict and dispute with him using the Tawrah. However, the Tawrah and the Qur’an affirmed each other. So the Jews gave up on using the Torah, and took to the Book of Asaf, and the magic of Harut and Marut, which indeed did not conform to the Qur’an.

Hence Allah’s statement, كَأَنَّهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ (As if they did not know!).”

Also, Qatadah said that Allah’s statement, كَأَنَّهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ (As if they did not know!) means,

“They knew the truth but abandoned it, hid it and denied the fact that they even had it.”

Magic existed before Suleiman (Solomon)

Allah tells;

وَاتَّبَعُواْ مَا تَتْلُواْ الشَّيَاطِينُ عَلَى مُلْكِ سُلَيْمَانَ وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ وَلَـكِنَّ الشَّيْاطِينَ كَفَرُواْ يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ السِّحْرَ …

They followed what the Shayatin (devils) gave out (falsely of the magic) in the lifetime of Suleiman (Solomon). Suleiman did not disbelieve, but the Shayatin (devils) disbelieved, teaching men magic,

As-Suddi said that Allah’s statement, وَاتَّبَعُواْ مَا تَتْلُواْ الشَّيَاطِينُ عَلَى مُلْكِ سُلَيْمَانَ (They followed what the Shayatin (devils) gave out (falsely of the magic) in the lifetime of Suleiman) means,

“`During the time of Prophet Suleiman .’

Beforehand, the devils used to ascend to heaven and eavesdrop on the conversations of the angels about what will occur on the earth regarding death, other incidents or unseen matters.

They would convey this news to the soothsayers, and the soothsayers would in turn convey the news to the people. The people would believe what the soothsayers told them as being true.

When the soothsayers trusted the devils, the devils started to lie to them and added other words to the true news that they heard, to the extent of adding seventy false words to each true word. The people recorded these words in some books. Soon after, the Children of Israel said that the Jinns know matters of the Unseen.

When Solomon was sent as a Prophet, he collected these books in a box and buried it under his throne; any devil that dared get near the box was burned.

Solomon said, `I will not hear of anyone who says that the devils know the Unseen, but I will cut off his head.’

When Solomon died and the scholars who knew the truth about Solomon perished, there came another generation. To them, the devil materialized in the shape of a human and said to some of the Children of Israel, `Should I lead you to a treasure that you will never be able to use up?’

They said. `Yes.’

He said, `Dig under this throne,’ and he went with them and showed them Solomon’s throne.

They said to him, `Come closer.’

He said, `No. I will wait for you here, and if you do not find the treasure then kill me.’

They dug and found the buried books, and Satan said to them, `Solomon only controlled the humans, devils and birds with this magic.’

Thereafter, the news that Solomon was a sorcerer spread among the people, and the Children of Israel adopted these books. When Muhammad came, they disputed with him relying on these books. Hence Allah’s statement, وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ وَلَـكِنَّ الشَّيْاطِينَ كَفَرُواْ َ (Suleiman did not disbelieve, but the Shayatin (devils) disbelieved).

The Story of Harut and Marut, and the Explanation that They were Angels

Allah said,

… وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ هَارُوتَ وَمَارُوتَ …

And such things that came down at Babylon to the two angels, Harut and Marut,

There is a difference of opinion regarding this story.

It was said that Al-Qurtubi stated that;

this Ayah denies that anything was sent down to the two angels, he then referred to the Ayah, وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ (Suleiman did not disbelieve) saying, “The negation applies in both cases.

Allah then said, وَلَـكِنَّ الشَّيْاطِينَ كَفَرُواْ يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ السِّحْرَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ (But the Shayatin (devils) disbelieved, teaching men magic and such things that came down at Babylon to the two angels).

The Jews claimed that Gabriel and Michael brought magic down to the two angels, but Allah refuted this false claim.”

Also, Ibn Jarir reported, that Al-Awfi said that Ibn Abbas said about Allah’s statement, وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ (And such things that came down at Babylon to the two angels),

“Allah did not send magic down.”

Also, Ibn Jarir narrated that Ar-Rabi bin Anas said about, وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ (And such things that came down to the two angels),

“Allah did not send magic down to the them.”

Ibn Jarir commented,

“This is the correct explanation for this Ayah, وَاتَّبَعُواْ مَا تَتْلُواْ الشَّيَاطِينُ عَلَى مُلْكِ سُلَيْمَانَ (They followed what the Shayatin (devils) gave out (falsely) in the lifetime of Suleiman) meaning, magic.

However, neither did Solomon disbelieve nor did Allah send magic with the two angels. The devils, on the other hand, disbelieved and taught magic to the people of the Babylon of Harut and Marut.”

Ibn Jarir continued;

“If someone asks about explaining this Ayah in this manner, we say that, وَاتَّبَعُواْ مَا تَتْلُواْ الشَّيَاطِينُ عَلَى مُلْكِ سُلَيْمَانَ (They followed what the Shayatin (devils) gave out (falsely) in the lifetime of Suleiman) means, magic.

Solomon neither disbelieved nor did Allah send magic with the two angels. However, the devils disbelieved and taught magic to the people in the Babylon of Harut and Marut, meaning Gabriel and Michael, for Jewish sorcerers claimed that Allah sent magic by the words of Gabriel and Michael to Solomon, son of David.

Allah denied this false claim and stated to His Prophet Muhammad that Gabriel and Michael were not sent with magic.

Allah also exonerated Solomon from practicing magic, which the devils taught to the people of Babylon by the hands of two men, Harut and Marut. Hence, Harut and Marut were two ordinary men (not angels or Gabriel or Michael).”

These were the words of At-Tabari, and this explanation is not plausible.

Many among the Salaf, said that;

Harut and Marut were angels who came down from heaven to earth and did what they did as the Ayah stated.

To conform this opinion with the fact that the angels are immune from error, we say that Allah had eternal knowledge what these angels would do, just as He had eternal knowledge that Iblis would do as he did, while Allah refered to him being among the angels, وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ أَبَى (And (remember) when We said to the angels: “Prostrate yourselves before Adam.” And they prostrated except Iblis (Satan), he refused), (20:116), and so forth.

However, what Harut and Marut did was less evil than what Iblis, may Allah curse him, did.

Al-Qurtubi reported this opinion from Ali, Ibn Masud, Ibn Abbas, Ibn Umar, Kab Al-Ahbar, As-Suddi and Al-Kalbi.

Learning Magic is Kufr

Allah said,

… وَمَا يُعَلِّمَانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ حَتَّى يَقُولاَ إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلاَ تَكْفُرْ …

But neither of these two (angels) taught anyone (such things) till they had said, “We are for trial, so disbelieve not (by learning this magic from us).

Abu Jafar Ar-Razi said that Ar-Rabi bin Anas said that Qays bin Abbad said that Ibn Abbas said,

“When someone came to the angels to learn magic, they would discourage him and say to him, `We are only a test, so do not fall into disbelief.’

They had knowledge of what is good and evil and what constitutes belief or disbelief, and they thus knew that magic is a form of disbelief.

When the person who came to learn magic still insisted on learning it, they commanded him to go to such and such place, where if he went, Satan would meet him and teach him magic.

When this man would learn magic, the light (of faith) would depart him, and he would see it shining (and flying away) in the sky. He would then proclaim, `O my sorrow! Woe unto me! What should I do.”

Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that this Ayah means,

“The angels were sent with magic, so that the people whom Allah willed would be tried and tested. Allah made them promise that they would not teach anyone until first proclaiming, `We are a test for you, do not fall into disbelief.”’

It was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim.

Also, Qatadah said,

“Allah took their covenant to not teach anyone magic until they said, `We are a test. Therefore, do not fall in disbelief.”’

Also, As-Suddi said,

“When a man would come to the two angels they would advise him, `Do not fall into disbelief. We are a test. ‘

When the man would ignore their advice, they would say, `Go to that pile of ashes and urinate on it.’

When he would urinate on the ashes, a light, meaning the light of faith, would depart from him and would shine until it entered heaven. Then something black that appeared to be smoke would descend and enter his ears and the rest of his body, and this is Allah’s anger. When he told the angels what happened, they would teach him magic.

So Allah’s statement, وَمَا يُعَلِّمَانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ حَتَّى يَقُولاَ إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلاَ تَكْفُرْ (But neither of these two (angels) taught anyone (such things) till they had said, “We are for trial, so disbelieve not (by learning this magic from us).

Sunayd said that Hajjaj said that Ibn Jurayj commented on this Ayah (2:102),

“No one dares practice magic except a disbeliever. As for the Fitnah, it involves trials and freedom of choice.”

The scholars who stated that learning magic is disbelief relied on this Ayah for evidence. They also mentioned the Hadith that Abu Bakr Al-Bazzar recorded from Abdullah, which states,

مَنْ أَتَى كَاهِنًا أَوْ سَاحِرًا فَصَدَّقَهُ بِمَا يَقُولُ فَقَدْ كَفَر بِمَا أُنْزِلَ عَلى مُحَمَّدٍصلى الله عليه وسلّم

Whoever came to a soothsayer or a sorcerer and believed in what he said, will have disbelieved in what Allah revealed to Muhammad.

This Hadith has an authentic chain of narration and there are other Hadiths which support it.

Causing a Separation between the Spouses is One of the Effects of Magic

Allah said,

… فَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مِنْهُمَا مَا يُفَرِّقُونَ بِهِ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَزَوْجِهِ …

And from these (angels) people learn that by which they cause separation between man and his wife,

This means, “The people learned magic from Harut and Marut and indulged in evil acts that included separating spouses, even though spouses are close to, and intimately associate with each other. This is the devil’s work.”

Muslim recorded that Jabir bin Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ لَيَضَعُ عَرْشَهُ عَلَى الْمَاءِ ثُمَّ يَبْعَثُ سَرَايَاهُ فِي النَّاسِ فَأَقْرَبُهُمْ عِنْدَهُ مَنْزِلَةً أَعْظَمُهُمْ عِنْدَهُ فِتْنَةً

وَيَجِيءُ أَحَدُهُمْ فَيَقُولُ: مَا زِلْتُ بِفُلَانٍ حَتَّى تَرَكْتُهُ وَهُوَ يَقُولُ كَذَا وَكَذَا،

فَيَقُولُ إِبْلِيسُ: لَا وَاللهِ مَا صَنَعْتَ شَيْئًا،

وَيَجِيءُ أَحَدُهُمْ فَيَقُولُ: مَا تَرَكْتُهُ حَتّى فَرَّقْتُ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ أَهْلِهِ،

قَالَ: فَيُقرِّبُهُ وَيُدْنِيهِ وَيَلْتَزِمُهُ وَيَقُولُ: نِعْمَ أَنْت

Satan erects his throne on water and sends his emissaries among the people. The closest person to him is the person who causes the most Fitnah.

One of them (a devil) would come to him and would say, `I kept inciting so-and-so, until he said such and such words.’

Iblis says, `No, by Allah, you have not done much.’

Another devil would come to him and would say, `I kept inciting so-and-so, until I separated between him and his wife.’

Satan would draw him closer and embrace him, saying, `Yes, you did well.’

Separation between a man and his wife occurs here because each spouse imagines that the other spouse is ugly or ill-mannered, etc.

Allah’s Appointed Term supercedes Everything

Allah said,

… وَمَا هُم بِضَآرِّينَ بِهِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِ اللّهِ …

But they could not thus harm anyone except by Allah’s leave.

Sufyan Ath-Thawri commented,

“Except by Allah’s appointed term.”

Further, Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that,

“Allah allows magicians to adversely affect whomever He wills and saves whomever He wills from them. Sorcerers never bring harm to anyone except by Allah’s leave.”

Allah’s statement,

… وَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مَا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلاَ يَنفَعُهُمْ …

And they learn that which harms them and profits them not.

means, it harms their religion and does not have a benefit compared to its harm.

… وَلَقَدْ عَلِمُواْ لَمَنِ اشْتَرَاهُ مَا لَهُ فِي الآخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلاَقٍ …

And indeed they knew that the buyers of it (magic) would have no (Khalaq) share in the Hereafter.

meaning, “The Jews who preferred magic over following the Messenger of Allah knew that those who commit the same error shall have no Khalaq in the Hereafter.”

Ibn Abbas, Mujahid and As-Suddi stated that;

no Khalaq‘ means,no share.’

Allah then said,

…وَلَبِئْسَ مَا شَرَوْاْ بِهِ أَنفُسَهُمْ لَوْ كَانُواْ يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿١٠٢﴾

وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ آمَنُواْ واتَّقَوْا لَمَثُوبَةٌ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّه خَيْرٌ لَّوْ كَانُواْ يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿١٠٣﴾

And how bad indeed was that for which they sold their own selves, if they but knew. And if they had believed and guarded themselves from evil and kept their duty to Allah, far better would have been the reward from their Lord, if they but knew!

Allah stated, وَلَبِئْسَ (And how bad) meaning,

what they preferred, magic, instead of faith and following the Messenger, if they but comprehend the advice.

وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ آمَنُواْ واتَّقَوْا لَمَثُوبَةٌ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّه خَيْرٌ

And if they had believed and guarded themselves from evil and kept their duty to Allah, far better would have been the reward from their Lord,

meaning, “Had they believed in Allah and His Messenger and avoided the prohibitions, then Allah’s reward for these good deeds would have been better for them than what they chose and preferred for themselves.”

Similarly, Allah said,

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْعِلْمَ وَيْلَكُمْ ثَوَابُ اللَّهِ خَيْرٌ لِّمَنْ ءَامَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَـلِحاً وَلاَ يُلَقَّاهَآ إِلاَّ الصَّـبِرُونَ

But those who had been given (religious) knowledge said: “Woe to you! The reward of Allah (in the Hereafter) is better for those who believe and do righteous good deeds, and this none shall attain except As-Sabirun (the patient in following the truth).” (28:80)

Previous 99-103

يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَقُولُواْ رَعِنَا وَقُولُواْ انظُرْنَا وَاسْمَعُواْ

2:104 O you who believe! Say not (to the Messenger) Ra`ina but say Unzurna (make us understand) and hear.

وَلِلكَـفِرِينَ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

And for the disbelievers there is a painful torment.

مَّا يَوَدُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَـبِ وَلاَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ أَن يُنَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ

2:105 Neither those who disbelieve among the People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) nor Al-Mushrikin (the idolaters) like that there should be sent down unto you any good from your Lord.

وَاللَّهُ يَخْتَصُّ بِرَحْمَتِهِ مَن يَشَآءُ وَاللَّهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ

But Allah chooses for His mercy whom He wills. And Allah is the Owner of great bounty.

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Next 106-107

Manners in Speech

Allah says;

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَقُولُواْ رَاعِنَا وَقُولُواْ انظُرْنَا وَاسْمَعُواْ وَلِلكَافِرِينَ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ ﴿١٠٤﴾

O you who believe! Say not (to the Messenger) Ra`ina but say Unzurna (make us understand) and hear. And for the disbelievers there is a painful torment. (2:104)

Allah forbade His believing servants from imitating the behavior and deeds of the disbelievers. The Jews used to use devious words that hide what they really meant. May Allah’s curse be upon them.

When they wanted to say, hear us,’ they would use the word Raina, which is an insult (in Hebrew, but means `hear us’ in Arabic).

Allah said,

مِّنَ الَّذِينَ هَادُواْ يُحَرِّفُونَ الْكَلِمَ عَن مَّوَاضِعِهِ وَيَقُولُونَ سَمِعْنَا وَعَصَيْنَا وَاسْمَعْ غَيْرَ مُسْمَعٍ وَرَعِنَا لَيّاً بِأَلْسِنَتِهِمْ وَطَعْناً فِى الدِّينِ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ قَالُواْ سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا وَاسْمَعْ وَانْظُرْنَا لَكَانَ خَيْراً لَّهُمْ وَأَقْوَمَ وَلَكِن لَّعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَلاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً

Among those who are Jews, there are some who displace words from (their) right places and say: “We hear your word (O Muhammad) and disobey,” and “Hear and let you (O Muhammad) hear nothing.”

And Ra`ina with a twist of their tongues and as a mockery of the religion (Islam). And if only they had said: “We hear and obey,” and “Do make us understand,” it would have been better for them, and more proper; but Allah cursed them for their disbelief, so they believe not except a few. (4:46)

Also, the Hadiths stated that;

when they would greet Muslims, they would say, As-Samu alaykum,’ meaning,death be to you’. This is why we were commanded to answer them by saying, Wa alaykum,’ meaning,and to you too’, then our supplication against them shall be answered, rather than theirs against us.

Allah forbade the believers from imitating the disbelievers in tongue or deed.

Allah said,

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَقُولُواْ رَاعِنَا وَقُولُواْ انظُرْنَا وَاسْمَعُواْ وَلِلكَافِرِينَ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

O you who believe! Say not (to the Messenger) Ra`ina but say Unzurna (make us understand) and hear. And for the disbelievers there is a painful torment.

Also, Imam Ahmad narrated that Ibn Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,

بُعِثْتُ بَيْنَ يَدَيِ السَّاعَةِ بِالسَّيْفِ حَتَّى يُعْبَدَاللهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ، وَجُعِلَ رِزْقِي تَحْتَ ظِلِّ رُمْحِي، وَجُعِلَتِ الذِّلَّةُ وَالصَّغَارُ عَلَى مَنْ خَالَفَ أَمْرِي، وَمَنْ تَشَبَّهَ بِقَومٍ فَهُوَ مِنْهُم

I was sent with the sword just before the Last Hour, so that Allah is worshipped alone without partners. My sustenance was provided for me from under the shadow of my spear. Those who oppose my command were humiliated and made inferior, and whoever imitates a people, he is one of them.

Abu Dawud narrated that the Prophet said,

مَنْ تَشَبَّهَ بِقَوْمٍ فَهُوَ مِنْهُم

Whoever imitates a people is one of them.

These Hadiths indicate, along with their threats and warnings, that we are not allowed to imitate the disbelievers in their statements, deeds, clothes, feasts, acts of worship, etc., whatever actions of the disbelievers that were not legislated for us.

Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn Abbas commented on the Ayah, لاَ تَقُولُواْ رَاعِنَا (Say not (to the Messenger) Ra`ina),

“They used to say to the Prophet, Ar`ina samak (which is an insult).”

Ibn Abu Hatim said that it was reported that Abu Al-Aliyah, Abu Malik, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, Atiyah Al-Awfi and Qatadah said similarly.

Further, Mujahid said,

Do not say Raina‘ means, `Do not dispute’.”

Mujahid said in another narration,

“Do not say, `We hear from you, and you hear from us.”’

Also, Ata’said,

“Do not say, رَاعِنَا (Ra`ina), which was a dialect that the Ansar used and which was forbidden from use by Allah.”

Also, As-Suddi said,

“Rifaah bin Zayd, a Jewish man from the tribe of Qaynuqa, used to come to the Prophet and say to him, `Hear, Ghayr Musma’in (let you hear nothing).’

The Muslims used to think that the Prophets are greeted and honored with this type of speech, and this is why some of them used to say, `Hear, let you hear nothing,’ and so on, as mentioned in Surah An-Nisa.”

Thereafter, Allah forbade the believers from uttering the word Ra`ina.”

Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam also said similarly.

The extreme Enmity that the Disbelievers and the People of the Book have against Muslims

Allah said next,

مَّا يَوَدُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ وَلاَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ أَن يُنَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ …

Neither those who disbelieve among the People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) nor Al-Mushrikin (the idolaters), like that there should be sent down unto you any good from your Lord.

Allah described the deep enmity that the disbelieving polytheists and People of the Scripture, whom Allah warned against imitating, have against the believers, so that Muslims should sever all friendship with them.

Also, Allah mentioned what He granted the believers of the perfect Law that He legislated for their Prophet Muhammad.

Allah said,

… وَاللّهُ يَخْتَصُّ بِرَحْمَتِهِ مَن يَشَاء وَاللّهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ ﴿١٠٥﴾

But Allah chooses for His mercy whom He wills. And Allah is the Owner of great bounty. (2:105)

Previous 104-105

مَا نَنسَخْ مِنْ ءَايَةٍ أَوْ نُنسِهَا نَأْتِ بِخَيْرٍ مِّنْهَا أَوْ مِثْلِهَا

2:106 Whatever a verse (revelation) do Nansakh (We abrogate) or Nunsiha (cause to be forgotten), We bring a better one or similar to it.

أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

Know you not that Allah is Able to do all things

أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَمَا لَكُم مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلاَ نَصِيرٍ

2:107 Know you not that it is Allah to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth! And besides Allah you have neither any Wali (protector or guardian) nor any helper.

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The Meaning of Naskh

Ayah says;

مَا نَنسَخْ مِنْ آيَةٍ أَوْ نُنسِهَا نَأْتِ بِخَيْرٍ مِّنْهَا أَوْ مِثْلِهَا …

Whatever a verse (revelation) do Nansakh (We abrogate) or Nunsiha (cause to be forgotten), We bring a better one or similar to it.

Ibn Abi Talhah said that Ibn Abbas said that, مَا نَنسَخْ مِنْ آيَةٍ (Whatever a verse (revelation) do Nansakh) means,

“Whatever an Ayah We abrogate.”

Also, Ibn Jurayj said that Mujahid said that, مَا نَنسَخْ مِنْ آيَةٍ (Whatever a verse (revelation) do Nansakh) means,

“Whatever an Ayah We erase.”

Also, Ibn Abi Najih said that Mujahid said that, مَا نَنسَخْ مِنْ آيَةٍ (Whatever a verse (revelation) do Nansakh) means,

“We keep the words, but change the meaning.”

He related these words to the companions of Abdullah bin Mas`ud.

Ibn Abi Hatim said that similar statements were mentioned by Abu Al-Aliyah and Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi.

Also As-Suddi said that, مَا نَنسَخْ مِنْ آيَةٍ (Whatever a verse (revelation) do Nansakh) means,

“We erase it.”

Further, Ibn Abi Hatim said that it means,

“Erase and raise it, such as erasing the following wordings (from the Qur’an), The married adulterer and the married adulteress: stone them to death,’ and,If the son of Adam had two valleys of gold, he would seek a third.”’

Ibn Jarir stated that, مَا نَنسَخْ مِنْ آيَةٍ (Whatever a verse (revelation) do Nansakh) means,

“Whatever ruling we repeal in an Ayah by making the allowed unlawful and the unlawful allowed.”

The Nasakh only occurs with commandments, prohibitions, permissions, and so forth.

As for stories, they do not undergo Nasakh.

The word, Nasakh‘ literally means,to copy a book’.

The meaning of Nasakh in the case of commandments is removing the commandment and replacing it by another. And whether the Nasakh involves the wordings, the ruling or both, it is still called Nasakh.

Allah said next,

… أَوْ نُنسِهَا …

or Nunsiha (cause it to be forgotten).

Explore the profound insights of Surah Al Baqarah Ayat 106-107, reflecting on Allah’s wisdom, sovereignty, and the concept of abrogation

Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn Abbas said that, مَا نَنسَخْ مِنْ آيَةٍ أَوْ نُنسِهَا (Whatever a verse (revelation) do Nansakh or Nunsiha) means,

“Whatever Ayah We repeal or uphold without change.”

Also, Mujahid said that the companions of Ibn Mas`ud (who read this word Nansa’ha) said that it means,

“We uphold its wording and change its ruling.”

Further, Ubayd bin Umayr, Mujahid and Ata said, `Nansa’ha‘ means,

“We delay it (i.e., do not abrogate it).”

Further, Atiyah Al-Awfi said that the Ayah means,

“We delay repealing it.”

This is the same Tafsir provided by As-Suddi and Ar-Rabi bin Anas.

Abdur-Razzaq said that Ma`mar said that Qatadah said about Allah’s statement, مَا نَنسَخْ مِنْ آيَةٍ أَوْ نُنسِهَا (Whatever a verse (revelation) do We abrogate or cause to be forgotten),

“Allah made His Prophet forget what He willed and He abrogated what He will.”

Allah’s said,

… نَأْتِ بِخَيْرٍ مِّنْهَا أَوْ مِثْلِهَا …

We bring a better one or similar to it,

better, relates to the benefit provided for the one it addresses,

as reported from Ali bin Abi Talhah that Ibn Abbas said, نَأْتِ بِخَيْرٍ مِّنْهَا (We bring a better one) means,

“We bring forth a more beneficial ruling, that is also easier for you.”

Also, As-Suddi said that, نَأْتِ بِخَيْرٍ مِّنْهَا أَوْ مِثْلِهَا (We bring a better one or similar to it) means,

“We bring forth a better Ayah, or similar to that which was repealed.”

Qatadah also said that, نَأْتِ بِخَيْرٍ مِّنْهَا أَوْ مِثْلِهَا (We bring a better one or similar to it) means,

“We replace it by an Ayah more facilitating, permitting, commanding, or prohibiting.”

Naskh occurs even though the Jews deny it

Allah said,

… أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللّهَ عَلَىَ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ ﴿١٠٦﴾

أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللّهَ لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَمَا لَكُم مِّن دُونِ اللّهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلاَ نَصِيرٍ ﴿١٠٧﴾

Know you not that Allah is Able to do all things!

Know you not that it is Allah to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth! And besides Allah you have neither any Wali (protector or guardian) nor any helper.

Allah directed His servants to the fact that He alone is the Owner of His creatures and that He does with them as He wills. Indeed, His is the supreme authority and all creation is His, and just as He created them as He wills, He brings happiness to whom He wills, misery to whom He wills, health to whom He wills and ailment to whom He wills.

He also brings success to whom He wills and failure to whom He wills.

He judges between His servants as He wills, allows what He wills and disallows what He wills. He decides what He wills, there is no opponent for His judgment, and no one can question Him about what He does, while they shall be questioned.

He tests His servants and their obedience to His Messengers by the Naskh. He commands a matter containing a benefit which He knows of, and then He out of His wisdom, prohibits it. Hence, perfect obedience is realized by adhering to His commands, following His Messengers, believing in what ever they convey, implementing their commands and avoiding what they prohibit.

The statements of Allah here contain tremendous benefit, prove that the Jews are disbelievers and refute their claim that Naskh does not occur, may Allah curse the Jews. In ignorance and arrogance they claimed that the sound mind stipulates that Naskh does not occur. Some of them falsely claimed that there are divine texts that dismiss the possibility that Naskh occurred.

Imam Abu Jafar bin Jarir said,

“The Ayah means, `Do you not know, O Muhammad, that I alone own the heavens and the earth and that I decide whatever I will in them I forbid whatever I will, change and repeal whatever I will of My previous rulings, whenever I will. I also uphold whatever I will.”

Ibn Jarir then said,

“Although Allah directed His statement indicating His greatness towards His Prophet, He also rejected the lies of the Jews who denied that the rulings of the Torah could undergo Naskh.

The Jews also denied the Prophethood of Jesus and Muhammad, because of their dislike for what they brought from Allah, such as changing some rulings of the Torah, as Allah commanded. Allah thus proclaimed to the Jews that He owns the heavens and earth and also all authority in them.

Further, the subjects in Allah’s kingdom are His creation, and they are required to hear and obey His commands and prohibitions. Allah has full authority to command the creation as He wills, forbidding them from what He wills, abrogate what He wills, uphold what He wills, and decide whatever commandments and prohibitions He wills.”

I (Ibn Kathir) say that;

the Jews’ dismissal of the occurrence of the Naskh is only a case of their disbelief and rebellion. The sound mind does not deny that there could be a Naskh in Allah’s commandments, for He decides what He wills, just as He does what He wills. Further, Naskh occurred in previous Books and Law. For instance,

Allah allowed Adam to marry his daughters to his sons and then later forbade this practice.

Allah also allowed Nuh to eat from all kinds of animals after they left the ark, then prohibited eating some types of foods.

Further, marrying two sisters to one man was allowed for Israel and his children, but Allah prohibited this practice later in the Torah.

Allah commanded Abraham to slaughter his son, then repealed that command before it was implemented.

Also, Allah commanded the Children of Israel to kill those who worshipped the calf and then repealed that command, so that the Children of Israel were not all exterminated.

There are many other instances that the Jews admit have occurred, yet they ignore them.

Also, it is a well-known fact that their Books foretold about Muhammad and contained the command to follow him. These texts, in their Books, indicate that the Jews were required to follow the Prophet Muhammad and that no good deed would be accepted from them, unless it conformed to Muhammad’s Law. The Prophet brought another Book, – the Qur’an -, which is the last revelation from Allah.

Previous 106-107

أَمْ تُرِيدُونَ أَن تَسْـَلُواْ رَسُولَكُمْ كَمَا سُئِلَ مُوسَى مِن قَبْلُ وَمَن يَتَبَدَّلِ الْكُفْرَ بِالإِيمَـنِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ سَوَآءَ السَّبِيلِ

2:108 Or do you want to ask your Messenger (Muhammad) as Musa (Moses) was asked before (i.e. show us openly our Lord)! And he who changes faith for disbelief, verily, he has gone astray from the right way.

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The Prohibition of Unnecessary Questions

Allah said;

أَمْ تُرِيدُونَ أَن تَسْأَلُواْ رَسُولَكُمْ كَمَا سُئِلَ مُوسَى مِن قَبْلُ …

Or do you want to ask your Messenger (Muhammad) as Musa (Moses) was asked before (i.e. show us openly our Lord)! And he who changes faith for disbelief, verily, he has gone astray from the right way.

In this Ayah, Allah forbade the believers from asking the Prophet numerous questions about matters that did not occur yet.

Similarly, Allah said,

يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَسْأَلُواْ عَنْ أَشْيَآءَ إِن تُبْدَ لَكُمْ تَسُؤْكُمْ وَإِن تَسْأَلُواْ عَنْهَا حِينَ يُنَزَّلُ الْقُرْءَانُ تُبْدَ لَكُمْ

O you who believe! Ask not about things which, if made plain to you, may cause you trouble. But if you ask about them while the Qur’an is being revealed, they will be made plain to you. (5:101)

This Ayah means,

“If you ask about a matter after it is revealed, it shall be duly explained to you. Therefore, do not ask about matters that have not occurred yet, for they might become prohibited, due to your questions.”

This is why the Sahih narrated,

إِنَّ أَعْظَمَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ جُرْمًا مَنْ سَأَلَ عَنْ شَيْءٍ لَمْ يُحَرَّمْ، فَحُرِّمَ مِنْ أَجْلِ مَسْأَلَتِه

The greatest criminal among the Muslims is the one who asks if a thing is prohibited, which is not prohibited, and it becomes prohibited because of his asking about it.

This is why when the Messenger of Allah was asked about a husband who finds another man with his wife; if he exposes the adultery, he will be exposing a major incident; if he is quiet about it, he will be quiet about a major matter. The Messenger of Allah did not like such questions. Later on, Allah revealed the ruling of Mula`anah (Refer to 24:6-9 in the Qur’an).

The Two Sahihs recorded that Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah said that;

the Messenger of Allah “Forbade saying, It was said’ andHe said,’ and wasting money and asking many questions.”

Muslim recorded that the Prophet said,

ذَرُونِي مَا تَرَكْتُكُمْ، فَإِنَّمَا هَلَكَ مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَكُمْ بِكَثْرَةِ سُؤَالِهِمْ وَاخْتِلَافِهِمْ عَلى أَنْبِيَائِهِمْ، فَإِذَا أَمَرْتُكُمْ بِأَمْرٍ فَأْتُوا مِنْهُ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُمْ وَإِنْ نَهَيْتُكُمْ عَنْ شَيْءٍ فَاجْتَنِبُوه

Leave me as I leave you; those before you were only destroyed because of their excessive questioning and disputing with their Prophets. Therefore, when I command you with a matter, adhere to it as much as you can, and when I forbid from something, avoid it.

The Prophet only said this after he told the Companions that Allah has ordered them to perform Hajj. A man asked, “Every year, O Messenger of Allah?”

The Prophet did not answer him, but he repeated his question three times.

Then the Prophet said,

لَا، وَلَوْ قُلْتُ: نَعَمْ، لَوَجَبَتْ وَلَوْ وَجَبَتْ لَمَا اسْتَطَعْتُم

No. Had I said yes, it would have been ordained, and you would not have been able to implement it.

This is why Anas bin Malik said,

“We were forbidden from asking the Messenger of Allah about things. So we were delighted when a Bedouin man would come and ask him while we listened.”

Muhammad bin Ishaq said that Muhammad bin Abi Muhammad told him that Ikrimah or Sa`id said that Ibn Abbas said that Rafi bin Huraymilah or Wahb bin Zayd said,

“O Muhammad! Bring us a Book sent down from heaven and which we could read, and make some rivers flow for us, then we will follow you and believe in you.” Allah sent down the answer to this challenge,

أَمْ تُرِيدُونَ أَن تَسْأَلُواْ رَسُولَكُمْ كَمَا سُئِلَ مُوسَى مِن قَبْلُ وَمَن يَتَبَدَّلِ الْكُفْرَ بِالإِيمَانِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ سَوَاء السَّبِيلِ

Or do you want to ask your Messenger (Muhammad) as Musa was asked before (i.e. show us openly our Lord)! And he who changes faith for disbelief, verily, he has gone astray from the right way.

Allah criticized those who ask the Messenger of Allah about a certain matter just for the purpose of being difficult, just as the Children of Israel asked Musa out of stubbornness, rejection and rebellion.

Allah said,

… وَمَن يَتَبَدَّلِ الْكُفْرَ بِالإِيمَانِ …

And he who changes faith for disbelief,

meaning, whoever prefers disbelief to faith.

… فَقَدْ ضَلَّ سَوَاء السَّبِيلِ ﴿١٠٨﴾

verily, he has gone astray from the right way.

meaning, he has strayed from the straight path, to the path of ignorance and misguidance.

This is the case of those who deviated from accepting the Prophets and obeying them and those who kept asking their Prophets unnecessary questions in defiance and disbelief, just as Allah said,

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ بَدَّلُواْ نِعْمَتَ اللَّهِ كُفْرًا وَأَحَلُّواْ قَوْمَهُمْ دَارَ الْبَوَارِ – جَهَنَّمَ يَصْلَوْنَهَا وَبِئْسَ الْقَرَارُ

Have you not seen those who have changed the blessings of Allah into disbelief (by denying Prophet Muhammad and his Message of Islam), and caused their people to dwell in the house of destruction Hell, in which they will burn and what an evil place to settle in! (14:28-29)

Abu Al-Aliyah commented,

“They exchanged comfort for hardship.”

Previous 108

وَدَّ كَثِيرٌ مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَـبِ لَوْ يَرُدُّونَكُم مِن بَعْدِ إِيمَـنِكُمْ كُفَّارًا حَسَدًا مِّنْ عِنْدِ أَنْفُسِهِمْ مِّن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الْحَقُّ

2:109 Many of the People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) wish that they could turn you away as disbelievers after you have believed, out of envy from their own selves, even after the truth (that Muhammad is Allah’s Messenger) has become manifest unto them.

فَاعْفُواْ وَاصْفَحُواْ حَتَّى يَأْتِىَ اللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

But forgive and overlook, till Allah brings His command. Verily, Allah is able to do all things.

وَأَقِيمُواْ الصَّلَوةَ وَءَاتُواْ الزَّكَوةَ وَمَا تُقَدِّمُواْ لأَنْفُسِكُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ تَجِدُوهُ عِندَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ

2:110 And perform the Salah and give the Zakah, and whatever of good you send forth for yourselves before you, you shall find it with Allah. Certainly, Allah is the Seer of what you do.

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Next 111-113

The Prohibition of following the Ways of the People of the Book

Allah says;

وَدَّ كَثِيرٌ مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ لَوْ يَرُدُّونَكُم مِّن بَعْدِ إِيمَانِكُمْ …

Many of the People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) wish that they could turn you away as disbelievers after you have believed,

Allah warned His believing servants against following the ways of the People of Book, who publicly and secretly harbor enmity and hatred for the believers, and who envy the believers, while they recognize the virtue of the believers and their Prophet.

Allah also commanded His believing servants to forgive them and to be patient with them, until Allah delivers His aid and victory to them. Allah commanded the believers to perform the prayer perfectly, to pay the Zakah and He encouraged them to preserve the practice of these righteous deeds.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abdullah bin Ka`b bin Malik said that;

Ka`b bin Al-Ashraf, who was a Jew and a poet, used to criticize the Prophet in his poems, so Allah revealed, وَدَّ كَثِيرٌ مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ لَوْ يَرُدُّونَكُم (Many of the People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) wish that they could turn you away..) regarding his matter.

Also, Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn Abbas said,

“An unlettered Messenger came to the People of the Scriptures confirming what they have in their own Books about the Messengers and the Ayat of Allah. He also believes in all of this, just as they believe in it. Yet, they rejected the Prophet out of disbelief, envy and transgression. This is why Allah said,

… كُفَّاراً حَسَدًا مِّنْ عِندِ أَنفُسِهِم مِّن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الْحَقُّ …

out of envy from their own selves, even after the truth (that Muhammad is Allah’s Messenger) has become manifest unto them.

Allah said that after He illuminated the truth for them, such that they were not ignorant of any of it, yet their envy made them deny the Prophet. Thus Allah criticized, chastised and denounced them.”

Allah legislated the characteristics that His Prophet and the believers should adhere to: belief, faith and accepting what Allah revealed to them and to those before them out of His generosity and tremendous kindness.

Ar-Rabi bin Anas said that, مِّنْ عِندِ أَنفُسِهِم (from their own selves) means,

“of their making.”

Also, Abu Al-Aliyah said that, مِّن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الْحَقُّ (even after the truth (that Muhammad is Allah’s Messenger) has become manifest unto them) means,

“After it became clear that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah whom they find written of in the Torah and the Injil. They denied him in disbelief and transgression because he was not one of them.”

Qatadah and Ar-Rabi bin Anas said similarly.

Allah said,

… فَاعْفُواْ وَاصْفَحُواْ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَ اللّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ …

But forgive and overlook, till Allah brings His command.

this is similar to His saying;

وَلَتَسْمَعُنَّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَـبَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ وَمِنَ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُواْ أَذًى كَثِيراً

And you shall certainly hear much that will grieve you from those who received the Scripture before you (Jews and Christians) and from those who ascribe partners to Allah. (3: 186)

Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn Abbas said that,

“Allah’s statement, فَاعْفُواْ وَاصْفَحُواْ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَ اللّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ (But forgive and overlook, till Allah brings His command.) was abrogated by the Ayah, فَاقْتُلُواْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَيْثُ وَجَدتُّمُوهُمْ (Then kill the Mushrikin wherever you find them), (9:5),

and,

قَاتِلُواْ الَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَلاَ بِالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ

Fight against those who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day) (9:29) until, وَهُمْ صَاغِرُونَ (And feel themselves subdued), (9:29).

Allah’s pardon for the disbelievers was repealed.”

Abu Al-Aliyah, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, Qatadah and As-Suddi said similarly:

It was abrogated by the Ayah of the sword,” (Mentioned above). The Ayah, حَتَّى يَأْتِيَ اللّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ (till Allah brings His command.) gives further support for this view.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded Usamah bin Zayd saying that;

the Messenger of Allah and his Companions used to forgive the disbelievers and the People of the Book, just as Allah commanded in His statement,

… فَاعْفُواْ وَاصْفَحُواْ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَ اللّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ إِنَّ اللّهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ ﴿١٠٩﴾

But forgive and overlook, till Allah brings His command. Verily, Allah is able to do all things.

The Messenger of Allah used to forgive them and was patient with them as Allah ordered him, until Allah allowed fighting them. Then Allah destroyed those who He decreed to be killed among the strong men of Quraysh, by the Prophet’s forces.

The chain of narration for this text is Sahih, but I did not see its wordings in the six collections of Hadith, although the basis of it is in the Two Sahihs, narrated from Usamah bin Zayd.

The Encouragement to perform Good Deeds

Allah said,

وَأَقِيمُواْ الصَّلاَةَ وَآتُواْ الزَّكَاةَ وَمَا تُقَدِّمُواْ لأَنفُسِكُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ تَجِدُوهُ عِندَ اللّهِ …

And perform the Salah and give the Zakah, and whatever of good you send forth for yourselves before you, you shall find it with Allah.

Allah encouraged the believers to busy themselves in performing deeds that would bring them benefit and reward on the Day of Resurrection, such as prayer and paying Zakah. This way, they will gain Allah’s aid in this life and on a Day when the witnesses testify,

يَوْمَ لاَ يَنفَعُ الظَّـلِمِينَ مَعْذِرَتُهُمْ وَلَهُمُ الْلَّعْنَةُ وَلَهُمْ سُوءُ الدَّارِ

The Day when their excuses will be of no profit to the Zalimin (wrongdoers). Theirs will be the curse, and theirs will be the evil abode (i.e. painful torment in Hell-fire). (40:52)

This is why Allah said,

… إِنَّ اللّهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ ﴿١١٠﴾

Certainly, Allah sees what you do.

meaning, that He is never unaware of the deeds of any person, nor will these deeds be lost by Him. Whether deeds are righteous or evil, Allah will award each according to what he or she deserves based on their deeds.

Previous 109-110

وَقَالُواْ لَن يَدْخُلَ الْجَنَّةَ إِلاَّ مَن كَانَ هُودًا أَوْ نَصَـرَى تِلْكَ أَمَانِيُّهُمْ

2:111 And they say, “None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian.” These are their own desires.

قُلْ هَاتُواْ بُرْهَـنَكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ

Say (O Muhammad ), “Produce your Burhan if you are truthful.”

بَلَى مَنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلَّهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ فَلَهُ أَجْرُهُ عِندَ رَبِّهِ وَلاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

2:112 Yes! But whoever submits his face (himself) to Allah (i.e. follows Allah’s religion of Islamic Monotheism) and he is a Muhsin then his reward is with his Lord (Allah), on such shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.

وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ لَيْسَتِ النَّصَـرَى عَلَى شَىْءٍ وَقَالَتِ النَّصَـرَى لَيْسَتِ الْيَهُودُ عَلَى شَىْءٍ وَهُمْ يَتْلُونَ الْكِتَـبَ

2:113 The Jews said that the Christians follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); and the Christians said that the Jews follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); though they both recite the Scripture.

كَذَلِكَ قَالَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ مِثْلَ قَوْلِهِمْ

Like unto their word, said those (the pagans) who know not.

فَاللَّهُ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ فِيمَا كَانُواْ فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ

Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection about that wherein they have been differing.

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Next 114

The Hopes of the People of the Book

Allah tells;

وَقَالُواْ لَن يَدْخُلَ الْجَنَّةَ إِلاَّ مَن كَانَ هُوداً أَوْ نَصَارَى تِلْكَ أَمَانِيُّهُمْ …

And they say, “None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian.” These are their own desires.

Allah made the confusion of the Jews and the Christians clear, since they claim that no one will enter Paradise, unless he is a Jew or a Christian.

Similarly, Allah mentioned their claims in Surah Al-Ma’idah:

نَحْنُ أَبْنَاءُ اللَّهِ وَأَحِبَّاؤُهُ

We are the children of Allah and His loved ones. (5:18)

Allah refuted this false claim and informed them that they will be punished because of their sins.

Previously we mentioned their claim that the Fire would not touch them for more than a few days, after which they would be put in Paradise. Allah rebuked this claim, and He said about this baseless claim, تِلْكَ أَمَانِيُّهُمْ (These are their own desires).

Abu Al-Aliyah commented,

“These are wishes that they wished Allah would answer, without basis.”

Similar was stated by Qatadah and Ar-Rabi bin Anas.

Allah then said,

… قُلْ …

Say,

meaning, “Say O Muhammad:”

… هَاتُواْ بُرْهَانَكُمْ …

“Produce your Burhan…”

Abu Al-Aliyah, Mujahid, As-Suddi and Ar-Rabi bin Anas stated,

meaning, “Your proof.”

Qatadah said that the Ayah means,

“Bring the evidence that supports your statement.

… إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ ﴿١١١﴾

if you are truthful, (in your claim).”

Allah then said,

بَلَى مَنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلّهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ …

Yes! But whoever submits his face (himself) to Allah (i.e. follows Allah’s religion of Islamic Monotheism) and he is a Muhsin.

meaning, “Whoever performs deeds in sincerity, for Allah alone without partners.”

In a similar statement, Allah said,

فَإنْ حَآجُّوكَ فَقُلْ أَسْلَمْتُ وَجْهِىَ للَّهِ وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَنِ

So if they dispute with you (Muhammad) say: “I have submitted myself to Allah (in Islam), and (so have) those who follow me.” (3:20)

Abu Al-Aliyah and Ar-Rabi said that, بَلَى مَنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلّهِ (Yes! But whoever submits his face (himself) to Allah) means,

“Whoever is sincere with Allah.”

Also, Sa`id bin Jubayr said that,

بَلَى مَنْ أَسْلَمَ (Yes! But whoever submits) means, he is sincere.

وَجْهَهُ (his face (himself)) meaning, in his religion.

وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ (and he is a Muhsin) following the Messenger.

For there are two conditions for deeds to be accepted;

the deed must be performed for Allah’s sake alone and

conform to the Shariah.

When the deed is sincere, but does not conform to the Shariah, then it will not be accepted.

The Messenger of Allah said,

مَنْ عَمِلَ عَمَلًا لَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ أَمْرُنَا فَهُوَ رَد

Whoever performs a deed that does not conform with our matter (religion), then it will be rejected.

This Hadith was recorded by Muslim.

Therefore, the good deeds of the priests and rabbis will not be accepted, even if they are sincerely for Allah alone, because these deeds do not conform with the method of the Messenger, who was sent for all mankind.

Allah said regarding such cases,

وَقَدِمْنَآ إِلَى مَا عَمِلُواْ مِنْ عَمَلٍ فَجَعَلْنَاهُ هَبَآءً مَّنثُوراً

And We shall turn to whatever deeds they (disbelievers, polytheists, sinners) did, and We shall make such deeds as scattered floating particles of dust. (25:23)

وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ أَعْمَـلُهُمْ كَسَرَابٍ بِقِيعَةٍ يَحْسَبُهُ الظَّمْآنُ مَآءً حَتَّى إِذَا جَآءَهُ لَمْ يَجِدْهُ شَيْئاً

As for those who disbelieved, their deeds are like a mirage in a desert. The thirsty one thinks it to be water, until he comes up to it, he finds it to be nothing. (24:39)

and,

وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ خَـشِعَةٌ

عَامِلَةٌ نَّاصِبَةٌ

تَصْلَى نَاراً حَامِيَةً

تُسْقَى مِنْ عَيْنٍ ءَانِيَةٍ

Some faces, that Day will be humiliated. Laboring, weary. They will enter in the hot blazing Fire. They will be given to drink from a boiling spring. (88:2-5)

When the deed conforms to the Shariah outwardly, but the person did not perform it sincerely for Allah alone, the deed will also be rejected, as in the case of the hypocrites and those who do their deeds to show off.

Similarly, Allah said,

إِنَّ الْمُنَـفِقِينَ يُخَـدِعُونَ اللَّهَ وَهُوَ خَادِعُهُمْ وَإِذَا قَامُواْ إِلَى الصَّلَوةِ قَامُواْ كُسَالَى يُرَآءُونَ النَّاسَ وَلاَ يَذْكُرُونَ اللَّهَ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً

Verily, the hypocrites seek to deceive Allah, but it is He Who deceives them. And when they stand up for As-Salah (the prayer), they stand with laziness to be seen by people, and they do not remember Allah but little. (4:142)

and,

َوَيْلٌ لِّلْمُصَلِّينَ

الَّذِينَ هُمْ عَن صَلَـتِهِمْ سَاهُونَ

الَّذِينَ هُمْ يُرَآءُونَ

وَيَمْنَعُونَ الْمَاعُونَ

So woe unto those performers of Salah (prayers) (hypocrites). Those who delay their Salah (from their stated fixed times). Those who do good deeds only to be seen (of men). And withhold Al-Ma`un (small kindnesses). (107:4-7)

This is why Allah said,

فَمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو لِقَآءَ رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلاً صَـلِحاً وَلاَ يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ أَحَدَا

So whoever hopes for the meeting with his Lord, let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord. (18:110)

He also said in this Ayah,

بَلَى مَنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلّهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ …

Yes, but whoever submits his face (himself) to Allah (follows Allah’s religion of Islamic Monotheism) and he is a Muhsin.

Allah’s statement,

… فَلَهُ أَجْرُهُ عِندَ رَبِّهِ وَلاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ ﴿١١٢﴾

Shall have their reward with their Lord, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve,

guaranteed them the rewards and safety from what they fear and should avoid.

وَلاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ (There shall be no fear on them) in the future,

وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ (nor shall they grieve) about what they abandoned in the past.

Moreover, Sa`id bin Jubayr said,

وَلاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ ” (There shall be no fear on them) in the Hereafter, and وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ (nor shall they grieve) about their imminent death.”

The Jews and Christians dispute among Themselves out of Disbelief and Stubbornness

Allah said,

وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ لَيْسَتِ النَّصَارَى عَلَىَ شَيْءٍ وَقَالَتِ النَّصَارَى لَيْسَتِ الْيَهُودُ عَلَى شَيْءٍ وَهُمْ يَتْلُونَ الْكِتَابَ …

The Jews said that the Christians follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); and the Christians said that the Jews follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); though they both recite the Scripture.

Allah explained the disputes, hatred and stubbornness that the People of the Book have towards each other.

Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn Abbas said,

“When a delegation of Christians from Najran came to the Messenger of Allah, the Jewish rabbis came and began arguing with them before the Messenger of Allah. Rafi bin Huraymilah said, You do not follow anything,’ and he reiterated his disbelief in Jesus and the Injil. Then a Christian man from Najran’s delegation said to the Jews,Rather, you do not follow anything,’ and he reiterated his rejection of Musa’s Prophethood and his disbelief in the Torah. So Allah revealed the Ayah,

وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ لَيْسَتِ النَّصَارَى عَلَىَ شَيْءٍ وَقَالَتِ النَّصَارَى لَيْسَتِ الْيَهُودُ عَلَى شَيْءٍ وَهُمْ يَتْلُونَ الْكِتَابَ…

The Jews said that the Christians follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); and the Christians said that the Jews follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); though they both recite the Scripture.”

Allah made it clear that each party read the affirmation of what they claimed to reject in their Book. Consequently, the Jews disbelieve in Jesus, even though they have the Torah in which Allah took their Covenant by the tongue of Moses to believe in Jesus.

Also, the Gospel contains Jesus’ assertion that Moses’ Prophethood and the Torah came from Allah. Yet, each party disbelieved in what the other party had.

Allah said,

… كَذَلِكَ قَالَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ مِثْلَ قَوْلِهِمْ …

Like unto their word, said those who know not,

thus exposing the ignorance displayed by the Jews and the Christians concerning their statements that we mentioned.

There is a difference of opinion regarding the meaning of Allah’s statement, الَّذِينَ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ (who know not),

For instance, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and Qatadah said that, كَذَلِكَ قَالَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ (Like unto their word, said those said those who know not) means,

“The Christians said similar statements to the Jews.”

Ibn Jurayj asked Ata “Who are those `who know not?”’

Ata said, “Nations that existed before the Jews and the Christians and before the Torah and the Gospel.”

Also, As-Suddi said that,

قَالَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ (said those who know not) is in reference to the Arabs who said that Muhammad was not following anything (i. e. did not follow a true or existing religion).

Abu Jafar bin Jarir chose the view that;

this Ayah is general and that there is no evidence that specifically supports any of these explanations. So interpreting the Ayah in a general way is better.

Allah knows best.

Allah said,

… فَاللّهُ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فِيمَا كَانُواْ فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ ﴿١١٣﴾

Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection about that wherein they have been differing.

meaning, that Allah will gather them all on the Day of Return. On that Day, Allah will justly judge between them, for He is never unjust with anyone, even as little as the weight of an atom.

This Ayah is similar to Allah’s statement in Surah Al-Hajj ,

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَالَّذِينَ هَادُواْ وَالصَّـبِئِينَ وَالنَّصَـرَى وَالْمَجُوسَ وَالَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُواْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَفْصِلُ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيـمَةِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ شَهِيدٌ

Verily, those who believe (in Allah and in His Messenger Muhammad), and those who are Jews, and the Sabians, and the Christians, and the Majus, and those who associate partners with Allah; truly, Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection. Verily, Allah is over all things a Witness. (22:17)

Allah said,

قُلْ يَجْمَعُ بَيْنَنَا رَبُّنَا ثُمَّ يَفْتَحُ بَيْنَنَا بِالْحَقِّ وَهُوَ الْفَتَّاحُ الْعَلِيمُ

Say: “Our Lord will assemble us all together (on the Day of Resurrection), then He will judge between us with truth. And He is the Just Judge, the Knower of the true state of affairs.” (34:26)

Previous 111-113

وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّن مَّنَعَ مَسَـجِدَ اللَّهِ أَن يُذْكَرَ فِيهَا اسْمُهُ وَسَعَى فِى خَرَابِهَآ

2:114 And who are more unjust than those who forbid that Allah’s Name be mentioned (i.e. prayers and invocations) in Allah’s Masjids and strive for their ruin!

أُوْلَـئِكَ مَا كَانَ لَهُمْ أَن يَدْخُلُوهَآ إِلاَّ خَآئِفِينَ

It was not fitting that such should themselves enter them (Allah’s Masjids) except in fear.

لَهُمْ فِى الدُّنْيَا خِزْىٌ وَلَهُمْ فِى الاٌّخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

For them there is disgrace in this world, and they will have a great torment in the Hereafter.

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Next 115

Of the Most Unjust are Those Who prevent People from the Masjids and strive for their Ruin

The Quraysh idolators are those who hindered the people from the Masjids of Allah and wanted to destroy them.

So Allah said;

وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّن مَّنَعَ مَسَاجِدَ اللّهِ أَن يُذْكَرَ فِيهَا اسْمُهُ وَسَعَى فِي خَرَابِهَا …

And who are more unjust than those who forbid that Allah’s Name be mentioned (i.e. prayers and invocations) in Allah’s Masjids and strive for their ruin,

Ibn Jarir reported that Ibn Zayd said that;

Allah’s statement, is about the Quraysh idolators who prevented the Prophet from entering Makkah from Al-Hudaybiyyah, until he slaughtered the Hadi (animal for sacrifice) at Dhi-Tuwa. He then agreed to a peace treaty with the idolators and said to them, (No one before has ever prevented people from entering the House. One would even see the killer of his father and brother, but would not prevent him (from entering the House of Allah). They said, “Whoever killed our fathers at Badr, shall never enter it while there is one of us alive.”

Allah’s statement, وَسَعَى فِي خَرَابِهَا (and strive for their ruin) means,

those who prevent whoever maintain the Masjids with Allah’s remembrance and who visit Allah’s House to perform Hajj and Umrah.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn Abbas said that;

the Quraysh prevented the Prophet from praying at the Ka`bah in Al-Masjid Al-Haram, so Allah revealed, وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّن مَّنَعَ مَسَاجِدَ اللّهِ أَن يُذْكَرَ فِيهَا اسْمُهُ (And who are more unjust than those who forbid that Allah’s Name be mentioned (i.e. prayers and invocations) in Allah’s Masjids).”

After Allah chastised the Jews and Christians, He also criticized the idolators who expelled the Messenger of Allah and his Companions from Makkah, preventing them from praying in Al-Masjid Al-Haram, which they kept exclusively for their idols and polytheism.

Allah said,

وَمَا لَهُمْ أَلاَّ يُعَذِّبَهُمُ اللَّهُ وَهُمْ يَصُدُّونَ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَمَا كَانُواْ أَوْلِيَآءَهُ إِنْ أَوْلِيَآؤُهُ إِلاَّ الْمُتَّقُونَ وَلَـكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ

And why should not Allah punish them while they hinder (men) from Al-Masjid Al-Haram, and they are not its guardians! None can be its guardians except Al-Muttaqun (the pious), but most of them know not. (8:34)

مَا كَانَ لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ أَن يَعْمُرُواْ مَسَاجِدَ الله شَـهِدِينَ عَلَى أَنفُسِهِم بِالْكُفْرِ أُوْلَـئِكَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَـلُهُمْ وَفِى النَّارِ هُمْ خَـلِدُونَ

إِنَّمَا يَعْمُرُ مَسَـجِدَ اللَّهِ مَنْ ءَامَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ وَأَقَامَ الصَّلَوةَ وَءاتَى الزَّكَوةَ وَلَمْ يَخْشَ إِلاَّ اللَّهَ فَعَسَى أُوْلَـئِكَ أَن يَكُونُواْ مِنَ الْمُهْتَدِينَ

It is not for the Mushrikin (polytheists), to maintain the Masjids of Allah while they witness against their own selves of disbelief. The works of such are in vain and in Fire shall they abide.

The Masjids of Allah shall be maintained only by those who believe in Allah and the Last Day; perform the Salah, and give the Zakah and fear none but Allah. It is they who are on true guidance. (9:17-18)

and,

هُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَصَدُّوكُمْ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْهَدْىَ مَعْكُوفاً أَن يَبْلُغَ مَحِلَّهُ وَلَوْلاَ رِجَالٌ مُّؤْمِنُونَ وَنِسَآءٌ مُّؤْمِنَـتٌ لَّمْ تَعْلَمُوهُمْ أَن تَطَئُوهُمْ فَتُصِيبَكمْ مِّنْهُمْ مَّعَرَّةٌ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ لِّيُدْخِلَ اللَّهُ فِى رَحْمَتِهِ مَن يَشَآءُ لَوْ تَزَيَّلُواْ لَعَذَّبْنَا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنْهُمْ عَذَاباً أَلِيماً

They are the ones who disbelieved and hindered you from Al-Masjid-Al-Haram (at Makkah) and detained the sacrificial animals, from reaching their place of sacrifice. Had there not been believing men and believing women whom you did not know, that you may kill them and on whose account a sin would have been committed by you without (your) knowledge, that Allah might bring into His mercy whom He wills ـ if they (the believers and the disbelievers) had been apart, We verily, would have punished those of them who disbelieved with painful torment. (48:25)

Therefore, Allah said here,

إِنَّمَا يَعْمُرُ مَسَـجِدَ اللَّهِ مَنْ ءَامَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ وَأَقَامَ الصَّلَوةَ وَءاتَى الزَّكَوةَ وَلَمْ يَخْشَ إِلاَّ اللَّهَ

The Masjids of Allah shall be maintained only by those who believe in Allah and the Last Day; perform the Salah, and give the Zakah and fear none but Allah. (9:18)

Therefore, if those believers who follow the virtues mentioned in the Ayah were prevented from attending the Masjid, then what cause for destruction is worse than this Maintaining the Masjids not only means beautifying them, but it involves remembering Allah, establishing His Shariah in the Masjids and purifying them from the filth of Shirk.

The Good News that Islam shall prevail

Allah said next,

… أُوْلَـئِكَ مَا كَانَ لَهُمْ أَن يَدْخُلُوهَا إِلاَّ خَآئِفِينَ …

It was not fitting that such should themselves enter them (Allah’s Masjids) except in fear.

This Ayah means, “Do not allow them – the disbelievers – to enter the Masjids, except to satisfy the terms of an armistice or a treaty.”

When the Messenger of Allah conquered Makkah in 9 H, he commanded that someone announce at Mina,

“After the current year, no idolators shall perform Hajj, and no naked persons shall perform Tawaf around the House, except for those who have a treaty. In this case, the treaty will be carried to the end of its term.”

This Ayah supports the Ayah,

يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ إِنَّمَا الْمُشْرِكُونَ نَجَسٌ فَلاَ يَقْرَبُواْ الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ بَعْدَ عَامِهِمْ هَـذَا

O you who believe! (in Allah’s Oneness and in His Messenger Muhammad)! Verily, the Mushrikun (idolators) are Najasun (impure). So let them not come near Al-Masjid-Al-Haram (at Makkah) after this year. (9:28)

It was also said that;

this Ayah (2:114) carries the good news for the Muslims from Allah that He will allow them to take over Al-Masjid Al-Haram and all the Masjids and disgrace the idolators. Soon after, the Ayah indicated, no idolator shall enter the House, except out of fear of being seized or killed, unless he embraces Islam. Allah fulfilled this promise and later decreed that idolators not be allowed to enter Al-Masjid Al-Haram.

The Messenger of Allah stated that no two religions should remain in the Arabian Peninsula, and the Jews and Christians should be expelled from it, all praise is due to Allah.

All of these rulings ensure maintaining the honor of Al-Masjid Al-Haram and purifying the area where Allah sent His Messenger to warn and bring good news to all of mankind, may Allah’s peace and blessings be on him.

This Ayah also described the disgrace that the disbelievers earn in this life, and that the punishment comes in a form comparable to the deed. Just as they prevented the believers from entering Al-Masjid Al-Haram, they were prevented from entering it in turn. Just as they expelled the believers from Makkah, they were in turn expelled from Makkah,

…. لهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا خِزْيٌ …

For them there is disgrace in this world,

… وَلَهُمْ فِي الآخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ ﴿١١٤﴾

and they will have a great torment in the Hereafter.

because they breached the sanctity of the House and brought filth to it by erecting idols all around it, invoking other than Allah and performing Tawaf around it while naked, etc.

Here it is worth mentioning the Hadith about seeking refuge from disgrace in this life and the torment of the Hereafter.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Busr bin Artah said that the Messenger of Allah used to supplicate,

اللَّهُمَّ أَحْسِنْ عَاقِبَتَنَا فِي الْأُمُورِ كُلِّهَا وَأَجِرْنَا مِنْ خِزْيِ الدُّنْيَا وَعَذَابِ الْآخِرَة

O Allah! Make our end better in all affairs, and save us from disgrace in this life and the torment of the Hereafter.

This Hadith is Hasan.

Previous 114

وَلِلَّهِ الْمَشْرِقُ وَالْمَغْرِبُ فَأَيْنَمَا تُوَلُّواْ فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ

2:115 And to Allah belong the east and the west, so wherever you turn (yourselves or your faces) there is the Face of Allah (and He is High above, over His Throne). Surely, Allah is Sufficient (for His creatures’ needs), Knowing.

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Next 116-117

Facing the Qiblah (Direction of the Prayer)

Allah said,

وَلِلّهِ الْمَشْرِقُ وَالْمَغْرِبُ فَأَيْنَمَا تُوَلُّواْ فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللّهِ …

And to Allah belong the east and the west, so wherever you turn (yourselves or your faces) there is the Face of Allah (and He is High above, over His Throne). Surely, Allah is Sufficient (for His creatures’ needs), Knowing.

This ruling brought comfort to the Messenger of Allah and his Companions, who were driven out of Makkah and had to depart from the area of Al-Masjid Al-Haram.

In Makkah, the Messenger of Allah used to pray in the direction of Bayt Al-Maqdis, while the Kabah was between him and the Qiblah. When the Messenger migrated to Al-Madinah, he faced Bayt Al-Maqdis for sixteen or seventeen months, and then Allah directed him to face Al-Kabah in prayer. This is why Allah said, وَلِلّهِ الْمَشْرِقُ وَالْمَغْرِبُ فَأَيْنَمَا تُوَلُّواْ فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللّهِ (And to Allah belong the east and the west, so wherever you turn (yourselves or your faces) there is the Face of Allah (and He is High above, over His Throne)).

Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn Abbas said,

“The first part of the Qur’an that was abrogated was about the Qiblah.

When the Messenger of Allah migrated to Al-Madinah, which was inhabited by the Jews, he was at first commanded to face Bayt Al-Maqdis. The Jews were happy, and the Messenger of Allah faced Bayt Al-Maqdis for some ten months. However, the Messenger of Allah liked to face the Qiblah of Ibrahim (Al-Ka`bah at Makkah), and he used to look to the sky and supplicate. So Allah revealed, قَدْ نَرَى تَقَلُّبَ وَجْهِكَ فِي السَّمَاء (Verily, We have seen the turning of your (Muhammad’s) face towards the heaven) until, فَوَلُّواْ وُجُوِهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ (turn your faces (in prayer) in that direction), (2:144).

The Jews were disturbed by this development and said, `What made them change the direction of the Qiblah that they used to face’ Allah revealed, قُل لِّلّهِ الْمَشْرِقُ وَالْمَغْرِبُ (Say (O Muhammad): “To Allah belong both, east and the west”), (2:142) and, فَأَيْنَمَا تُوَلُّواْ فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللّهِ (So wherever you turn (yourselves or your faces) there is the Face of Allah (and He is High above, over His Throne)).”

Ikrimah said that Ibn Abbas said, فَأَيْنَمَا تُوَلُّواْ فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللّهِ (So wherever you turn (yourselves or your faces) there is the Face of Allah (and He is High above, over His Throne)) means,

“Allah’s direction is wherever you face, east or west.”

Mujahid said that, فَأَيْنَمَا تُوَلُّواْ فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللّهِ (So wherever you turn (yourselves or your faces) there is the Face of Allah (and He is High above, over His Throne)) means,

“Wherever you may be, you have a Qiblah to face, that is, Al-Ka`bah.”

However, it was said that;

Allah sent down this Ayah before the order to face the Ka`bah.

Ibn Jarir said,

“Others said that this Ayah was revealed to the Messenger of Allah permitting the one praying voluntary prayers to face wherever they wish in the east or west, while traveling, when in fear and when facing the enemy.”

For instance,

Ibn Umar used to face whatever direction his animal was headed and proclaim that the Messenger of Allah did the same, explaining the Ayah, فَأَيْنَمَا تُوَلُّواْ فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللّهِ (So wherever you turn (yourselves or your faces) there is the Face of Allah).”

That Hadith was also collected by Muslim, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i, Ibn Abi Hatim, Ibn Marduwyah, and its origin is in the Two Sahihs from Ibn Umar and Amr bin Rabi`ah without mentioning the Ayah.

In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari recorded that Nafi said that;

whenever Ibn Umar was asked about the prayer during times of fear, he used to describe it and would then say, “When the sense of fear is worse than that, pray while standing, or while riding, whether facing the Qiblah or not.”

Nafi then said, “I think Ibn Umar mentioned that from the Prophet.”

It was also said that;

the Ayah was revealed about those who are unable to find the correct direction of the Qiblah in the dark or due to cloudy skies and, thus, prayed in a direction other than the Qiblah by mistake.

The Qiblah for the People of Al-Madinah is what is between the East and the West

In his Tafsir of this Ayah (2:115), Al-Hafiz Ibn Marduwyah recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

مَا بَيْنَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ قِبْلَةٌ لِأَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ وَأَهْلِ الشَّامِ وَأَهْلِ الْعِرَاق

What is between the east and the west is the Qiblah for the people of Al-Madinah, Ash-Sham and Iraq.

At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah recorded this Hadith with the wording,

مَا بَيْنَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ قِبْلَة

What is between the east and the west is a Qiblah.

Allah’s statement

… إِنَّ اللّهَ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ ﴿١١٥﴾

Surely, Allah is Sufficient (for His creatures’ needs), Knowing.

Ibn Jarir said,

“The meaning of Allah’s statement is that Allah encompasses all His Creation by providing them with sufficient needs and by His generosity and favor.

His statement, عَلِيمٌ (Knowing) means, He is knowledgeable of their deeds and nothing escapes His watch, nor is He unaware of anything. Rather, His knowledge encompasses everything.”

Previous 115

وَقَالُواْ اتَّخَذَ اللَّهُ وَلَدًا

2:116 And they (Jews, Christians and pagans) say: Allah has begotten a son (children or offspring).

سُبْحَـنَهُ

Glory is to Him (Exalted is He above all that they associate with Him).

بَل لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ كُلٌّ لَّهُ قَـنِتُونَ

Nay, to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth, and all are Qanitun to Him.

بَدِيعُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَإِذَا قَضَى أَمْرًا فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُنْ فَيَكُونُ

2:117 The Originator of the heavens and the earth. When He decrees a matter, He only says to it: “Be! ـ and it is.

Explore the concept of abrogation (Naskh) in the Quran through Surah Al Baqarah Ayat 106, emphasizing Allah’s wisdom and authority.

Refuting the Claim that Allah has begotten a Son

Allah said,

وَقَالُواْ اتَّخَذَ اللّهُ وَلَدًا …

And they (Jews, Christians and pagans) say: Allah has begotten a son (children or offspring),

This and the following Ayat refute the Christians, may Allah curse them, and their like among the Jews and the Arab idolators, who claimed that the angels are Allah’s daughters. Allah refuted all of them in their claim that He had begotten a son.

Allah said,

… سُبْحَانَهُ …

Glory is to Him.

meaning, He is holier and more perfect than such claim;

… بَل لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ …

Nay, to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth,

meaning, the truth is not as the disbelievers claimed, rather, Allah’s is the kingdom of the heavens and earth and whatever and whoever is in, on and between them. Allah is the Supreme Authority in the heavens and earth, and He is the Creator, Provider and Sustainer Who decides all the affairs of the creation as He wills. All creatures are Allah’s servants and are owned by Him. Therefore, how could one of them be His son The son of any being is born out of two comparable beings. Allah has no equal or rival sharing His grace and greatness, so how can He have a son when He has no wife Allah said,

بَدِيعُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ أَنَّى يَكُونُ لَهُ وَلَدٌ وَلَمْ تَكُنْ لَّهُ صَـحِبَةٌ وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَىْءٍ وهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

He is the Originator of the heavens and the earth. How can He have children when He has no wife He created all things and He is the Knower of everything! (6:101)

وَقَالُواْ اتَّخَذَ الرَّحْمَـنُ وَلَداً

لَقَدْ جِئْتُمْ شَيْئاً إِدّاً

تَكَادُ السَّمَـوَتُ يَتَفَطَّرْنَ مِنْهُ وَتَنشَقُّ الاٌّرْضُ وَتَخِرُّ الْجِبَالُ هَدّاً

أَن دَعَوْا لِلرَّحْمَـنِ وَلَداً

وَمَا يَنبَغِى لِلرَّحْمَـنِ أَن يَتَّخِذَ وَلَداً

إِن كُلُّ مَن فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ إِلاَّ آتِى الرَّحْمَـنِ عَبْداً

َّقَدْ أَحْصَـهُمْ وَعَدَّهُمْ عَدّاً

َكُلُّهُمْ ءَاتِيهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ فَرْداً

And they say: “The Most Gracious (Allah) has begotten a son (offspring or children).”

Indeed you have brought forth (said) a terrible evil thing. Whereby the heavens are almost torn, and the earth is split asunder, and the mountains fall in ruins. That they ascribe a son (or offspring or children) to the Most Gracious (Allah). But it is not suitable for (the majesty of) the Most Gracious (Allah) that He should beget a son (or offspring or children).

There is none in the heavens and the earth but comes unto the Most Gracious (Allah) as a servant. Verily, He knows each one of them, and has counted them a full counting. And everyone of them will come to Him alone on the Day of Resurrection (without any helper, or protector or defender). (19:88-95)

and,

قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ

اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ

لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ

وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَّهُ كُفُواً أَحَدٌ

Say: “He is Allah (the) One, Allah the Samad (the Self- Sufficient, upon whom all depend), He begets not, nor was He begotten, and there is none comparable to Him.” (112:1-4)

In these Ayat, Allah stated that He is the Supreme Master Whom there is no equal or rival, everything and everyone was created by Him, so how can He have a son from among them This is why, in the Tafsir of this Ayah, Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn Abbas said that the Prophet said,

قَالَ اللهُ تَعَالَى: كَذّبَنِي ابْنُ آدَمَ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ ذلِكَ، وَشَتَمَنِي وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ ذلِكَ،

فَأَمَّا تَكْذِيبُهُ إِيَّايَ فَيَزْعُمُ أَنِّي لَا أَقْدِرُ أَنْ أُعِيدَهُ كَمَا كَانَ،

وَأَمَّا شَتْمُهُ إِيَّايَ فَقَوْلُهُ لِي وَلَدًا فَسُبْحَانِي أَنْ أَتَّخِذَ صَاحِبَةً أَوْ وَلَدًا

Allah said, `The son of Adam has denied Me, and that is not his right. He has insulted Me, and that is not his right.

As for the denial of Me, he claimed that I am unable to bring him back as he used to be (resurrect him).

As for his insulting Me, he claimed that I have a son. All praise is due to Me, it is unbefitting that I should have a wife or a son.’

This Hadith was recorded by Al-Bukhari.

It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that the Messenger of Allah said,

لَا أَحَدَ أَصْبَرُ عَلَى أَذًى سَمِعَهُ مِنَ اللهِ: إِنَّهُمْ يَجْعَلُونَ لَهُ وَلَدًا وَهُوَ يَرْزُقُهُمْ وَيُعَافِيهِم

No one is more patient when hearing an insult than Allah. They attribute a son to Him, yet He still gives them sustenance and health.

Everything is within Allah’s Grasp

Allah said,

… كُلٌّ لَّهُ قَانِتُونَ ﴿١١٦﴾

and all are Qanitun to Him.

Ibn Abi Hatim said that Abu Sa`id Al-Ashaj informed them that Asbat informed them from Mutarrif, from Atiyah, from Ibn Abbas who said that, قَانِتِينَ(Qantin) means, they pray to Him.

Ikrimah and Abu Malik also said that, كُلٌّ لَّهُ قَانِتُونَ (and all are Qanitun to Him),

means, bound to Him in servitude to Him.

Sa`id bin Jubayr said that Qanitun is sincerity. Ar-Rabi bin Anas said that, كُلٌّ لَّهُ قَانِتُونَ (all are Qanitun to Him) means,

“Standing up – before Him – on the Day of Resurrection.”

Also, As-Suddi said that, كُلٌّ لَّهُ قَانِتُونَ (and all are Qanitun to Him) means,

“Obedient on the Day of Resurrection.”

Khasif said that Mujahid said that, كُلٌّ لَّهُ قَانِتُونَ (and all are Qanitun to Him) means,

“Obedient. He says, `Be a human’ and he becomes a human.”

He also said, “(Allah says,) `Be a donkey’ and it becomes a donkey.”

Also, Ibn Abi Najih said that Mujahid said that, كُلٌّ لَّهُ قَانِتُونَ (and all are Qanitun to Him),

means, obedient.

Mujahid also said,

“The obedience of the disbeliever occurs when his shadow prostrates, while he hates that.”

Mujahid’s statement, which Ibn Jarir preferred, combines all the meanings, and that is that Qunut means obedience and submission to Allah.

There are two categories of Qunut: legislated and destined, for Allah said,

وَللَّهِ يَسْجُدُ مَن فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ طَوْعًا وَكَرْهًا وَظِلَـلُهُم بِالْغُدُوِّ وَالاٌّصَالِ

And unto Allah (alone) falls in prostration whoever is in the heavens and the earth, willingly or unwillingly, and so do their shadows in the mornings and in the (late) afternoons. (13:15)

The Meaning of Badi`

Allah said,

بَدِيعُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ …

The Badi` (Originator) of the heavens and the earth.

which means, He created them when nothing resembling them existed.

Mujahid and As-Suddi said that;

this is the linguistic meaning, for all new matters are called Bid`ah.

Muslim recorded the Messenger of Allah saying,

فَإِنَّ كُلَّ مُحْدَثَةٍ بِدْعَة

…every innovation (in religion) is a Bid`ah.

There are two types of Bid`ah, religious, as mentioned in the Hadith:

فَإِنَّ كُلَّ مُحْدَثَةٍ بِدْعَةٌ وَكُلَّ بِدْعَةٍ ضَلَالَة

…every innovation is a Bidah and every Bidah is heresy.

And there is a linguistic Bid`ah, such as the statement of the Leader of the faithful Umar bin Al-Khattab when he gathered the Muslims to pray the Tarawih prayer in congregation (which was also an earlier practice of the Prophet) and said,

“What a good Bid`ah this is.”

Ibn Jarir said,

“Thus the meaning of the Ayat (2:116-117) becomes, `Allah is far more glorious than to have had a son, for He is the Owner of everything that is in the heavens and earth. All testify to His Oneness and to their submissiveness to Him. He is their Creator and Maker. Without created precedence, He shaped the creatures in their current shapes. Allah also bears witness to His servants that Jesus, who some claimed to be Allah’s son, is among those who testify to His Oneness. Allah stated that He created the heavens and earth out of nothing and without precedent. Likewise, He created Jesus, the Messiah, with His power and without a father.”

This explanation from Ibn Jarir, may Allah have mercy upon him, is very good and correct.

Allah said,

… وَإِذَا قَضَى أَمْراً فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ ﴿١١٧﴾

When He decrees a matter, He only says to it : “Be! ـ and it is.

thus, demonstrating His perfectly complete ability and tremendous authority; if He decides a matter, He merely orders it to, `Be’ and it comes into existence.

Similarly, Allah said,

إِنَّمَآ أَمْرُهُ إِذَآ أَرَادَ شَيْئاً أَن يَقُولَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ

Verily, His command, when He intends a thing, is only that He says to it, “Be! ـ and it is. (36:82)

إِنَّمَا قَوْلُنَا لِشَىْءٍ إِذَآ أَرَدْنَاهُ أَن نَّقُولَ لَهُ كُنْ فَيَكُونُ

Verily, Our Word unto a thing when We intend it, is only that We say unto it: “Be! ـ and it is. (16:40)

and,

وَمَآ أَمْرُنَآ إِلاَّ وَحِدَةٌ كَلَمْحٍ بِالْبَصَرِ

And Our commandment is but one as the twinkling of an eye. (54:50)

So Allah informed us that He created Jesus by merely saying, “Be!” and he was, as Allah willed:

إِنَّ مَثَلَ عِيسَى عِندَ اللَّهِ كَمَثَلِ ءَادَمَ خَلَقَهُ مِن تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ

Verily, the likeness of `Isa (Jesus) before Allah is the likeness of Adam. He created him from dust, then (He) said to him: “Be! ـ and he was. (3:59)

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وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ لَوْلاَ يُكَلِّمُنَا اللَّهُ أَوْ تَأْتِينَآ ءَايَةٌ

2:118 And those who have no knowledge say: “Why does not Allah speak to us (face to face) or why does not a sign come to us!”

كَذَلِكَ قَالَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِم مِّثْلَ قَوْلِهِمْ

So said the people before them words of similar import.

تَشَـبَهَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ قَدْ بَيَّنَّا الآيَـتِ لِقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ

Their hearts are alike, We have indeed made plain the signs for people who believe with certainty.

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Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn Abbas said that;

Rafi bin Huraymilah said to the Messenger of Allah, “O Muhammad! If you were truly a Messenger from Allah, as you claim, then ask Allah to speak to us directly, so that we hear His Speech.”

So Allah revealed,

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ لَوْلاَ يُكَلِّمُنَا اللّهُ أَوْ تَأْتِينَا آيَةٌ …

And those who have no knowledge say: “Why does not Allah speak to us (face to face) or why does not a sign come to us!”

Abu Al-Aliyah, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, Qatadah and As-Suddi said that it was actually the statement of the Arab disbelievers:

… كَذَلِكَ قَالَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِم مِّثْلَ قَوْلِهِمْ …

So said the people before them words of similar import.

He said, “These are the Jews and the Christians.”

What further proves that the Arab idolators said the statement mentioned in the Ayah is that Allah said,

وَإِذَا جَآءَتْهُمْ ءَايَةٌ قَالُواْ لَن نُّؤْمِنَ حَتَّى نُؤْتَى مِثْلَ مَآ أُوتِىَ رُسُلُ اللَّهِ اللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ حَيْثُ يَجْعَلُ رِسَالَتَهُ سَيُصِيبُ الَّذِينَ أَجْرَمُواْ صَغَارٌ عِندَ اللَّهِ وَعَذَابٌ شَدِيدٌ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَمْكُرُونَ

And when there comes to them a sign (from Allah) they say: “We shall not believe until we receive the like of that which the Messengers of Allah had received.” Allah knows best with whom to place His Message. Humiliation and disgrace from Allah and a severe torment will overtake the criminals (polytheists and sinners) for that which they used to plot. (6:124)

and,

وَقَالُواْ لَن نُّؤْمِنَ لَكَ حَتَّى تَفْجُرَ لَنَا مِنَ الأَرْضِ يَنبُوعًا

And they say: “We shall not believe in you (O Muhammad), until you cause a spring to gush forth from the earth for us, until, قُلْ سُبْحَانَ رَبِّي هَلْ كُنتُ إَلاَّ بَشَرًا رَّسُولاً (Say (O Muhammad): “Glorified (and Exalted) be my Lord ((Allah) above all that evil they (polytheists) associate with Him)! Am I anything but a man, sent as a Messenger!” (17:90-93)

and,

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَرْجُونَ لِقَآءَنَا لَوْلاَ أُنزِلَ عَلَيْنَا الْمَلَـئِكَةُ أَوْ نَرَى رَبَّنَا

And those who expect not a meeting with Us (i.e. those who deny the Day of Resurrection and the life of the Hereafter) said: “Why are not the angels sent down to us, or why do we not see our Lord!” (25:21)

and,

بَلْ يُرِيدُ كُلُّ امْرِىءٍ مِّنْهُمْ أَن يُؤْتَى صُحُفاً مُّنَشَّرَةً

Nay, everyone of them desires that he should be given pages spread out. (74:52)

There are many other Ayat that testify to the disbelief of the Arab idolators, their transgression, stubbornness, and that they asked unnecessary questions out of disbelief and arrogance. The statements of the Arab idolators followed the statements of the nations of the People of the Two Scriptures and other religions before them. Allah said,

يَسْأَلُكَ أَهْلُ الْكِتَـبِ أَن تُنَزِّلَ عَلَيْهِمْ كِتَـباً مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ فَقَدْ سَأَلُواْ مُوسَى أَكْبَرَ مِن ذلِكَ فَقَالُواْ أَرِنَا اللَّهِ جَهْرَةً

The People of the Scripture (Jews) ask you to cause a book to descend upon them from heaven. Indeed, they asked Musa (Moses) for even greater than that, when they said: “Show us Allah in public.” (4:153)

and,

وَإِذْ قُلْتُمْ يَـمُوسَى لَن نُّؤْمِنَ لَكَ حَتَّى نَرَى اللَّهَ جَهْرَةً

And (remember) when you said: “O Musa! We shall never believe in you until we see Allah plainly.” (2:55)

Allah’s statement,

… تَشَابَهَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ …

Their hearts are alike.

means, the hearts of the Arab idolators are just like the hearts of those before them, containing disbelief, stubbornness and injustice.

Similarly, Allah said,

كَذَلِكَ مَآ أَتَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ مِّن رَّسُولٍ إِلاَّ قَالُواْ سَـحِرٌ أَوْ مَجْنُونٌ

أَتَوَاصَوْاْ بِهِ

Likewise, no Messenger came to those before them but they said: “A sorcerer or a madman!” Have they (the people of the past) transmitted this saying to these (Quraysh pagans)! (51:52-53)

Allah said next,

… قَدْ بَيَّنَّا الآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ ﴿١١٨﴾

We have indeed made plain the signs for people who believe with certainty.

meaning, We made the arguments clear, proving the truth of the Messengers, with no need of more questions or proofs for those who believe, follow the Messengers and comprehend what Allah sent them with.

As for those whose hearts and hearing Allah has stamped and whose eyes have been sealed, Allah described them:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ حَقَّتْ عَلَيْهِمْ كَلِمَةُ رَبِّكَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ

وَلَوْ جَآءَتْهُمْ كُلُّ ءايَةٍ حَتَّى يَرَوُاْ الْعَذَابَ الاٌّلِيمَ

Truly, those, against whom the Word (wrath) of your Lord has been justified, will not believe. Even if every sign should come to them, until they see the painful torment. (10:96-97)

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إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَـكَ بِالْحَقِّ بَشِيرًا وَنَذِيرًا وَلاَ تُسْـَلُ عَنْ أَصْحَـبِ الْجَحِيمِ

2:119 Verily, We have sent you (O Muhammad) with the truth (Islam), a bringer of glad tidings (for those who believe in what you brought, that they will enter Paradise) and a warner (for those who disbelieve in what you brought, that they will enter the Hellfire). And you will not be asked about the dwellers of the blazing Fire.

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Allah says;

إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ بِالْحَقِّ بَشِيرًا وَنَذِيرًا …

Verily, We have sent you (O Muhammad) with the truth (Islam), a bringer of glad tidings (for those who believe in what you brought, that they will enter Paradise) and a warner (for those who disbelieve in what you brought, that they will enter the Hellfire).

Allah’s statement;

… وَلاَ تُسْأَلُ عَنْ أَصْحَابِ الْجَحِيمِ ﴿١١٩﴾

And you will not be asked about the dwellers of the blazing Fire.

means, “We shall not ask you about the disbelief of those who rejected you.”

Similarly, Allah said,

فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْكَ الْبَلَـغُ وَعَلَيْنَا الْحِسَابُ

Your duty is only to convey (the Message) and on Us is the reckoning. (13:40)

فَذَكِّرْ إِنَّمَآ أَنتَ مُذَكِّرٌ – لَّسْتَ عَلَيْهِم بِمُسَيْطِرٍ

So remind them (O Muhammad) ـ you are only one who reminds. You are not a dictator over them. (88:21-22)

and,

نَّحْنُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يَقُولُونَ وَمَآ أَنتَ عَلَيْهِمْ بِجَبَّارٍ فَذَكِّرْ بِالْقُرْءَانِ مَن يَخَافُ وَعِيدِ

We know best what they say. And you (O Muhammad) are not the one to force them (to belief). But warn by the Qur’an; him who fears My threat. (50:45)

There are many other similar Ayat.

The Description of the Prophet in the Tawrah

Imam Ahmad recorded;

Ata’ bin Yasar saying that he met Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-As and said to him, “Tell me about the description of the Messenger of Allah in the Torah.”

He said, “Yes, by Allah, he is described by the Torah with the same characteristics that he is described with in the Qur’an with:

`O Prophet! We have sent you as a witness, a bringer of good news, a warner, and as safe refuge for the unlettered people. You are My servant and Messenger. I have called you the Mutawakkil (who depends and relies on Allah for each and everything). You are not harsh, nor hard, nor obnoxious in the bazaars. He does not reward the evil deed with an evil deed. Rather, he forgives and pardons. Allah will not bring his life to an end, until he straightens the wicked’s religion by his hands so that the people proclaim: There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah. By his hands, Allah will open blind eyes, deaf ears and sealed hearts.”’

This was recorded by Al-Bukhari only.

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وَلَن تَرْضَى عَنكَ الْيَهُودُ وَلاَ النَّصَـرَى حَتَّى تَتَّبِعَ مِلَّتَهُمْ

2:120 Never will the Jews nor the Christians be pleased with you (O Muhammad) till you follow their religion.

قُلْ إِنَّ هُدَى اللَّهِ هُوَ الْهُدَى وَلَئِنِ اتَّبَعْتَ أَهْوَآءَهُم بَعْدَ الَّذِي جَآءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ مَا لَكَ مِنَ اللَّهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلاَ نَصِيرٍ

Say: “Verily, the guidance of Allah (i.e. Islamic Monotheism) that is the (only) guidance.

And if you (O Muhammad) were to follow their (Jews and Christians) desires after what you have received of Knowledge (i.e. the Qur’an), then you would have against Allah neither any Wali (protector or guardian) nor any helper.

الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَـهُمُ الْكِتَـبَ يَتْلُونَهُ حَقَّ تِلاَوَتِهِ أُوْلَـئِكَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِ

2:121 Those to whom we gave the Book recite it as it should be recited (Yatlunahu Haqqa Tilawatihi) they are the ones who believe therein.

وَمن يَكْفُرْ بِهِ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْخَـسِرُونَ

And whoso disbelieve in it, those are they who are the losers.

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Allah said,

وَلَن تَرْضَى عَنكَ الْيَهُودُ وَلاَ النَّصَارَى حَتَّى تَتَّبِعَ مِلَّتَهُمْ …

Never will the Jews nor the Christians be pleased with you (O Muhammad) till you follow their religion.

Ibn Jarir commented on Allah’s statement,

meaning, `The Jews and the Christians will never be happy with you, O Muhammad! Therefore, do not seek what pleases or appeases them, and stick to what pleases Allah by calling them to the truth that Allah sent you with.’

Allah’s statement,

… قُلْ إِنَّ هُدَى اللّهِ هُوَ الْهُدَى …

Say: “Verily, the guidance of Allah (i.e. Islamic Monotheism) that is the (only) guidance.”

means, `Say, O Muhammad, the guidance of Allah that He sent me with is the true guidance, meaning the straight, perfect and comprehensive religion.”’

Qatadah said that Allah’s statement, قُلْ إِنَّ هُدَى اللّهِ هُوَ الْهُدَى (Say: “Verily, the guidance of Allah (i.e. Islamic Monotheism) that is the (only) guidance) is,

“A true argument that Allah taught Muhammad and his Companions and which they used against the people of misguidance.”

Qatadah said,

“We were told that the Messenger of Allah used to say,

لَا تَزَالُ طَائِفَةٌ مِنْ أُمَّتِي يُقَاتِلُونَ عَلَى الْحَقِّ ظَاهِرِينَ، لَا يَضُرُّهُمْ مَنْ خَالَفَهُمْ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَ أَمْرُ الله

There will always be a group of my Ummah fighting upon the truth, having the upper hand, not harmed by their opponents, until the decree of Allah (the Last Hour) comes.

This Hadith was collected in the Sahih and narrated from Abdullah bin `Amr.

… وَلَئِنِ اتَّبَعْتَ أَهْوَاءهُم بَعْدَ الَّذِي جَاءكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ مَا لَكَ مِنَ اللّهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلاَ نَصِيرٍ ﴿١٢٠﴾

And if you (O Muhammad) were to follow their (Jews and Christians) desires after what you have received of Knowledge (i.e. the Qur’an), then you would have against Allah neither any Wali (protector or guardian) nor any helper.

This Ayah carries a stern warning for the Muslim Ummah against imitating the ways and methods of the Jews and Christians, after they have acquired knowledge of the Qur’an and Sunnah, may Allah grant us refuge from this behavior.

Although the speech in this Ayah was directed at the Messenger, the ruling of which applies to his entire Ummah.

The Meaning of Correct Tilawah

Allah said,

الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ يَتْلُونَهُ حَقَّ تِلاَوَتِهِ …

Those to whom We gave the Book, Yatlunahu Haqqan Tilawatih.

Abdur-Razzaq said from Ma`mar, from Qatadah,

“They are the Jews and Christians.”

This is the opinion of Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam, and it was also chosen by Ibn Jarir.

Sa`id reported from Qatadah,

“They are the Companions of the Messenger of Allah.”

Abu Al-Aliyah said that Ibn Mas`ud said,

“By He in Whose Hand is my soul! The right Tilawah is allowing what it makes lawful, prohibiting what it makes unlawful, reciting it as it was revealed by Allah, not changing the words from their places, and not interpreting it with other than its actual interpretation.”

As-Suddi reported from Abu Malik from Ibn Abbas who said about this Ayah:

“They make lawful what it allows and they prohibit what it makes unlawful, and they do not alter its wordings.”

Umar bin Al-Khattab said,

“They are those who when they recite an Ayah that mentions mercy, they ask Allah for it, and when they recite an Ayah that mentions torment, they seek refuge with Allah from it.”

This meaning was attributed to the Prophet, for when he used to recite an Ayah of mercy, he invoked Allah for mercy, and when he recited an Ayah of torment, he sought refuge from it with Allah.

Allah’s statement,

… أُوْلَـئِكَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِ …

they are the ones who believe therein.

explains the Ayah, الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ يَتْلُونَهُ حَقَّ تِلاَوَتِهِ (Those to whom We gave the Book, Yatlunahu Haqqa Tilawatihi).

These Ayat mean,

“Those among the People of the Book who perfectly adhered to the Books that were revealed to the previous Prophets, will believe in what I have sent you with, O Muhammad!”

Allah said in another Ayah,

وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ أَقَامُواْ التَّوْرَاةَ وَالإِنجِيلَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيهِمْ مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ لاّكَلُواْ مِن فَوْقِهِمْ وَمِن تَحْتِ أَرْجُلِهِم

And if only they had acted according to the Tawrah, the Injil, and what has (now) been sent down to them from their Lord (the Qur’an), they would surely, have gotten provision from above them and from underneath their feet. (5:66)

The Ayah,

قُلْ يَـأَهْلَ الْكِتَـبِ لَسْتُمْ عَلَى شَىْءٍ حَتَّى تُقِيمُواْ التَّوْرَاةَ وَالإِنجِيلَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكُمْ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ

Say (O Muhammad) “O People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! You have nothing (as regards guidance) till you act according to the Tawrah, the Injil, and what has (now) been sent down to you from your Lord (the Qur’an).” (5:68)

means, “If you adhere to the Torah and the Gospel in the correct manner, believe in them as you should, and believe in the news they carry about Muhammad’s Prophethood, his description and the command to follow, aid and support him, then this will direct you to adhere to truth and righteousness in this life and the Hereafter.”

In another Ayat, Allah said,

الَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ الرَّسُولَ النَّبِىَّ الأُمِّىَّ الَّذِى يَجِدُونَهُ مَكْتُوبًا عِندَهُمْ فِى التَّوْرَاةِ وَالإِنجِيلِ

Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write (i.e. Muhammad) whom they find written with them in the Tawrah and the Injil. (7:157)

and,

قُلْ ءَامِنُواْ بِهِ أَوْ لاَ تُؤْمِنُواْ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْعِلْمَ مِن قَبْلِهِ إِذَا يُتْلَى عَلَيْهِمْ يَخِرُّونَ لِلاٌّذْقَانِ سُجَّدًا – وَيَقُولُونَ سُبْحَانَ رَبِّنَآ إِن كَانَ وَعْدُ رَبِّنَا لَمَفْعُولاً

Say (O Muhammad to them): “Believe in it (the Qur’an) or do not believe (in it). Verily, those who were given knowledge before it, when it is recited to them, fall down on their faces in humble prostration. And they say: “Glory be to our Lord! Truly, the promise of our Lord must be fulfilled.” (17:107-108)

These Ayat indicate that what Allah promised for Muhammad will certainly occur.

Allah also said,

الَّذِينَ ءَاتَيْنَـهُمُ الْكِتَـبَ مِن قَبْلِهِ هُم بِهِ يُؤْمِنُونَ

وَإِذَا يُتْلَى عَلَيْهِمْ قَالُواْ ءَامَنَّا بِهِ إِنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّنَآ إنَّا كُنَّا مِن قَبْلِهِ مُسْلِمِينَ

أُوْلَـئِكَ يُؤْتُونَ أَجْرَهُم مَّرَّتَيْنِ بِمَا صَبَرُواْ وَيَدْرَؤُنَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ السَّيِّئَةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَـهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ

Those to whom We gave the Scripture (i. e. the Tawrah and the Injil) before it, they believe in it (the Qur’an). And when it is recited to them, they say: “We believe in it. Verily, it is the truth from our Lord. Indeed even before it we have been from those who submit themselves to Allah in Islam as Muslims. These will be given their reward twice over, because they are patient, and repel evil with good, and spend (in charity) out of what We have provided them. (28:52-54)

and,

وَقُلْ لِّلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَـبَ وَالاٍّمِّيِّينَ ءَأَسْلَمْتُمْ فَإِنْ أَسْلَمُواْ فَقَدِ اهْتَدَواْ وَّإِن تَوَلَّوْاْ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْكَ الْبَلَـغُ وَاللَّهُ بَصِيرٌ بِالْعِبَادِ

And say to those who were given the Scripture (Jews and Christians) and to those who are illiterates (Arab pagans): “Do you (also) submit yourselves (to Allah in Islam)!”

If they do, they are rightly guided; but if they turn away, your duty is only to convey the Message; and Allah is the Seer of (His) servants. (3:20)

Allah said,

… وَمن يَكْفُرْ بِهِ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ ﴿١٢١﴾

And whoever disbelieves in it (the Qur’an), those are they who are the losers,

just as He said in another Ayah,

وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِهِ مِنَ الاٌّحْزَابِ فَالنَّارُ مَوْعِدُهُ

But those of the sects (Jews, Christians and all the other non-Muslim nations) that reject it (the Qur’an), the Fire will be their promised meeting place. (11:17)

As recorded in the Sahih, the Prophet said,

وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَا يَسْمَعُ بِي أَحَدٌ مِنْ هذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ يَهُودِيٌّ وَلَا نَصْرَانِيٌّ ثُمَّ لَا يُؤْمِنُ بِي إِلَّا دَخَلَ النَّار

By He in Whose Hand is my soul! There is no member of this Ummah (mankind and Jinns), Jew or a Christian, who hears of me, yet does not believe in me, but will enter the Fire.

Previous 120-121

يَـبَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ اذْكُرُواْ نِعْمَتِى الَّتِى أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَنِّى فَضَّلْتُكُمْ عَلَى الْعَـلَمِينَ

2:122 O Children of Israel! Remember My favor which I bestowed upon you and that I preferred you over the nations.

وَاتَّقُواْ يَوْمًا لاَّ تَجْزِى نَفْسٌ عَن نَّفْسٍ شَيْئًا وَلاَ يُقْبَلُ مِنْهَا عَدْلٌ وَلاَ تَنفَعُهَا شَفَـعَةٌ وَلاَ هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ

2:123 And fear the Day (of Judgment) when no person shall avail another, nor shall compensation be accepted from him, nor shall intercession be of use to him, nor shall they be helped.

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Allah says;

يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ اذْكُرُواْ نِعْمَتِيَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَنِّي فَضَّلْتُكُمْ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ ﴿١٢٢﴾

O Children of Israel! Remember My favor which I bestowed upon you and that I preferred you over the nations.

وَاتَّقُواْ يَوْماً لاَّ تَجْزِي نَفْسٌ عَن نَّفْسٍ شَيْئاً وَلاَ يُقْبَلُ مِنْهَا عَدْلٌ وَلاَ تَنفَعُهَا شَفَاعَةٌ وَلاَ هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ ﴿١٢٣﴾

And fear the Day (of Judgment) when no person shall avail another, nor shall compensation be accepted from him, nor shall intercession be of use to him, nor shall they be helped.

We mentioned a similar Ayah at the beginning of this Surah, and it is mentioned here to emphasize the importance of following the Ummi Prophet and Messenger, who is described for the People of the Scriptures in their Books by his characteristics, name, the good news about him and the description of his Ummah.

Allah warned them against concealing this information, which is among the favors that Allah granted them.

Allah also commanded them to remember their daily life and their religious affairs and how He blessed them. They should not envy their cousins, the Arabs, for what Allah has given them, the Final Messenger of Allah being an Arab. Envy should not incite them to oppose or deny the Prophet or refrain from following him, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him until the Day of Judgment.

Previous 122-123

وَإِذِ ابْتَلَى إِبْرَهِيمَ رَبُّهُ بِكَلِمَـتٍ فَأَتَمَّهُنَّ

2:124 And (remember) when the Lord of Ibrahim (Abraham) tried him with (certain) commands, which he fulfilled.

قَالَ إِنِّى جَـعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًا

He (Allah) said (to him), “Verily, I am going to make you an Imam (a leader) for mankind (to follow you).”

قَالَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِى قَالَ لاَ يَنَالُ عَهْدِي الظَّـلِمِينَ

(Ibrahim) said, “And of my offspring (to make leaders).” (Allah) said, “My covenant (Prophethood) includes not Zalimin (polytheists and wrongdoers).”

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Ibrahim Al-Khalil was an Imam for the People

Allah is informing us of the honor of Ibrahim Al-Khalil, who He made an Imam for the people, and a model to be imitated, because of the way he conducted himself and adhered to Tawhid. This honor was given to Prophet Ibrahim when he adhered to Allah’s decisions and prohibitions. This is why Allah said,

وَإِذِ ابْتَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ رَبُّهُ بِكَلِمَاتٍ …

And (remember) when the Lord of Ibrahim (i.e., Allah) tried him with (certain) commands.

This Ayah means, O Muhammad! Remind the idolators and the People of the Scriptures, who pretend to be followers of the religion of Ibrahim, while in reality they do not follow it, while you, O Muhammad, and your followers are the true followers of his religion; remind them of the commands and prohibitions that Allah tested Ibrahim with.

… فَأَتَمَّهُنَّ …

which he fulfilled.

indicating that Ibrahim implemented all of Allah’s orders.

Allah said in another Ayah,

وَإِبْرَهِيمَ الَّذِى وَفَّى

And of Ibrahim (Abraham) who fulfilled (or conveyed) all that (Allah ordered him to do or convey). (53:37)

meaning, he was truthful and he was obedient to Allah’s legislation.

Also, Allah said,

إِنَّ إِبْرَهِيمَ كَانَ أُمَّةً قَـنِتًا لِلَّهِ حَنِيفًا وَلَمْ يَكُ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

شَاكِراً لانْعُمِهِ اجْتَبَـهُ وَهَدَاهُ إِلَى صِرَطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ

وَءاتَيْنَـهُ فِى الْدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَإِنَّهُ فِى الاٌّخِرَةِ لَمِنَ الصَّـلِحِينَ

ثُمَّ أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَيْكَ أَنِ اتَّبِعْ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَهِيمَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

Verily, Ibrahim was an Ummah (or a nation), obedient to Allah, Hanif (i.e. to worship none but Allah), and he was not one of those who were Al-Mushrikin (polytheists), (He was) thankful for His (Allah’s) favors. He (Allah) chose him and guided him to a straight path. And We gave him good in this world, and in the Hereafter he shall be of the righteous. Then, We have sent the revelation to you (O Muhammad saying): “Follow the religion of Ibrahim Hanif (Islamic Monotheism ـ to worship none but Allah) and he was not of the Mushrikin. (16:120-123)

قُلْ إِنَّنِى هَدَانِى رَبِّى إِلَى صِرَطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ دِينًا قِيَمًا مِّلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

Say (O Muhammad): “Truly, my Lord has guided me to a straight path, a right religion, the religion of Ibrahim, Hanifan, and Ibrahim (to worship none but Allah, alone) and he was not of Al-Mushrikin.” (6:161)

and,

مَا كَانَ إِبْرَهِيمُ يَهُودِيًّا وَلاَ نَصْرَانِيًّا وَلَكِن كَانَ حَنِيفًا مُّسْلِمًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

إِنَّ أَوْلَى النَّاسِ بِإِبْرَهِيمَ لَلَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُ وَهَـذَا النَّبِىُّ وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَاللَّهُ وَلِىُّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

Ibrahim was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was a true Muslim Hanifan (Islamic Monotheism ـ to worship none but Allah alone) and he was not of Al-Mushrikin.

Verily, among mankind who have the best claim to Ibrahim are those who followed him, and this Prophet (Muhammad) and those who have believed (Muslims). And Allah is the Wali (Protector and Helper) of the believers. (3:67-68)

Allah said, بِكَلِمَاتٍ (with Kalimat (words)) which means,

“Laws, commandments and prohibitions.”

`Words’ as mentioned here, sometimes refers to what Allah has willed, such as Allah’s statement about Maryam,

وَصَدَّقَتْ بِكَلِمَـتِ رَبَّهَا وَكُتُبِهِ وَكَانَتْ مِنَ الْقَـنِتِينَ

And she testified to the truth of the Words of her Lord, and (also believed in) His Scriptures, and she was of the Qanitin (i.e. obedient to Allah). (66:12)

“Words” also refers to Allah’s Law, such as Allah’s statement,

وَتَمَّتْ كَلِمَةُ رَبِّكَ صِدْقاً وَعَدْلاً

And the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and in justice. (6:115),

meaning, His legislation.

“Words” also means truthful news, or a just commandment or prohibition. For instance, Allah said,

وَإِذِ ابْتَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ رَبُّهُ بِكَلِمَاتٍ فَأَتَمَّهُنَّ

And (remember) when the Lord of Ibrahim tried him with (certain) Words (commands), which he fulfilled,

meaning, he adhered to them.

Allah said,

… قَالَ إِنِّي جَاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًا …

He (Allah) said (to him), “Verily, I am going to make you an Imam (a leader) for mankind (to follow you).”

as a reward for Ibrahim’s good deeds, adhering to the commandments and avoiding the prohibitions.

This is why Allah made Ibrahim a role model for the people, and an Imam whose conduct and path are imitated and followed.

What were the Words that Ibrahim was tested with

There is a difference of opinion over the words that Allah tested Ibrahim with. There are several opinions attributed to Ibn Abbas.

For instance, Abdur-Razzaq said that Ibn Abbas said,

“Allah tested him with the rituals (of Hajj).”

Abu Ishaq reported the same.

Abdur-Razzaq also narrated that Ibn Abbas said that, وَإِذِ ابْتَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ رَبُّهُ بِكَلِمَاتٍ (And (remember) when the Lord of Ibrahim (Abraham) (i.e., Allah) tried him with (certain) commands) means,

“Allah tested him with Taharah (purity, ablution):

five on the head and five on the body.

As for the head, they are;

cutting the mustache,

rinsing the mouth,

inhaling and discarding water,

using Siwak and

parting the hair.

As for the body, they are;

trimming the nails,

shaving the pubic hair,

circumcision and

plucking under the arm and

washing with water after answering the call of nature.”

Ibn Abi Hatim said,

“A similar statement was also reported from Said bin Al-Musayyib, Mujahid, Ash-Shabi, An-Nakhai, Abu Salih, Abu Al-Jald, and so forth.”

There is a similar statement that Imam Muslim narrated from Aishah who said that Allah’s Messenger said,

عَشْرٌ مِنَ الْفِطْرَةِ:

قَصُّ الشَّارِبِ

وَإِعْفَاءُ اللِّحْيَةِ

وَالسِّوَاكُ

وَاسْتِنْشَاقُ الْمَاءِ وَقَصُّ الْأَظْفَارِ

وَغَسْلُ الْبَرَاجِمِ

وَنَتْفُ الْإِبْطِ

وَحَلْقُ الْعَانَةِ

وَانْتِقَاصُ الْمَاءِ

وَنَسِيتُ الْعَاشِرَةَ إِلَّا أَنْ تَكُونَ الْمَضْمَضَة

Ten are among the Fitrah (instinct, natural constitution):

trimming the mustache,

growing the beard,

using Siwak,

inhaling and then exhaling water (in ablution),

cutting the nails,

washing between the fingers (in ablution),

plucking the underarm hair,

shaving the pubic hair,

washing with water after answering the call of nature, (and I forgot the tenth, I think it was) rinsing the mouth (in ablution).

The Two Sahihs recorded Abu Hurayrah saying that the Prophet said,

الْفِطْرَةُ خَمْسٌ:

الْخِتَانُ

وَالْاسْتِحْدَادُ

وَقَصُّ الشَّارِبِ

وَتَقْلِيمُ الْأَظْفَارِ

وَنَتْفُ الْإِبْط

Five are among the acts of Fitrah:

circumcision,

shaving the pubic hair,

trimming the mustache,

cutting the nails and

plucking the underarm hair.

This is the wording with Muslim.

Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn Abbas said,

“The words that Allah tested Ibrahim with, and that he implemented were:

abandoning his (disbelieving) people when Allah commanded him to do so,

disputing with Nimrod (king of Babylon) about Allah,

being patient when he was thrown in the fire (although this was extremely traumatic),

migrating from his homeland when Allah commanded him to do so,

patience with the monetary and material demands of hosting guests by Allah’s command,

and Allah’s order for him to slaughter his son.

When Allah tested Ibrahim with these words, and he was ready for the major test, Allah said to him, أَسْلِمْ قَالَ أَسْلَمْتُ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ (“Submit (be a Muslim)!” He said, “I have submitted myself (as a Muslim) to the Lord of all that exists.” (2:131) although this meant defying and being apart from the people.”

The Unjust do not qualify for Allah’s Promise

Allah said that Ibrahim said,

… قَالَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِي …

(Ibrahim) said, And of my offspring (to make leaders),

and Allah replied,

… قَالَ لاَ يَنَالُ عَهْدِي الظَّالِمِينَ ﴿١٢٤﴾

My covenant (Prophethood) includes not Zalimin (polytheists and wrongdoers).

When Allah made Ibrahim an Imam (Leader for the faithful), he asked Allah that Imams thereafter be chosen from his offspring. Allah accepted his supplication, but told him that there will be unjust people among his offspring and they will not benefit from Allah’s promise. Thus, they will neither become Imams nor be imitated (for they will not be righteous).

The proof that Ibrahim’s supplication to Allah was accepted is that Allah said in Surah Al-Ankabut,

وَجَعَلْنَا فِى ذُرِّيَّتِهِ النُّبُوَّةَ وَالْكِتَـبَ

And We ordained among his offspring Prophethood and the Book. (29:27)

Hence, every Prophet whom Allah sent after Ibrahim were from among his offspring, and every Book that Allah revealed was to them.

As for Allah’s statement, قَالَ لاَ يَنَالُ عَهْدِي الظَّالِمِينَ ((Allah) said, “My covenant (Prophethood) includes not Zalimin (polytheists and wrongdoers).”

Allah mentioned that there are unjust people among the offspring of Ibrahim, and they will not benefit from Allah’s promise, nor would they be entrusted with anything, even though they are among the children of Allah’s Khalil (intimate friend, Prophet Abraham).

There will also be those who do good among the children of Ibrahim, and these it is who will benefit from Ibrahim’s supplication.

Ibn Jarir said that this Ayah indicated that the unjust shall not be Imams for the people.

Moreover, the Ayah informed Ibrahim that there will be unjust people among his offspring.

Also, Ibn Khuwayz Mindad Al-Maliki said,

“The unjust person does not qualify to be a Khalifah, a ruler, one who gives religious verdicts, a witness, or even a narrator (of Hadiths).”

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وَإِذْ جَعَلْنَا الْبَيْتَ مَثَابَةً لِّلنَّاسِ وَأَمْناً

2:125 And (remember) when We made the House (the Ka`bah at Makkah) a place of resort for mankind and a place of safety.

وَاتَّخِذُواْ مِن مَّقَامِ إِبْرَهِيمَ مُصَلًّى

And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (or the stone on which Ibrahim as a place).

وَعَهِدْنَآ إِلَى إِبْرَهِيمَ وَإِسْمَـعِيلَ أَن طَهِّرَا بَيْتِىَ لِلطَّآئِفِينَ وَالْعَـكِفِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ

And We commanded Ibrahim (Abraham) and Ismail (Ishmael) that they should purify My House (the Ka`bah at Makkah) for those who are circumambulating it, or staying (Itikaf), or bowing or prostrating themselves (there, in prayer).

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Next 126-128

The Virtue of Allah’s House

Allah says;

وَإِذْ جَعَلْنَا الْبَيْتَ مَثَابَةً لِّلنَّاسِ وَأَمْناً وَاتَّخِذُواْ مِن مَّقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ مُصَلًّى …

And (remember) when We made the House (the Ka`bah at Makkah) a place of resort for mankind and a place of safety. And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (or the stone on which Ibrahim as a place).

Al-Awfi reported that Ibn Abbas commented on Allah’s statement, وَإِذْ جَعَلْنَا الْبَيْتَ مَثَابَةً لِّلنَّاسِ (And (remember) when We made the House (the Ka`bah at Makkah) a place of resort for mankind),

“They do not remain in the House, they only visit it and return to their homes, and then visit it again.”

Also, Abu Jafar Ar-Razi narrated from Ar-Rabi bin Anas from Abu Al-Aliyah who said that, وَإِذْ جَعَلْنَا الْبَيْتَ مَثَابَةً لِّلنَّاسِ وَأَمْناً (And (remember) when We made the House (the Ka`bah at Makkah) a place of resort for mankind and a place of safety) means,

“Safe from enemies and armed conflict. During the time of Jahiliyyah, the people were often victims of raids and kidnapping, while the people in the area surrounding it (Al-Masjid Al-Haram) were safe and not subject to kidnapping.”

Also, Mujahid, Ata, As-Suddi, Qatadah and Ar-Rabi bin Anas were reported to have said that the Ayah (2:125) means,

“Whoever enters it shall be safe.”

This Ayah indicates that Allah honored the Sacred House, which Allah made as a safe refuge and safe haven. Therefore, the souls are eager, but never bored, to conduct short visits to the House, even every year. This is because Allah accepted the supplication of His Khalil, Ibrahim, when he asked Allah to make the hearts of people eager to visit the House. Ibrahim said,

رَبَّنَا وَتَقَبَّلْ دُعَآءِ

Our Lord! And accept my invocation. (14:40)

Allah described the House as a safe resort and refuge, for those who visit it are safe, even if they had committed acts of evil. This honor comes from the honor of the person who built it first, Khalil Ar-Rahman, just as Allah said,

وَإِذْ بَوَّأْنَا لإِبْرَهِيمَ مَكَانَ الْبَيْتِ أَن لاَّ تُشْرِكْ بِى شَيْئاً

And (remember) when We showed Ibrahim the site of the (Sacred) House (the Ka`bah at Makkah) (saying): “Associate not anything (in worship) with Me…” (22:26)

and,

إِنَّ أَوَّلَ بَيْتٍ وُضِعَ لِلنَّاسِ لَلَّذِى بِبَكَّةَ مُبَارَكاً وَهُدًى لِّلْعَـلَمِينَ فِيهِ ءَايَـتٌ بَيِّـنَـتٌ مَّقَامُ إِبْرَهِيمَ وَمَن دَخَلَهُ كَانَ ءَامِناً

Verily, the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessing, and a guidance for Al-Alamin (mankind and Jinn). In it are manifest signs (for example), the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim; whosoever enters it, he attains security. (3:96-97).

The last honorable Ayah emphasized the honor of Ibrahim’s Maqam, and the instruction to pray next to it, وَاتَّخِذُواْ مِن مَّقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ مُصَلًّى (And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim as a place of prayer). The Maqam of Ibrahim.

Sufyan Ath-Thawri reported that Sa`id bin Jubayr commented on the Ayah, وَاتَّخِذُواْ مِن مَّقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ مُصَلًّى (And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim as a place of prayer),

“The stone (Maqam) is the standing place of Ibrahim, Allah’s Prophet, and a mercy from Allah. Ibrahim stood on the stone, while Ismail was handing him the stones (constructing the Ka`bah).”

As-Suddi said,

“The Maqam of Ibrahim is a stone which Ismail’s wife put under Ibrahim’s feet when washing his head.”

Al-Qurtubi mentioned this, but he considered it unauthentic, although others gave it preference, Ar-Razi reported it in his Tafsir from Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Qatadah, and Ar-Rabi bin Anas.

Ibn Abi Hatim reported that Jabir, describing the Hajj (pilgrimage) of the Prophet said,

“When the Prophet performed Tawaf, Umar asked him, `Is this the Maqam of our father?’

He said, `Yes.’

Umar said, `Should we take it a place of prayer?’

So Allah revealed, وَاتَّخِذُواْ مِن مَّقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ مُصَلًّى (And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham) as a place of prayer”).

Al-Bukhari said,

“Allah’s statement, وَاتَّخِذُواْ مِن مَّقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ مُصَلًّى (And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham) as a place of prayer) meaning, they return to it repeatedly.”

He then narrated that Anas bin Malik said that Umar bin Al-Khattab said,

“I agreed with my Lord, or my Lord agreed with me, regarding three matters.

I said, `O Messenger of Allah! I wish you take the Maqam of Ibrahim a place for prayer.’ The Ayah, وَاتَّخِذُواْ مِن مَّقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ مُصَلًّى (And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham)) was revealed.

I also said, `O Messenger of Allah! The righteous and the wicked enter your house. I wish you would command the Mothers of the believers (the Prophet’s wives) to wear Hijab. Allah sent down the Ayah that required the Hijab.

And when I knew that the Prophet was angry with some of his wives, I came to them and said, `Either you stop what you are doing, or Allah will endow His Messenger with better women than you are.’

I advised one of his wives and she said to me, `O Umar! Does the Messenger of Allah not know how to advise his wives, so that you have to do the job instead of him!’ Allah then revealed,

عَسَى رَبُّهُ إِن طَلَّقَكُنَّ أَن يُبْدِلَهُ أَزْوَجاً خَيْراً مِّنكُنَّ مُسْلِمَـتٍ

It may be if he divorced you (all) that his Lord will give him instead of you, wives better than you, ـ Muslims (who submit to Allah).” (66:5)

Also, Ibn Jarir narrated that Jabir said,

“After the Messenger of Allah kissed the Black Stone, he went around the house three times in a fast pace and four times in a slow pace. He then went to Maqam of Ibrahim, with it between him and the House, and prayed two Rak`ahs.”

This is part of the long Hadith that Muslim recorded in Sahih.

Al-Bukhari recorded that `Amr bin Dinar said that he heard Ibn Umar say,

“The Messenger of Allah performed Tawaf around the House seven times and then prayed two Rak`ahs behind the Maqam.”

All these texts indicate that the Maqam is the stone that Ibrahim was standing on while building the House.

As the House’s walls became higher, Ismail brought his father a stone, so that he could stand on it, while Ismail handed him the stones. Ibrahim would place the stones on the wall, and whenever he finished one side, he would move to the next side, to complete the building all around. Ibrahim kept repeating this until he finished building the House, as we will describe when we explain the story of Ibrahim and Ismail and how they built the House, as narrated from Ibn Abbas and collected by Al-Bukhari.

Ibrahim’s footprints were still visible in the stone, and the Arabs knew this fact during the time of Jahiliyyah. This is why Abu Talib said in his poem known as Al-Lamiyyah,

“And Ibrahim’s footprint with his bare feet on the stone is still visible.”

The Muslims also saw Ibrahim’s footprints on the stone, as Anas bin Malik said,

“I saw the Maqam with the print of Ibrahim’s toes and feet still visible in it, but the footprints dissipated because of the people rubbing the stone with their hands.”

Earlier, the Maqam was placed close to the Ka`bah’s wall. In the present time, the Maqam is placed next to Al-Hijr on the right side of those entering through the door.

When Ibrahim finished building the House, he placed the stone next to the wall of Al-Ka`bah. Or, when the House was finished being built, Ibrahim just left the stone where it was last standing, and he was commanded to pray next to the stone when he finished the Tawaf (circumambulating). It is understandable that the Maqam of Ibrahim would stand where the building of the House ended.

The Leader of the faithful Umar bin Al-Khattab, one of the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs whom we were commanded to emulate, moved the stone away from the Ka`bah’s wall during his reign.

Umar is one of the two men, whom the Messenger of Allah described when he said,

اقْتَدُوا بِاللَّذَيْنِ مِنْ بَعْدِي أَبِي بَكْرٍ وَعُمَر

Imitate the two men who will come after me: Abu Bakr and Umar.

Umar was also the person whom the Qur’an agreed with regarding praying next to Maqam of Ibrahim. This is why none among the Companions rejected it when he moved it.

Abdur-Razzaq reported from Ibn Jurayj from Ata,

“Umar bin Al-Khattab moved the Maqam back.”

Also, Abdur-Razzaq narrated that Mujahid said that,

“Umar was the first person who moved the Maqam back to where it is now standing.”

Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr, Ahmad bin Ali bin Al-Husayn Al-Bayhaqi recorded Aishah saying,

“During the time of the Messenger of Allah and Abu Bakr, the Maqam was right next to the House. Umar moved the Maqam during his reign.”

This Hadith has an authentic chain of narration.

The Command to purify the House

Allah says;

… وَعَهِدْنَا إِلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ أَن طَهِّرَا بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْعَاكِفِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ ﴿١٢٥﴾

And We commanded Ibrahim (Abraham) and Ismail (Ishmael) that they should purify My House (the Ka`bah at Makkah) for those who are circumambulating it, or staying (Itikaf), or bowing or prostrating themselves (there, in prayer).

Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that, وَعَهِدْنَا إِلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ (And We gave Our Ahd (command) to Ibrahim and Ismail) means,

“Allah ordered them to purify it from all filth and impurities, of which none should ever touch it.”

Also, Ibn Jurayj said,

“I said to Ata, `What is Allah’s Ahd?’

He said, `His command.”’

Also, Said bin Jubayr said that Ibn Abbas commented on the Ayah, أَن طَهِّرَا بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْعَاكِفِينَ (that they should purify My House (the Kabah) for those who are circumambulating it, or staying (Itikaf)),

“Purify it from the idols.”

Further, Mujahid and Sa`id bin Jubayr said that, أَن طَهِّرَا بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ (purify My House for those who are circumambulating it) means,

“From the idols, sexual activity, false witness and sins of all kinds.”

Allah said, لِلطَّائِفِينَ (for those who are performing Tawaf (circumambulating) it).

The Tawaf around the House is a well-established ritual.

Sa`id bin Jubayr said that,

لِلطَّائِفِينَ (for those who are circumambulating it),

means, strangers (he means who do not live in Makkah),

while; وَالْعَاكِفِينَ (or staying (Itikaf)),

is about those who live in the area of the Sacred House.

Also, Qatadah and Ar-Rabi bin Anas said that;

Itikaf is in reference to those who live in the area of the House, just as Sa`id bin Jubayr stated.

Allah said, وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ (or bowing or prostrating themselves (there, in prayer)),

Ibn Abbas said,

when it is a place of prayer it includes those who are described as bowing and prostrating themselves.

Also, Ata and Qatadah offered the same Tafsir.

Purifying all Masjids is required according to this Ayah and according to Allah’s statement,

فِى بُيُوتٍ أَذِنَ اللَّهُ أَن تُرْفَعَ وَيُذْكَرَ فِيهَا اسْمُهُ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ فِيهَا بِالْغُدُوِّ وَالاٌّصَالِ

In houses (mosques) which Allah has ordered to be raised (to be cleaned, and to be honored), in them His Name is remembered (i.e. Adhan, Iqamah, Salah, invocations, recitation of the Qur’an). Therein glorify Him (Allah) in the mornings and in the (late) afternoons. (24:36)

There are many Hadiths that give a general order for purifying the Masjids and keeping filth and impurities away from them. This is why the Prophet said,

إِنَّمَا بُنِيَتِ الْمَسَاجِدُ لِمَا بُنِيَتْ لَه

The Masjids are established for the purpose that they were built for (i.e. worshipping Allah alone).

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وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَهِيمُ رَبِّ اجْعَلْ هَـذَا بَلَدًا آمِنًا وَارْزُقْ أَهْلَهُ مِنَ الثَّمَرَتِ مَنْ ءَامَنَ مِنْهُم بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ

2:126 And (remember) when Ibrahim said, “My Lord, make this city (Makkah) a place of security and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day.”

قَالَ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَأُمَتِّعُهُ قَلِيلاً ثُمَّ أَضْطَرُّهُ إِلَى عَذَابِ النَّارِ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ

He (Allah) answered: “As for him who disbelieves, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, then I shall compel him to the torment of the Fire, and worst indeed is that destination!”

وَإِذْ يَرْفَعُ إِبْرَهِيمُ الْقَوَاعِدَ مِنَ الْبَيْتِ وَإِسْمَـعِيلُ رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّآ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

2:127 And (remember) when Ibrahim and (his son) Ismail were raising the foundations of the House (the Ka`bah at Makkah), (saying), “Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us. Verily, You are the Hearer, the Knower.”

رَبَّنَا وَاجْعَلْنَا مُسْلِمَيْنِ لَكَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِنَآ أُمَّةً مُّسْلِمَةً لَّكَ وَأَرِنَا مَنَاسِكَنَا وَتُبْ عَلَيْنَآ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ

2:128 “Our Lord! And make us submissive unto You and of our offspring a nation submissive unto You, and show us our Manasik, and accept our repentance. Truly, You are the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.

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Makkah is a Sacred Area

Allah said,

وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ رَبِّ اجْعَلْ هَـَذَا بَلَدًا آمِنًا وَارْزُقْ أَهْلَهُ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ مَنْ آمَنَ مِنْهُم بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ …

And (remember) when Ibrahim said, “My Lord, make this city (Makkah) a place of security and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day.”

Imam Abu Jafar bin Jarir At-Tabari narrated that Jabir bin Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

إِنَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَرَّمَ بَيْتَ اللهِ وَأَمَّنَهُ وَإِنِّي حَرَّمْتُ الْمَدِينَةَ مَا بَيْنَ لَابَتَيْهَا، فَلَا يُصَادُ صَيْدُهَا وَلَا يُقْطَعُ عِضَاهُهَا

Ibrahim made Allah’s House a Sacred Area and a safe refuge. I have made what is between the two sides of Al-Madinah a Sacred Area. Therefore, its game should not be hunted, and its trees should not be cut.

An-Nasa’i and Muslim also recorded this Hadith.

There are several other Hadiths that indicate that Allah made Makkah a sacred area before He created the heavens and earth.

The Two Sahihs recorded Abdullah bin Abbas saying that the Messenger of Allah said,

إِنَّ هَذَا الْبَلَدَ حَرَّمَهُ اللهُ يَوْمَ خَلَقَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ، فَهُوَ حَرَامٌ بِحُرْمَةِ اللهِ إِلى يَومِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَإِنَّهُ لَمْ يَحِلَّ الْقِتَالُ فِيهِ لِأَحَدٍ قَبْلِي وَلَمْ يَحِلَّ لِي إِلَّا سَاعَةً مِنْ نَهَارٍ، فَهُوَ حَرَامٌ بِحُرْمَةِ اللهِ إِلى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ لَا يُعْضَدُ شَوْكُهُ وَلَا يُنَفَّرُ صَيْدُهُ،وَلَا يَلْتَقِطُ لُقَطَتَهُ إِلَّا مَنْ عَرَّفَهَا وَلَا يُخْتَلى خَلَاهَا

Allah has made this city a sanctuary (sacred place) the Day He created the heavens and earth. Therefore, it is a sanctuary until the Day of Resurrection because Allah made it a sanctuary. It was not legal for anyone to fight in it before me, and it was legal for me for a few hours of one day. Therefore, it is a sanctuary until the Day of Resurrection, because Allah made it a sanctuary. None is allowed to uproot its thorny shrubs, or to chase its game, or to pick up something that has fallen, except by a person who announces it publicly, nor should any of its trees be cut.

Al-Abbas said, O Messenger of Allah! Except the lemon-grass, for our goldsmiths and for our graves.’

The Prophet added,

إِلَّا الْإِذْخِر

Except lemon-grass.

This is the wording of Muslim.

The Two Sahihs also recorded Abu Hurayrah narrating a similar Hadith, while Al-Bukhari recorded a similar Hadith from Safiyyah bint Shaybah who narrated it from the Prophet.

Abu Shurayh Al-Adawi said that he said to Amr bin Said while he was sending armies to Makkah, “O Commander! Let me narrate a Hadith that the Messenger of Allah said the day that followed the victory of Makkah. My ears heard the Hadith, my heart comprehended it, and my eyes saw the Prophet when he said it.

He thanked Allah and praised Him and then said,

إِنَّ مَكَّةَ حَرَّمَهَا اللهُ وَلَمْ يُحَرِّمْهَا النَّاسُ فَلَا يَحِلُّ لِامْرِىءٍ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللهِ وَالْيَومِ الْآخِرِ أَنْ يَسْفِكَ بِهَا دَمًا وَلَا يَعْضِدَ بِهَا شَجَرَةً،فَإِنْ أَحَدٌ تَرَخَّصَ بِقِتَالِ رَسُولِ اللهِصلى الله عليه وسلّم فَقُولُوا: إِنَّ اللهَ أَذِنَ لِرَسُولِهِ وَلَمْ يَأْذَنْ لَكُمْ، وَإِنَّمَا أَذِنَ لِي فِيهَا سَاعَةً مِنْ نَهَارٍ وَقَدْ عَادَتْ حُرْمَتُهَا الْيَومَ كَحُرْمَتِهَا بِالْأَمْسِ فَلْيُبَلِّغِ الشَّاهِدُ الْغَائِب

Allah, not the people, made Makkah a sanctuary, so any person who has belief in Allah and the Last Day, should neither shed blood in it nor should he cut down its trees. If anybody argues that fighting in it is permissible on the basis that Allah’s Messenger fought in Makkah, say to him, `Allah allowed His Messenger and did not allow you.’

Allah allowed me only for a few hours on that day (of the Conquest), and today its sanctity is valid as it was before. So, those who are present should inform those who are absent (concerning this fact).

Abu Shurayh was asked, What didAmr reply?’

He said, (Amr said) `O Abu Shurayh! I know better than you about this, the Sacred House does not give protection to a sinner, a murderer or a thief.’

This Hadith was collected by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.

After this, there is no contradiction between the Hadiths that stated that Allah made Makkah a sanctuary when He created the heavens and earth and the Hadiths that Ibrahim made it a sanctuary, since Ibrahim conveyed Allah’s decree that Makkah is a sanctuary, before he built the House.

Similarly, the Messenger of Allah was written as the Final Prophet when Adam was still clay. Yet, Ibrahim said, رَبَّنَا وَابْعَثْ فِيهِمْ رَسُولاً مِّنْهُمْ (Our Lord! Send amongst them a Messenger of their own), (2: 129).

Allah accepted Ibrahim’s supplication, although He had full knowledge beforehand that it will occur by His decree.

To further elaborate on this subject, we should mention the Hadith about what the Messenger of Allah said when he was asked,

“O Messenger of Allah! Tell us about how your Prophethood started.”

He said,

دَعْوَةُ أَبِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ، عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ، وَبُشْرَى عِيسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ، وَرَأَتْ أُمِّي كَأَنَّهُ خَرَجَ مِنْهَا نُورٌ أَضَاءَتْ لَهُ قُصُورُ الشَّام

I am the supplication of my father Ibrahim, the good news of Jesus, the son of Mary, and my mother saw a light that radiated from her which illuminated the castles of Ash-Sham (Syria).

In this Hadith, the Companions asked the Messenger about the beginning of his Prophethood. We will explain this matter later, if Allah wills.

Ibrahim invokes Allah to make Makkah an Area of Safety and Sustenance

Allah tells;

وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ …

And (remember) when Ibrahim said,

… رَبِّ اجْعَلْ هَـَذَا بَلَدًا آمِنًا …

My Lord, make this city (Makkah) a place of security,

from terror, so that its people do not suffer from fear.

Allah accepted Ibrahim’s supplication. Allah said,

وَمَن دَخَلَهُ كَانَ ءَامِناً

Whosoever enters it, he attains security, (3:97)

and,

أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْاْ أَنَّا جَعَلْنَا حَرَماً ءامِناً وَيُتَخَطَّفُ النَّاسُ مِنْ حَوْلِهِمْ

Have they not seen that We have made (Makkah) a secure sanctuary, while men are being snatched away from all around them. (29:67)

We have already mentioned the Hadiths that prohibit fighting in the Sacred Area.

Muslim recorded that Jabir said that the Messenger of Allah said,

لَا يَحِلُّ لِأَحَدٍ أَنْ يَحْمِلَ بِمَكَّةَ السِّلَاح

No one is allowed to carry weapons in Makkah.

Allah mentioned that Ibrahim said, رَبِّ اجْعَلْ هَـَذَا بَلَدًا آمِنًا (My Lord, make this city (Makkah) a place of security) meaning,

make this a safe city.

This occurred before the Ka`bah was built.

Allah said in Surah Ibrahim,

وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَهِيمُ رَبِّ اجْعَلْ هَـذَا الْبَلَدَ آمِنًا

And (remember) when Ibrahim said, “My Lord! Make this city (Makkah) one of peace and security…” (14:35)

as here, Ibrahim supplicated a second time after the House was built and its people lived around it, after Ishaq who was thirteen years Ismail’s junior was born.

This is why at the end of his supplication, Ibrahim said here,

الْحَمْدُ للَّهِ الَّذِى وَهَبَ لِى عَلَى الْكِبَرِ إِسْمَـعِيلَ وَإِسْحَـقَ إِنَّ رَبِّى لَسَمِيعُ الدُّعَآءِ

All the praises and thanks be to Allah, Who has given me in old age Ismail (Ishmael) and Ishaq (Isaac). Verily, my Lord is indeed the Hearer of invocations. (14:39)

Allah said next,

… وَارْزُقْ أَهْلَهُ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ مَنْ آمَنَ مِنْهُم بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ قَالَ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَأُمَتِّعُهُ قَلِيلاً ثُمَّ أَضْطَرُّهُ إِلَى عَذَابِ النَّارِ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ ﴿١٢٦﴾

“…and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day.”

He (Allah) answered: “As for him who disbelieves, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, then I shall compel him to the torment of the Fire, and worst indeed is that destination!”

Ibn Jarir said that Ubayy bin Ka`b commented on, قَالَ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَأُمَتِّعُهُ قَلِيلاً ثُمَّ أَضْطَرُّهُ إِلَى عَذَابِ النَّارِ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ (He answered: “As for him who disbelieves, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, then I shall compel him to the torment of the Fire, and worst indeed is that destination!”)

“These are Allah’s Words (meaning not Ibrahim’s)”

This is also the Tafsir of Mujahid and Ikrimah.

Furthermore, Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Ibn Abbas commented on Allah’s statement, رَبِّ اجْعَلْ هَـَذَا بَلَدًا آمِنًا وَارْزُقْ أَهْلَهُ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ مَنْ آمَنَ مِنْهُم بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ (My Lord, make this city (Makkah) a place of security and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day.)

“Ibrahim asked Allah to grant sustenance for the believers only. However, Allah revealed, I will also provide for the disbelievers, just as I shall provide for the believers. Would I create something and not sustain and provide for I shall allow the disbelievers little delight, and then force them to the torment of the Fire, and what an evil destination.” IbnAbbas then recited,

كُلاًّ نُّمِدُّ هَـؤُلاءِ وَهَـؤُلاءِ مِنْ عَطَآءِ رَبِّكَ وَمَا كَانَ عَطَآءُ رَبِّكَ مَحْظُورًا

On each these as well as those We bestow from the bounties of your Lord. And the bounties of your Lord can never be forbidden. (17:20)

This was recorded by Ibn Marduwyah, who also recorded similar statements from Ikrimah and Mujahid.

Similarly, Allah said,

قُلْ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ لاَ يُفْلِحُونَ

مَتَـعٌ فِى الدُّنْيَا ثُمَّ إِلَيْنَا مَرْجِعُهُمْ ثُمَّ نُذِيقُهُمُ الْعَذَابَ الشَّدِيدَ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَكْفُرُونَ

Verily, those who invent a lie against Allah will never be successful. (A brief) enjoyment in this world! And then unto Us will be their return, then We shall make them taste the severest torment because they used to disbelieve. (10:69-70)

وَمَن كَفَرَ فَلاَ يَحْزُنكَ كُفْرُهُ إِلَيْنَا مَرْجِعُهُمْ فَنُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا عَمِلُواْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ

نُمَتِّعُهُمْ قَلِيلاً ثُمَّ نَضْطَرُّهُمْ إِلَى عَذَابٍ غَلِيظٍ

And whoever disbelieves, let not his disbelief grieve you (O Muhammad). To Us is their return, and We shall inform them what they have done. Verily, Allah is the Knower of what is in the breasts (of men). We let them enjoy for a little while, then in the end We shall oblige them to (enter) a great torment. (31:23-24)

and,

وَلَوْلاَ أَن يَكُونَ النَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَحِدَةً لَّجَعَلْنَا لِمَن يَكْفُرُ بِالرَّحْمَـنِ لِبُيُوتِهِمْ سُقُفاً مِّن فِضَّةٍ وَمَعَارِجَ عَلَيْهَا يَظْهَرُونَ

وَلِبُيُوتِهِمْ أَبْوَباً وَسُرُراً عَلَيْهَا يَتَّكِئُونَ

وَزُخْرُفاً وَإِن كُلُّ ذَلِكَ لَمَّا مَتَـعُ الْحَيَوةِ الدُّنْيَا وَالاٌّخِرَةُ عِندَ رَبِّكَ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ

And were it not that mankind would have become of one community (all disbelievers desiring worldly life only), We would have provided for those who disbelieve in the Most Gracious (Allah), silver roofs for their houses, and elevators whereby they ascend. And for their houses, doors (of silver), and thrones (of silver) on which they could recline. And adornments of gold. Yet all this would have been nothing but an enjoyment of this world. And the Hereafter with your Lord is (only) for the Muttaqin (the pious). (43:33-35)

Allah said next,

… ثُمَّ أَضْطَرُّهُ إِلَى عَذَابِ النَّارِ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ

Then I shall compel him to the torment of the Fire, and worst indeed is that destination!

meaning, “After the delight that the disbeliever enjoyed in this life, I will make his destination torment in the Fire, and what an evil destination.”

This Ayah indicates that Allah gives the disbelievers respite and then seizes them in a manner compatible to His greatness and ability.

This Ayah is similar to Allah’s statement,

وَكَأَيِّن مِّن قَرْيَةٍ أَمْلَيْتُ لَهَا وَهِىَ ظَـلِمَةٌ ثُمَّ أَخَذْتُهَا وَإِلَىَّ الْمَصِيرُ

And many a township did I give respite while it was given to wrongdoing. Then (in the end) I seized it (with punishment). And to Me is the (final) return (of all). (22:48)

Also, the Two Sahihs recorded,

لَا أَحَدَ أَصْبَرُ عَلى أَذًى سَمِعَهُ مِنَ اللهِ إِنَّهُمْ يَجْعَلُونَ لَهُ وَلَدًا وَهُوَ يَرْزُقُهُمْ وَيُعَافِيهِم

No one is more patient than Allah when hearing abuse. They attribute a son to Him, while He grants them sustenance and health.

The Sahih also recorded,

إِنَّ اللهَ لَيُمْلِي لِلظَّالِمِ حَتّى إِذَا أَخَذَهُ لَمْ يُفْلِتْه

Allah gives respite to the unjust person, until when He seizes him; He never lets go of him.

He then recited Allah’s statement,

وَكَذلِكَ أَخْذُ رَبِّكَ إِذَا أَخَذَ الْقُرَى وَهِىَ ظَـلِمَةٌ إِنَّ أَخْذَهُ أَلِيمٌ شَدِيدٌ

Such is the punishment of your Lord when He punishes the (population of) towns while they are doing wrong. Verily, His punishment is painful (and) severe. (11:102)

Building the Ka`bah and asking Allah to accept This Deed

Allah said,

وَإِذْ يَرْفَعُ إِبْرَاهِيمُ الْقَوَاعِدَ مِنَ الْبَيْتِ وَإِسْمَاعِيلُ رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا إِنَّكَ أَنتَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ ﴿١٢٧﴾

And (remember) when Ibrahim (Abraham) and (his son) Ismail (Ishmael) were raising the foundations of the House (the Ka`bah at Makkah), (saying), “Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us. Verily, You are the Hearer, the Knower.

Allah said,

“O Muhammad! Remind your people when Ibrahim and Ismail built the House and raised its foundations while saying, رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا إِنَّكَ أَنتَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ (Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us. Verily, You are the Hearer, the Knower).”

Al-Qurtubi mentioned that Ubayy and Ibn Mas`ud used to recite the Ayah this way,

وَإِذْ يَرْفَعُ إِبْرَاهِيمُ الْقَوَاعِدَ مِنَ الْبَيْتِ وَإِسْمَاعِيلُ وَيَقَُولَانِ رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا إِنَّكَ أَنتَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

And (remember) when Ibrahim and (his son) Ismail were raising the foundations of the House (the Ka`bah at Makkah), Saying, “Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us. Verily, You are the Hearer, the Knower.”

What further testifies to this statement (which adds saying’ to the Ayah) by Ubayy and Ibn Masud, is what came afterwards, رَبَّنَا وَاجْعَلْنَا مُسْلِمَيْنِ لَكَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِنَا أُمَّةً مُّسْلِمَةً لَّكَ (Our Lord! And make us submissive unto You and of our offspring a nation submissive unto You).

The Prophets Ibrahim and Ismail were performing a good deed, yet they asked Allah to accept this good deed from them.

Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that;

Wuhayb bin Al-Ward recited, وَإِذْ يَرْفَعُ إِبْرَاهِيمُ الْقَوَاعِدَ مِنَ الْبَيْتِ وَإِسْمَاعِيلُ رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا (And (remember) when Ibrahim and (his son) Ismail were raising the foundations of the House (the Ka`bah at Makkah), (saying), “Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us”) and cried and said,

“O Khalil of Ar-Rahman! You raise the foundations of the House of Ar-Rahman (Allah), yet you are afraid that He will not accept it from you”

This is the behavior of the sincere believers, whom Allah described in His statement, وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْتُونَ مَا آتَوا And those who give that which they give, (23:60),

meaning, they give away voluntary charity, and perform the acts of worship yet, وَّقُلُوبُهُمْ وَجِلَةٌ (with their hearts full of fear) (23: 60) afraid that these good deeds might not be accepted of them.

There is an authentic Hadith narrated by Aishah on this subject, which we will mention later, Allah willing.

Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn Abbas said,

“Prophet Ibrahim took Ismail and his mother and went away with them until he reached the area of the House, where he left them next to a tree above Zamzam in the upper area of the Masjid. During that time, Ismail’s mother was still nursing him. Makkah was then uninhabited, and there was no water source in it. Ibrahim left them there with a bag containing some dates and a water-skin containing water.

Ibrahim then started to leave, and Ismail’s mother followed him and said, `O Ibrahim! To whom are you leaving us in this barren valley that is not inhabited?’ She repeated the question several times and Ibrahim did not reply.

She asked, `Has Allah commanded you to do this?’

He said, `Yes.’

She said, `I am satisfied that Allah will never abandon us.’

Ibrahim left, and when he was far enough away where they could not see him, close to Thaniyyah, he faced the House, raised his hands and supplicated, رَّبَّنَا إِنِّي أَسْكَنتُ مِن ذُرِّيَّتِي بِوَادٍ غَيْرِ ذِي زَرْعٍ عِندَ بَيْتِكَ الْمُحَرَّمِ (O our Lord! I have made some of my offspring to dwell in an uncultivable valley by Your Sacred House (the Ka`bah at Makkah)) until, يَشْكُرُونَ (Give thanks) (14:37).

Ismail’s mother then returned to her place, started drinking water from the water-skin and nursing Ismail. When the water was used up, she and her son became thirsty. She looked at him, and he was suffering from thirst; she left, because she disliked seeing his face in that condition. She found the nearest mountain to where she was, As-Safa, ascended it and looked, in vain, hoping to see somebody. When she came down to the valley, she raised her garment and ran, just as a tired person runs, until she reached the Al-Marwah mountain. In vain, she looked to see if there was someone there. She ran to and fro (between the two mountains) seven times.”

Ibn Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

“This is why the people make the trip between As-Safa and Al-Marwah (during Hajj and Umrah).”

“When she reached Al-Marwah, she heard a voice and said, Shush,’ to herself. She tried to hear the voice again and when she did, she said,I have heard you. Do you have relief?’

She found the angel digging with his heel (or his wing) where Zamzam now exists, and the water gushed out.

Ismail’s mother was astonished and started digging, using her hand to transfer water to the water-skin.”

Ibn Abbas said that the Prophet then said,

“May Allah grant His mercy to the mother of Ismail, had she left the water, (flow naturally without her intervention), it would have been flowing on the surface of the earth.”

“Ismail’s mother started drinking the water and her milk increased for her child.

The angel (Gabriel) said to her, `Do not fear abandonment. There shall be a House for Allah built here by this boy and his father. Allah does not abandon His people.’

During that time, the area of the House was raised above ground level and the floods used to reach its right and left sides.

Afterwards some people of the tribe of Jurhum, passing through Kada’, made camp at the bottom of the valley. They saw some birds, they were astonished, and said, `Birds can only be found at a place where there is water. We did not notice before that this valley had water.’

They sent a scout or two who searched the area, found the water, and returned to inform them about it. Then they all went to Ismail’s mother, next to the water, and said, `O Mother of Ismail! Will you allow us to be with you (or dwell with you)?’

She said, `Yes. But you will have no exclusive right to the water here.’

They said, `We agree.”’

Ibn Abbas said that the Prophet said,

“At that time, Ismail’s mother liked to have human company.”

“And thus they stayed there and sent for their relatives to join them. Later on, her boy reached the age of puberty and married a lady from them, for Ismail learned Arabic from them, and they liked the way he was raised. Ismail’s mother died after that.

Then an idea occurred to Abraham to visit his dependents. So he left (to Makkah). When he arrived, he did not find Ismail, so he asked his wife about him. She said, `He has gone out hunting.’

When he asked her about their living conditions, she complained to him that they live in misery and poverty.

Abraham said (to her), `When your husband comes, convey my greeting and tell him to change the threshold of his gate.’

When Ismail came, he sensed that they had a visitor and asked his wife, `Did we have a visitor?’

She said, `Yes. An old man came to visit us and asked me about you, and I told him where you were. He also asked about our condition, and I told him that we live in hardship and poverty.’

Ismail said, `Did he ask you to do anything?’

She said, `Yes. He asked me to convey his greeting and that you should change the threshold of your gate.’

Ismail said to her, `He was my father and you are the threshold, so go to your family (i.e. you are divorced).’

So he divorced her and married another woman.

Again Ibrahim thought of visiting his dependents whom he had left (at Makkah). Ibrahim came to Ismail’s house, but did not find Ismail and asked his wife, `Where is Ismail?’

Ismail’s wife replied, `He has gone out hunting.’

He asked her about their condition, and she said that they have a good life and praised Allah.

Ibrahim asked, `What is your food and what is your drink?’

She replied, `Our food is meat and our drink is water.’

He said, `O Allah! Bless their meat and their drink.”’

The Prophet (Muhammad) said,

“They did not have crops then, otherwise Ibrahim would have invoked Allah to bless that too. Those who do not live in Makkah cannot bear eating a diet only containing meat and water.”

“Ibrahim said, `When Ismail comes back, convey my greeting to him and ask him to keep the threshold of his gate.’

When Ismail came back, he asked, `Has anyone visited us?’

She said, Yes. A good looking old man,’ and she praised Ibrahim,And he asked me about our livelihood and I told him that we live in good conditions.’

He asked, `Did he ask you to convey any message?’

She said, `Yes. He conveyed his greeting to you and said that you should keep the threshold of your gate.’

Ismail said, `That was my father, and you are the threshold; he commanded me to keep you.’

Ibrahim then came back visiting and found Ismail behind the Zamzam well, next to a tree, mending his arrows. When he saw Ibrahim, he stood up and they greeted each other, just as the father and son greet each other.

Ibrahim said, `O Ismail, Your Lord has ordered me to do something.’

He said, `Obey your Lord.’

He asked Ismail, `Will you help me?’

He said, `Yes, I will help you.’

Ibrahim said, `Allah has commanded me to build a house for Him there,’ and he pointed to an area that was above ground level.

So, both of them rose and started to raise the foundations of the House. Abraham started building (the Kabah), while Ismail continued handing him the stones. Both of them were saying,O our Lord ! Accept (this service) from us, Verily, You are the Hearing, the Knowing.’ (2.127).”’

Hence, they were building the House, part by part, going around it and saying, رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا إِنَّكَ أَنتَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ (Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us. Verily, You are the Hearer, the Knower).

The Story of rebuilding the House by Quraysh before the Messenger of Allah was sent as Prophet

In his Sirah, Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar said,

“When the Messenger of Allah reached thirty-five years of age, the Quraysh gathered to rebuild the Kabah, this included covering it with a roof. However, they were weary of demolishing it. During that time, the Kabah was barely above a man’s shoulder, so they wanted to raise its height and build a ceiling on top.

Some people had stolen the Kabah’s treasure beforehand, which used to be in a well in the middle of the Kabah. The treasure was later found with a man called, Duwayk, a freed servant of Bani Mulayh bin Amr, from the tribe of Khuzaah. The Quraysh cut off his hand as punishment. Some people claimed that those who actually stole the treasure left it with Duwayk.

Afterwards, the sea brought a ship that belonged to a Roman merchant to the shores of Jeddah, where it washed-up. So they collected the ship’s wood to use it for the Kabah’s ceiling; a Coptic carpenter in Makkah prepared what they needed for the job. When they decided to begin the demolition process to rebuild the House, Abu Wahb bin Amr bin A’idh bin Abd bin Imran bin Makhzum took a stone from the Kabah; the stone slipped from his hand and went back to where it had been.

He said, `O people of Quraysh! Do not spend on rebuilding the House, except from what was earned from pure sources. No money earned from a prostitute, usury or injustice should be included.”’

Ibn Ishaq commented here that the people also attribute these words to Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah bin Abdullah bin Amr bin Makhzum.

Ibn Ishaq continued,

“The Quraysh began to organize their efforts to rebuild the Ka`bah, each sub tribe taking the responsibility of rebuilding a designated part of it.

However, they were still weary about bringing down the Kabah. Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah said,I will start to bring it down.’ He held an ax and stood by the Kabah and said,O Allah! No harm is meant. O Allah! We only seek to do a good service.’ He then started to chop the House’s stones.

The people waited that night and said, `We will wait and see. If something strikes him, we will not bring it down and instead rebuild it the way it was. If nothing happens to him, then Allah will have agreed to what we are doing.’

The next morning, Al-Walid went to work on the Kabah, and the people started bringing the Kabah down with him. When they reached the foundations that Ibrahim built, they uncovered green stones that were above each other, just like a pile of spears.”

Ibn Ishaq then said that some people told him,

“A man from Quraysh, who was helping rebuild the Ka`bah, placed the shovel between two of these stones to pull them up; when one of the stones was moved, all of Makkah shook, so they did not dig up these stones.”

The Dispute regarding Who should place the Black Stone in Its Place

Ibn Ishaq said,

“The tribes of Quraysh collected stones to rebuild the House, each tribe collecting on their own. They started rebuilding it, until the rebuilding of the Ka`bah reached the point where the Black Stone was to be placed in its designated site.

A dispute erupted between the various tribes of Quraysh, each seeking the honor of placing the Black Stone for their own tribe. The dispute almost led to violence between the leaders of Quraysh in the area of the Sacred House.

Banu Abd Ad-Dar and Banu Adi bin Ka`b bin Lu’ay, gave their mutual pledge to fight until death. However, five or four days later, Abu Umayyah bin Al-Mughirah bin Abdullah bin Amr bin Makhzum, the oldest man from Quraysh then intervened at the right moment. Abu Umayyah suggested that Quraysh should appoint the first man to enter the House from its entrance to be a mediator between them. They agreed.

The Messenger – Muhammad – was the first person to enter the House. When the various leaders of Quraysh realized who the first one was, they all proclaimed, `This is Al-Amin (the Honest one). We all accept him; This is Muhammad.’

When the Prophet reached the area where the leaders were gathering and they informed him about their dispute, he asked them to bring a garment and place it on the ground. He placed the Black Stone on it. He then requested that each of the leaders of Quraysh hold the garment from one side and all participate in lifting the Black Stone, moving it to its designated area. Next, the Prophet carried the Black Stone by himself and placed it in its designated position and built around it. The Quraysh used to call the Messenger of Allah `Al-Amin‘ even before the revelation came to him.”

Ibn Az-Zubayr rebuilds Al-Ka`bah the way the Prophet wished

Ibn Ishaq said,

“During the time of the Prophet, the Ka`bah was eighteen cubits high and was covered with Egyptian linen, and they with a striped garment.

Al-Hajjaj bin Yusuf was the first person to cover it with silk.”

The Ka`bah remained the same way the Quraysh rebuilt it, until it was burned during the reign of Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr, after the year 6o H, at the end of the reign of Yazid bin Muawiyah.

During that time, Ibn Az-Zubayr was besieged at Makkah. When it was burned, Ibn Az-Zubayr brought the Kabah down and built it upon the foundations of Ibrahim, including the Hijr in it. He also made an eastern door and a western door in the Kabah and placed them on ground level. He had heard his aunt Aishah, the Mother of the believers, narrate that the Messenger of Allah had wished that.

The Ka`bah remained like this throughout his reign, until Al-Hajjaj killed Ibn Az-Zubayr and then rebuilt it the way it was before, by the order of Abdul-Malik bin Marwan.

Muslim recorded that Ata said,

“The House was burnt during the reign of Yazid bin Muawiyah, when the people of Ash-Sham raided Makkah.

Ibn Az-Zubayr did not touch the House until the people came for Hajj, for he wanted to incite them against the people of Ash-Sham. He said to them, O people! Advise me regarding the Kabah, should we bring it down and rebuild it, or just repair the damage it sustained.’

Ibn Abbas said, `I have an opinion about this. You should rebuild the House the way it was when the people became Muslims. You should leave the stones that existed when the people became Muslims and when the Prophet was sent.’

Ibn Az-Zubayr said, `If the house of one of them gets burned, he will not be satisfied, until he rebuilds it. How about Allah’s House I will invoke my Lord for three days and will then implement what I decide.’

When the three days had passed, he decided to bring the Ka`bah down. The people hesitated to bring it down, fearing that the first person to climb on the House would be struck down. A man went on top of the House and threw some stones down, and when the people saw that no harm touched him, they started doing the same. They brought the House down to ground level.

Ibn Az-Zubayr surrounded the site with curtains hanging from pillars, so that the House would be covered, until the building was erect.

Ibn Az-Zubayr then said, `I heard Aishah say that the Messenger of Allah said,

لَوْلَا أَنَّ النَّاسَ حَدِيثٌ عَهْدُهُمْ بِكُفْرٍ، وَلَيْسَ عِنْدِي مِنَ النَّفَقَةِ مَا يُقَوِّينِي عَلى بِنَائِهِ لَكُنْتُ أَدْخَلْتُ فِيهِ مِنَ الْحِجْرِ خَمْسَةَ أَذْرُعٍ، وَلَجَعَلْتُ لَهُ بَابًا يَدْخُلُ النَّاسُ مِنْهُ وَبَابًا يَخْرُجُونَ مِنْه

If it was not for the fact that the people have recently abandoned disbelief, and that I do not have enough money to spend on it, I would have included in the House five cubits from Al-Hijr and would have made a door for it that people could enter from, and another door that they could exit from.

Ibn Az-Zubayr said, `I can spend on this job, and I do not fear the people.’

So he added five cubits from the Hijr, which looked like a rear part for the House that people could clearly see. He then built the House and made it eighteen cubits high. He thought that the House was still short and added ten cubits in the front and built two doors in it, one as an entrance and another as an exit.

When Ibn Az-Zubayr was killed, Al-Hajjaj wrote to Abdul-Malik bin Marwan asking him about the House and told him that Ibn Az-Zubayr made a rear section for the House.

Abdul-Malik wrote back, We do not agree with Ibn Az-Zubayr’s actions. As, for the Kabah’s height, leave it as it is. As for what he added from the Hijr, bring it down, and build the House as it was before and close the door.’

Therefore, Al-Hajjaj brought down the House and rebuilt it as it was.”

In his Sunan, An-Nasa’i collected the Hadith of the Prophet narrated from Aishah, not the whole story,

The correct Sunnah conformed to Ibn Az-Zubayr’s actions, because this was what the Prophet wished he could do, but feared that the hearts of the people who recently became Muslim could not bear rebuilding the House. This Sunnah was not clear to Abdul-Malik bin Marwan. Hence, when Abdul-Malik realized that Aishah had narrated the Hadith of the Messenger of Allah on this subject, he said, “I wish we had left it as Ibn Az-Zubayr had made it.”

Muslim recorded that Ubadydullah bin Ubayd said that Al-Harith bin Abdullah came to Abdul-Malik bin Marwan during his reign. Abdul-Malik said, `I did not think that Abu Khubayb (Ibn Az-Zubayr) heard from Aishah what he said he heard from her.’

Al-Harith said, `Yes he did. I heard the Hadith from her.’

Abdul-Malik said, `You heard her say what?’

He said, `She said that the Messenger of Allah said,

إِنَّ قَوْمَكِ اسْتَقْصَرُوا مِنْ بُنْيَانِ الْبَيْتِ وَلَوْلَا حَدَاثَةُ عَهْدِهِمْ بِالشِّرْكِ أَعَدْتُ مَا تَرَكُوا مِنْهُ، فَإِنْ بَدَا لِقَوْمِكِ مِنْ بَعْدِي أَنْ يَبْنُوهُ فَهَلُمِّي لِأُرِيَكِ مَا تَرَكُوهُ مِنْه

Your people rebuilt the House smaller. Had it not been for the fact that your people are not far from the time of Shirk, I would add what was left outside of it. If your people afterwards think about rebuilding it, let me show you what they left out of it.

He showed her around seven cubits.’

One of the narrators of the Hadith, Al-Walid bin Ata, added that the Prophet said,

وَلَجَعَلْتُ لَهَا بَابَيْنِ مَوْضُوعَيْنِ فِي الْأَرْضِ: شَرْقِيًّا وَغَرْبِيًّا، وَهَلْ تَدرِينَ لِمَ كَانَ قَومُكِ رَفَعُوا بَابَهَا ؟

I would have made two doors for the House on ground level, one eastern and one western. Do you know why your people raised its door above ground level?

She said, `No.’

He said,

تَعَزُّزًا أَنْ لَا يَدْخُلَهَا إِلَّا مَنْ أَرَادُوا، فَكَانَ الرَّجُلُ إِذَا هُوَ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَدْخُلَهَا يَدَعُونَهُ يَرْتَقِي حَتَّى إِذَا كَادَ أَنْ يَدْخُلَ دَفَعُوهُ فَسَقَط

To allow only those whom they wanted to enter it. When a man whom they did not wish to enter the House climbed to the level of the door, they would push him down.

Abdul-Malik then said, `You heard Aishah say this Hadith?’

He said, `Yes.’

Abdul-Malik said, `I wish I left it as it was.”

An Ethiopian will destroy the Ka`bah just before the Last Hour

The Two Sahihs recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

يُخَرِّبُ الْكَعْبَةَ ذُو السُّوَيْقَتَيْنِ مِنَ الْحَبَشَة

The Ka`bah will be destroyed by Dhus-Sawiqatayn (literally, a person with two lean legs) from Ethiopia.

Also, Ibn Abbas said that the Prophet said,

كَأَنِّي بِهِ أَسْوَدَ أَفْحَجَ يَقْلَعُهَا حَجَرًا حَجَرًا

As if I see him now: a black person with thin legs plucking the stones of the Ka`bah one after another.

Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith.

Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded in his Musnad that Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-`As said that he heard the Messenger of Allah say,

يُخَرِّبُ الْكَعْبَةَ ذُو السُّوَيْقَتَيْنِ مِنَ الْحَبَشَةِ وَيَسْلُبُهَا حِلْيَتَهَا وَيُجَرِّدُهَا مِنْ كِسْوَتِهَا، وَلَكَأَنِّي أَنْظُرُ إِلَيْهِ أُصَيْلِعَ وَ أُفَيْدِعَ يَضْرِبُ عَلَيْهَا بِمِسْحَاتِهِ وَمِعْوَلِه

Dhus-Sawiqatayn from Ethiopia will destroy the Kabah and will loot its adornments and cover. It is as if I see him now: bald, with thin legs striking the Kabah with his ax.

This will occur after the appearance of Gog and Magog people.

Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said that the Messenger of Allah said,

لَيُحَجَّنَّ الْبَيْتُ وَلَيُعْتَمَرَنَّ بَعْدَ خُرُوجِ يَأْجُوجَ وَمَأْجُوج

There will be Hajj and Umrah to the House after the appearance of Gog and Magog people.)

Al-Khalil’s Supplication

Allah said that Ibrahim and Ismail supplicated to Him,

رَبَّنَا وَاجْعَلْنَا مُسْلِمَيْنِ لَكَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِنَا أُمَّةً مُّسْلِمَةً لَّكَ وَأَرِنَا مَنَاسِكَنَا وَتُبْ عَلَيْنَآ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ ﴿١٢٨﴾

Our Lord! And make us submissive unto You and of our offspring a nation submissive unto You, and show us our Manasik, and accept our repentance. Truly, You are the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.

Ibn Jarir said,

“They meant by their supplication, `Make us submit to Your command and obedience and not associate anyone with You in obedience or worship.”

Also, Ikrimah commented on the Ayah, رَبَّنَا وَاجْعَلْنَا مُسْلِمَيْنِ لَكَ (Our Lord! And make us submissive unto You),

“Allah said, `I shall do that.”’

وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِنَا أُمَّةً مُّسْلِمَةً لَّكَ (And of our offspring a nation submissive unto You),

Allah said, `I shall do that.’”

This supplication by Ibrahim and Ismail is similar to what Allah informed us of about His believing servants,

وَالَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا هَبْ لَنَا مِنْ أَزْوَجِنَا وَذُرِّيَّـتِنَا قُرَّةَ أَعْيُنٍ وَاجْعَلْنَا لِلْمُتَّقِينَ إِمَاماً

And those who say: `Our Lord! Bestow on us from our wives and our offspring the comfort of our eyes, and make us leaders of the Muttaqin. (25:74)

This type of supplication is allowed, because loving to have offspring who worship Allah alone without partners is a sign of complete love of Allah. This is why when Allah said to Ibrahim, إِنِّي جَاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًا (Verily, I am going to make you an Imam (a leader) for mankind (to follow you)), (2:124),

Ibrahim said, وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِي قَالَ لاَ يَنَالُ عَهْدِي الظَّالِمِينَ (“And of my offspring (to make leaders).” (Allah) said, “My covenant (Prophethood) includes not the Zalimin (polytheists and wrongdoers)”) (2:124) which is explained by, وَاجْنُبْنِي وَبَنِيَّ أَن نَّعْبُدَ الأَصْنَامَ (And keep me and my sons away from worshipping idols) (14:35)

Muslim narrated in his Sahih that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

إِذَا مَاتَ ابْنُ آدَمَ انْقَطَعَ عَمَلُهُ إِلَّا مِنْ ثَلَاثٍ:

صَدَقَةٍ جَارِيَةٍ

أَوْ عِلْمٍ يُنْتَفَعُ بِهِ

أَوْ وَلَدٍ صَالِحٍ يَدْعُو لَه

When the son of Adam dies, his deeds end except for three deeds:

an ongoing charity,

a knowledge that is being benefited from and

a righteous son who supplicates (to Allah) for him.

The Meaning of Manasik

Sa`id bin Mansur said that Attab bin Bashir informed us from Khasif, from Mujahid who said,

“The Prophet Ibrahim supplicated, وَأَرِنَا مَنَاسِكَنَا (and show us our Manasik), Jibril then came down, took him to the House and said, `Raise its foundations.’

Ibrahim raised the House’s foundations and completed the building.

Jibril held Ibrahim’s hand, led him to As-Safa and said, `This is among the rituals of Allah.’

He then took him to Al-Marwah and said, `And this is among the rituals of Allah.’

He then took him to Mina until when they reached the Aqabah, they found Iblis standing next to a tree. Jibril said, `Say Takbir (Allah is the Great) and throw (pebbles) at him.’

Ibrahim said the Takbir and threw (pebbles at) Iblis.

Iblis moved to the middle Jamrah, and when Jibril and Ibrahim passed by him, Jibril said to Ibrahim, `Say Takbir and throw at him.’

Ibrahim threw at him and said Takbir.

The devious Iblis sought to add some evil acts to the rituals of Hajj, but he was unable to succeed.

Jibril took Ibrahim’s hand and led him to Al-Mashar Al-Haram and Arafat and said to him,Have you Arafta (known, learned) what I showed you’ thrice.

Ibrahim said, `Yes I did.”’

Similar statements were reported from Abu Mijlaz and Qatadah.

Previous 126-128

رَبَّنَا وَابْعَثْ فِيهِمْ رَسُولاً مِّنْهُمْ يَتْلُواْ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَـتِكَ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَـبَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ العَزِيزُ الحَكِيمُ

2:129 “Our Lord! Send amongst them a Messenger of their own, who shall recite unto them Your verses and instruct them in the Book (this Qur’an), and purify them. Verily, You are the Mighty, the Wise.”

Discover the wisdom of Surah Al-Baqarah Ayat 121 at Quran House, emphasizing true belief and the consequences of rejection

Ibrahim’s Supplication that Allah sends the Prophet

Allah mentioned Ibrahim’s supplication;

رَبَّنَا وَابْعَثْ فِيهِمْ رَسُولاً مِّنْهُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِكَ …

“Our Lord! Send amongst them a Messenger of their own, who shall recite unto them Your verses,

Allah mentioned Ibrahim’s supplication for the benefit of the people of the Sacred Area (to grant them security and provision), and it was perfected by invoking Allah to send a Messenger from his offspring.

This accepted supplication, from Ibrahim, conformed with Allah’s appointed destiny that Muhammad be sent as a Messenger among the Ummiyyin and to all non-Arabs, among the Jinns and mankind.

Hence, Ibrahim was the first person to mention the Prophet to the people. Ever since, Muhammad was known to the people, until the last Prophet was sent among the Children of Israel, Jesus the son of Mary, who mentioned Muhammad by name. Jesus addressed the Children of Israel saying,

إِنِّى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُم مُّصَدِّقاً لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَىَّ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَمُبَشِّراً بِرَسُولٍ يَأْتِى مِن بَعْدِى اسْمُهُ أَحْمَدُ

I am the Messenger of Allah unto you, confirming what is before me in the Tawrah, and giving glad tidings of a Messenger to come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad. (61:6)

This is why the Prophet said,

دَعْوَةُ أَبِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَبُشْرَى عِيسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَم

The supplication of my father Ibrahim and the glad tidings brought forth by Jesus the son of Mary.

The Prophet said,

وَرَأَتْ أُمِّي أَنَّهُ خَرَجَ مِنْهَا نُورٌ أَضَاءَتْ لَهُ قُصُورُ الشَّام

My mother saw a light that went out of her and radiated the palaces of Ash-Sham.

It was said that;

the Prophet’s mother saw this vision when she was pregnant with, narrated this vision to her people, and the story became popular among them.

The light mentioned in the Hadith appeared in Ash-Sham (Greater Syria), testifying to what will later occur when the Prophet’s religion will be firmly established in Ash-Sham area. This is why by the end of time, Ash-Sham will be a refuge for Islam and its people. Also, Jesus the son of Mary will descend in Ash-Sham, next to the eastern white minaret in Damascus.

The Two Sahihs stated,

لَا تَزَالُ طَائِفَةٌ مِنْ أُمَّتِي ظَاهِرِينَ عَلَى الْحَقِّ لَا يَضُرُّهُمْ مَنْ خَذَلَهُمْ وَلَا مَنْ خَالَفَهُمْ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَ أَمْرُ اللهِ وَهُمْ كَذَلِك

There will always be a group of my Ummah who will be on the truth, undeterred by those who fail or oppose them, until the command of Allah comes while they are on this.

Al-Bukhari added in his Sahih,

وَهُمْ بالشَّام

And they will reside in Ash-Sham.

The Meaning of Al-Kitab wal-Hikmah

Allah said,

… وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ …

and instruct them in the Book,

meaning, Al-Qur’an,

… وَالْحِكْمَةَ …

and Al-Hikmah,

meaning, the Sunnah,

as Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Muqatil bin Hayyan and Abu Malik asserted.

It was also said that `Al-Hikmah‘, means

`comprehension in the religion’,

and both meanings are correct.

… وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ …

and purify them,

Ali bin Abi Talhah said, that Ibn Abbas said that the Ayah means,

“With the obedience of Allah.”

… إِنَّكَ أَنتَ العَزِيزُ الحَكِيمُ ﴿١٢٩﴾

Verily, You are the Mighty, the Wise.

This Ayah stated that Allah is able to do anything, and nothing escapes His ability. He is Wise in His decisions, His actions, and He puts everything in its rightful place due to His perfect knowledge, wisdom and justice.

Previous 129

وَمَن يَرْغَبُ عَن مِّلَّةِ إِبْرَهِيمَ إِلاَّ مَن سَفِهَ نَفْسَهُ وَلَقَدِ اصْطَفَيْنَـهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَإِنَّهُ فِى الاٌّخِرَةِ لَمِنَ الصَّـلِحِينَ

2:130 And who turns away from the religion of Ibrahim (i.e. Islamic Monotheism) except him who fools himself! Truly, We chose him in this world and verily, in the Hereafter he will be among the righteous.

إِذْ قَالَ لَهُ رَبُّهُ أَسْلِمْ قَالَ أَسْلَمْتُ لِرَبِّ الْعَـلَمِينَ

2:131 When his Lord said to him, “Submit (i.e. be a Muslim)!” He said, “I have submitted myself (as a Muslim) to the Lord of the `Alamin (mankind, Jinn and all that exists).”

وَوَصَّى بِهَآ إِبْرَهِيمُ بَنِيهِ وَيَعْقُوبُ يَـبَنِىَّ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اصْطَفَى لَكُمُ الدِّينَ فَلاَ تَمُوتُنَّ إَلاَّ وَأَنتُم مُّسْلِمُونَ

2:132 And this (submission to Allah, Islam) was enjoined by Ibrahim (Abraham) upon his sons and by Yaqub (Jacob) (saying), “O my sons! Allah has chosen for you the (true) religion, then die not except as Muslims.”

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Next 133-134

Only the Fools deviate from Ibrahim’s Religion

Allah says;

وَمَن يَرْغَبُ عَن مِّلَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِلاَّ مَن سَفِهَ نَفْسَهُ وَلَقَدِ اصْطَفَيْنَاهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَإِنَّهُ فِي الآخِرَةِ لَمِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ ﴿١٣٠﴾

And who turns away from the religion of Ibrahim (i.e. Islamic Monotheism) except him who fools himself! Truly, We chose him in this world and verily, in the Hereafter he will be among the righteous.

Allah refuted the disbelievers’ innovations of associating others with Allah in defiance of the religion of Ibrahim, the leader of the upright. Ibrahim always singled out Allah in worship, with sincerity, and he did not call upon others besides Allah. He did not commit Shirk, even for an instant. He disowned every other deity that was being worshipped instead of Allah and defied all his people in this regard. Prophet Ibrahim said,

فَلَماَّ رَأَى الشَّمْسَ بَازِغَةً قَالَ هَـذَا رَبِّى هَـذَآ أَكْبَرُ فَلَمَّآ أَفَلَتْ قَالَ يقَوْمِ إِنِّى بَرِىءٌ مِّمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ

إِنِّى وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِىَ لِلَّذِى فَطَرَ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ حَنِيفاً وَمَآ أَنَاْ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

O my people! I am indeed free from all that you join as partners (in worship with Allah). Verily, I have turned my face towards Him Who has created the heavens and the earth Hanifa (Islamic Monotheism), and I am not of Al-Mushrikin. (6:78-79)

Also, Allah said,

وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَهِيمُ لاًّبِيهِ وَقَوْمِهِ إِنَّنِى بَرَآءٌ مِّمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ

إِلاَّ الَّذِى فَطَرَنِى فَإِنَّهُ سَيَهْدِينِ

(And (remember) when Ibrahim said to his father and his people: “Verily, I am innocent of what you worship. “Except Him (i.e. I worship none but Allah alone) Who did create me; and verily, He will guide me.” (43:26-27)

وَمَا كَانَ اسْتِغْفَارُ إِبْرَهِيمَ لاًّبِيهِ إِلاَّ عَن مَّوْعِدَةٍ وَعَدَهَآ إِيَّاهُ فَلَمَّا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ أَنَّهُ عَدُوٌّ لِلَّهِ تَبَرَّأَ مِنْهُ إِنَّ إِبْرَهِيمَ لأَوَّاهٌ حَلِيمٌ

And Ibrahim’s invoking (of Allah) for his father’s forgiveness was only because of a promise he (Ibrahim) had made to him (his father). But when it became clear to him (Ibrahim) that he (his father) was an enemy of Allah, he dissociated himself from him. Verily, Ibrahim was Awwah (one who invokes Allah with humility, glorifies Him and remembers Him much) and was forbearing. (9:114)

and,

إِنَّ إِبْرَهِيمَ كَانَ أُمَّةً قَـنِتًا لِلَّهِ حَنِيفًا وَلَمْ يَكُ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

شَاكِراً لانْعُمِهِ اجْتَبَـهُ وَهَدَاهُ إِلَى صِرَطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ

وَءاتَيْنَـهُ فِى الْدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَإِنَّهُ فِى الاٌّخِرَةِ لَمِنَ الصَّـلِحِينَ

Verily, Ibrahim was an Ummah (a leader having all the good qualities, or a nation), obedient to Allah, Hanif (i.e. to worship none but Allah), and he was not one of those who were Al-Mushrikin. (He was) thankful for His (Allah’s) favors. He (Allah) chose him (as an intimate friend) and guided him to a straight path. And We gave him good in this world, and in the Hereafter he shall be of the righteous. (16:120-122)

This is why Allah said here, وَمَن يَرْغَبُ عَن مِّلَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ (And who turns away from the religion of Ibrahim),

meaning, abandons his path, way and method إِلاَّ مَن سَفِهَ نَفْسَهُ (except him who fools himself),

meaning, who commits injustice against himself by deviating from the truth, to wickedness.

Such a person will be defying the path of he who was chosen in this life to be a true Imam, from the time he was young, until Allah chose him to be His Khalil, and who shall be among the successful in the Last Life. Is there anything more insane than deviating from this path and following the path of misguidance and deviation instead. Is there more injustice than this!

Allah said,

إِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ

Verily, joining others in worship with Allah is a great Zulm (wrong) indeed. (31:13)

Abu Al-Aliyah and Qatadah said,

“This Ayah (2:130) was revealed about the Jews who invented a practice that did not come from Allah and that defied the religion of Ibrahim.”

Allah’s statement,

مَا كَانَ إِبْرَهِيمُ يَهُودِيًّا وَلاَ نَصْرَانِيًّا وَلَكِن كَانَ حَنِيفًا مُّسْلِمًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

إِنَّ أَوْلَى النَّاسِ بِإِبْرَهِيمَ لَلَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُ وَهَـذَا النَّبِىُّ وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَاللَّهُ وَلِىُّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

Ibrahim was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was a true Muslim Hanifa (to worship none but Allah alone) and he was not of Al-Mushrikin. Verily, among mankind who have the best claim to Ibrahim are those who followed him, and this Prophet (Muhammad) and those who have believed (Muslims). And Allah is the Wali (Protector and Helper) of the believers. (3:67-68),

testifies to this fact.

Allah said next,

إِذْ قَالَ لَهُ رَبُّهُ أَسْلِمْ قَالَ أَسْلَمْتُ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ ﴿١٣١﴾

When his Lord said to him, “Submit (i.e. be a Muslim)!” He said, “I have submitted myself (as a Muslim) to the Lord of the Alamin (mankind, Jinn and all that exists).”

This Ayah indicates that Allah commanded Ibrahim to be sincere with Him and to abide and submit to Him;

Ibrahim perfectly adhered to Allah’s command.

Allah’s statement,

وَوَصَّى بِهَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بَنِيهِ وَيَعْقُوبُ …

And this (submission to Allah, Islam) was enjoined by Ibrahim upon his sons and by Yaqub,

means, Ibrahim commanded his offspring to follow this religion, that is, Islam, for Allah.

Or, the Ayah might be referring to Ibrahim’s words, أَسْلَمْتُ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ (I have submitted myself (as a Muslim) to the Lord of the Alamin (mankind, Jinn and all that exists).

This means that these Prophets loved these words so much that they preserved them until the time of death and advised their children to adhere to them after them.

Similarly, Allah said,

وَجَعَلَهَا كَلِمَةً بَـقِيَةً فِى عَقِبِهِ

And he (Ibrahim) made it (i.e. La ilaha illallah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah alone)) a Word lasting among his offspring, (true Monotheism). (43:28)

It might be that Ibrahim advised his children, including Jacob, Isaac’s son, who were present. It appears, and Allah knows best, that Isaac was endowed with Jacob, during the lifetime of Ibrahim and Sarah, for the good news includes both of them in Allah’s statement,

فَبَشَّرْنَـهَا بِإِسْحَـقَ وَمِن وَرَآءِ إِسْحَـقَ يَعْقُوبَ

But We gave her (Sarah) glad tidings of Ishaq (Isaac), and after Ishaq, of Yaqub (Jacob). (11:71).

Also, if Jacob was not alive then, there would be no use here in mentioning him specifically among Isaac’s children.

Also, Allah said in Surah Al-Ankabut,

وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَـقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَجَعَلْنَا فِى ذُرِّيَّتِهِ النُّبُوَّةَ وَالْكِتَـبَ

And We bestowed on him (Ibrahim), Ishaq and Yaqub, and We ordained among his offspring Prophethood and the Book. (29:27)

and,

وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَـقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ نَافِلَةً

And We bestowed upon him Ishaq, and (a grandson) Yaqub, (21:72),

thus, indicating that this occurred during Ibrahim’s lifetime.

Also, Jacob built Bayt Al-Maqdis, as earlier books testified.

The Two Sahihs recorded that Abu Dharr said,

“I said, `O Messenger of Allah! Which Masjid was built first?’

He said, Al-Masjid Al-Haram (Al-Ka`bah).

I said, `Then?’

He said, Bayt Al- Maqdis.

I said, `How many years later?’

He said, Forty years.”

Further, the advice that Jacob gave to his children, which we will soon mention, testifies that Jacob was among those who received the advice mentioned in Ayat above (2:130-132).

Adhering to Tawhid until Death

Allah said,

… يَا بَنِيَّ إِنَّ اللّهَ اصْطَفَى لَكُمُ الدِّينَ فَلاَ تَمُوتُنَّ إَلاَّ وَأَنتُم مُّسْلِمُونَ ﴿١٣٢﴾

(Saying), “O my sons! Allah has chosen for you the (true) religion, then die not except as Muslims.”

meaning, perform righteous deeds during your lifetime and remain on this path, so that Allah will endow you with the favor of dying upon it.

Usually, one dies upon the path that he lived on and is resurrected according to what he died on. Allah, the Most Generous, helps those who seek to do good deeds to remain on the righteous path.

This by no means contradicts the authentic Hadith that says,

إِنَّ الرَّجُلَ لَيَعْمَلُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ حَتّـى مَا يَكُونُ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَهَا إِلَّا بَاعٌ أَوْ ذِرَاعٌ فَيَسْبِقُ عَلَيْهِ الْكِتَابُ فَيَعمَلُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ النَّار فَيَدْخُلُهَا.

وَإِنَّ الرَّجُلَ لَيَعْمَلُ بعَمَلِ أَهلِ النَّارِ حَتَّى مَا يَكُونُ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَهَا إِلَّا بَاعٌ أَو ذِرَاعٌ فَيَسْبِقُ عَلَيْهِ الْكِتَابُ فَيَعْمَلُ بعَمَلِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ فَيَدْخُلُهَا

Man might perform the works of the people of Paradise until only a span of outstretched arms or a cubit separates him from it, then the Book (destiny) takes precedence, and he performs the works of the people of the Fire and thus enters it.

Also, man might perform the works of the people of the Fire until only a span of outstretched arms or a cubit separates him from the Fire, but the Book takes precedence and he performs the works of the people of Paradise and thus enters it.

Allah said,

فَأَمَّا مَنْ أَعْطَى وَاتَّقَى

وَصَدَّقَ بِالْحُسْنَى

فَسَنُيَسِّرُهُ لِلْيُسْرَى

وَأَمَّا مَن بَخِلَ وَاسْتَغْنَى

وَكَذَّبَ بِالْحُسْنَى

فَسَنُيَسِّرُهُ لِلْعُسْرَى

As for him who gives (in charity) and keeps his duty to Allah and fears Him. And believes in Al-Husna. We will make smooth for him the path of ease (goodness).

But he who is a greedy miser and thinks himself self-sufficient. And belies Al-Husna (none has the right to be worshipped except Allah). We will make smooth for him the path for evil. (92:5-10)

Previous 130-132

أَمْ كُنتُمْ شُهَدَآءَ إِذْ حَضَرَ يَعْقُوبَ الْمَوْتُ إِذْ قَالَ لِبَنِيهِ مَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِن بَعْدِى

2:133 Or were you witnesses when death approached Yaqub (Jacob) When he said unto his sons, “What will you worship after me?”

قَالُواْ نَعْبُدُ إِلَـهَكَ وَإِلَـهَ آبَآئِكَ إِبْرَهِيمَ وَإِسْمَـعِيلَ وَإِسْحَـقَ إِلَـهًا وَاحِدًا وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ

They said, “We shall worship your Ilah (God ـ Allah) the Ilah of your fathers, Ibrahim (Abraham), Ismail (Ishmael), Ishaq (Isaac), One Ilah, and to Him we submit (in Islam).”

تِلْكَ أُمَّةٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَلَكُم مَّا كَسَبْتُم وَلاَ تُسْـَلُونَ عَمَّا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

2:134 That was a nation who has passed away. They shall receive the reward of what they earned and you of what you earn. And you will not be asked of what they used to do.

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Next 135

Yaqub’s Will and Testament to His Children upon His Death

Allah tells;

أَمْ كُنتُمْ شُهَدَاء إِذْ حَضَرَ يَعْقُوبَ الْمَوْتُ إِذْ قَالَ لِبَنِيهِ …

Or were you witnesses when death approached Yaqub (Jacob) When he said unto his sons, “What will you worship after me?”

This Ayah contains Allah’s criticism of the Arab pagans among the offspring of Ismail as well as the disbelievers among the Children of Israel Jacob the son of Isaac, the son of Ibrahim.

When death came to Jacob, he advised his children to worship Allah alone without partners.

He said to them,

… مَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِن بَعْدِي قَالُواْ نَعْبُدُ إِلَـهَكَ وَإِلَـهَ آبَائِكَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَقَ …

“What will you worship after me”

They said, “We shall worship your Ilah (God ـ Allah) the Ilah of your fathers, Ibrahim, Ismail, Ishaq,”

Mentioning Ismail here is a figure of speech, because Ismail is Jacob’s uncle.

An-Nahas said that the Arabs call the uncle a father, as Al-Qurtubi mentioned.

This Ayah is used as evidence that;

the grandfather is called a father and inherits, rather than the brothers (i.e. when his son dies), as Abu Bakr asserted, according to Al-Bukhari who narrated Abu Bakr’s statement from Ibn Abbas and Ibn Az-Zubayr.

Al-Bukhari then commented that there are no opposing opinions regarding this subject.

This is also the opinion of Aishah the Mother of the believers, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Tawus and Ata, Malik, Ash-Shafii and Ahmad said that the inheritance is divided between the grandfather and the brothers.

It was reported that this was also the opinion of Umar, Uthman, Ali, bin Mas`ud, Zayd bin Thabit and several scholars among the Salaf and later generations.

The statement,

… إِلَـهًا وَاحِدًا …

One Ilah (God),

means, “We single Him out in divinity and do not associate anything or anyone with Him.”

… وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ ﴿١٣٣﴾

And to Him we submit,

in obedience meaning, obedient and submissiveness.

Similarly, Allah said,

وَلَهُ أَسْلَمَ مَن فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ طَوْعًا وَكَرْهًا وَإِلَيْهِ يُرْجَعُونَ

While to Him submitted all creatures in the heavens and the earth, willingly or unwillingly. And to Him shall they all be returned. (3:83)

Indeed, Islam is the religion of all the Prophets, even if their respective laws differed.

Allah said,

وَمَآ أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلاَّ نُوحِى إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لا إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ أَنَاْ فَاعْبُدُونِ

And We did not send any Messenger before you (O Muhammad) ﴿but We revealed to him (saying): La ilaha illa Ana (none has the right to be worshipped but I (Allah)), so worship Me (alone and none else). (21:25)

There are many other Ayat – and Hadiths – on this subject. For instance, the Prophet said,

نَحْنُ مَعْشَرَ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ أَوْلَادُ عَلَّاتٍ دِينُنا وَاحِد

We, the Prophets, are brothers with different mothers, but the same religion.

Allah said,

تِلْكَ أُمَّةٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ …

That was a nation who has passed away,

meaning, existed before your time.

… لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَلَكُم مَّا كَسَبْتُمْ …

They shall receive the reward of what they earned and you of what you earn.

This Ayah proclaims, Your relationship to the Prophets or righteous people among your ancestors will not benefit you, unless you perform good deeds that bring about you religious benefit. They have their deeds and you have yours.

… وَلاَ تُسْأَلُونَ عَمَّا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ ﴿١٣٤﴾

And you will not be asked of what they used to do.

This is why a Hadith proclaims,

مَنْ بَطَّأَ بِهِ عَمَلُهُ لَمْ يُسْرِعْ بِهِ نَسَبُه

Whoever was slowed on account of his deeds will not get any faster on account of his family lineage.

Previous 133-134

وَقَالُواْ كُونُواْ هُودًا أَوْ نَصَـرَى تَهْتَدُواْ

2:135 And they say, “Be Jews or Christians, then you will be guided.”

قُلْ بَلْ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَهِيمَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

Say (to them O Muhammad), “Nay, (we follow) only the religion of Ibrahim, Hanif (Islamic Monotheism), and he was not of Al-Mushrikin (those who worshipped others along with Allah.

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Next 136

Allah says;

وَقَالُواْ كُونُواْ هُودًا أَوْ نَصَارَى تَهْتَدُواْ قُلْ بَلْ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ ﴿١٣٥﴾

And they say, “Be Jews or Christians, then you will be guided.” Say (to them O Muhammad), “Nay, (we follow) only the religion of Ibrahim, Hanif (Islamic Monotheism), and he was not of Al-Mushrikin (those who worshipped others along with Allah.

Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn Abbas said that Abdullah bin Suriya Al-Awar said to the Messenger of Allah,

“The guidance is only what we (Jews) follow. Therefore, follow us, O Muhammad, and you will be rightly guided.”

Also, the Christians said similarly, so Allah revealed, وَقَالُواْ كُونُواْ هُودًا أَوْ نَصَارَى تَهْتَدُواْ (And they say, “Be Jews or Christians, then you will be guided”).

Allah’s statement,

…قُلْ بَلْ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا …

Say (to them O Muhammad), “Nay, (we follow) only the religion of Ibrahim, Hanif.

means, “We do not need the Judaism or Christianity that you call us to, rather, مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا ((we follow) only the religion of Ibrahim, Hanif) meaning, on the straight path, as Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi and Isa bin Jariyah stated.

Also, Abu Qilabah said,

“The Hanif is what the Messengers, from beginning to end, believed in.”

Previous 135

قُولُواْ ءَامَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَى إِبْرَهِيمَ وَإِسْمَـعِيلَ وَإِسْحَـقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالأَسْبَاطِ وَمَآ أُوتِىَ مُوسَى وَعِيسَى وَمَآ أُوتِيَ النَّبِيُّونَ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ

2:136 Say (O Muslims): “We believe in Allah and that which has been sent down to us and that which has been sent down to Ibrahim (Abraham), Ismail (Ishmael), Ishaq (Isaac), Yaqub (Jacob), and to Al-Asbat (the offspring of the twelve sons of Yaqub), and that which has been given to Musa (Moses) and `Isa (Jesus), and that which has been given to the Prophets from their Lord.

لاَ نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ

We make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we have submitted (in Islam).”

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Next 137-138

The Muslim believes in all that Allah `revealed and all the Prophets

Allah says;

قُولُواْ آمَنَّا بِاللّهِ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالأسْبَاطِ وَمَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَى وَعِيسَى وَمَا أُوتِيَ النَّبِيُّونَ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ لاَ نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ ﴿١٣٦﴾

Say (O Muslims): “We believe in Allah and that which has been sent down to us and that which has been sent down to Ibrahim (Abraham), Ismail (Ishmael), Ishaq (Isaac), Yaqub (Jacob), and to Al-Asbat (the offspring of the twelve sons of Yaqub), and that which has been given to Musa (Moses) and `Isa (Jesus), and that which has been given to the Prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we have submitted (in Islam).”

Allah directed His believing servants to believe in what He sent down to them through His Messenger Muhammad and in what was revealed to the previous Prophets in general.

Some Prophets Allah mentioned by name, while He did not mention the names of many others.

Allah directed the believers to refrain from differentiating between the Prophets and to believe in them all.

They should avoid imitating whomever Allah described as,

وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يُفَرِّقُواْ بَيْنَ اللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيقُولُونَ نُؤْمِنُ بِبَعْضٍ وَنَكْفُرُ بِبَعْضٍ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَّخِذُواْ بَيْنَ ذَلِكَ سَبِيلاً

أُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْكَـفِرُونَ حَقّاً

And wish to make distinction between Allah and His Messengers (by believing in Allah and disbelieving in His Messengers) saying, “We believe in some but reject others,” and wish to adopt a way in between.

They are in truth disbelievers. (4:150-151)

Al-Bukhari narrated that Abu Hurayrah said,

“The People of the Book used to read the Torah in Hebrew and translate it into Arabic for the Muslims. The Messenger of Allah said,

لَا تُصَدِّقُوا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ وَلَا تُكَذِّبُوهُمْ وقُولُوا: آمَنَّا بِاللهِ وَمَا أُنْزل إِلَيْنَا

Do not believe the People of the Book, nor reject what they say. Rather, say, `We believe in Allah and in what was sent down to us.”

Also, Muslim, Abu Dawud and An-Nasa’i recorded that Ibn Abbas said,

“Mostly, the Messenger of Allah used to recite, آمَنَّا بِاللّهِ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْنَا (We believe in Allah and that which has been sent down to us) (2:136), and, آمَنَّا بِاللّهِ وَاشْهَدْ بِأَنَّا مُسْلِمُونَ (We believe in Allah, and bear witness that we are Muslims (i.e. we submit to Allah) (3:52) during the two (voluntary) Rak`ah before Fajr.”

Abu Al-Aliyah, Ar-Rabi and Qatadah said,

“Al-Asbat are the twelve sons of Jacob, and each one of them had an Ummah of people from his descendants. This is why they were called Al-Asbat.”

Al-Khalil bin Ahmad and others said,

“Al-Asbat among the Children of Israel are just like the tribes among the Children of Ismail.”

This means that the Asbat are the various tribes of the Children of Israel, among whom Allah sent several Prophets. Moses said to the Children of Israel,

اذْكُرُواْ نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ جَعَلَ فِيكُمْ أَنْبِيَآءَ وَجَعَلَكُمْ مُّلُوكاً

Remember the favor of Allah to you: when He made Prophets among you, made you kings. (5:20)

Also, Allah said,

وَقَطَّعْنَـهُمُ اثْنَتَىْ عَشْرَةَ أَسْبَاطًا

And We divided them into twelve tribes. (7:160)

Al-Qurtubi said,

“Sibt is the group of people or a tribe all belonging to the same ancestors.”

Qatadah said,

“Allah commanded the believers to believe in Him and in all His Books and Messengers.”

Also, Sulayman bin Habib said,

“We were commanded to believe in the (original) Torah and Injil, but not to implement them.”

Previous 136

فَإِنْ ءَامَنُواْ بِمِثْلِ مَآ ءَامَنتُمْ بِهِ فَقَدِ اهْتَدَواْ وَّإِنْ تَوَلَّوْاْ فَإِنَّمَا هُمْ فِى شِقَاقٍ

2:137 So if they believe in the like of that which you believe then they are rightly guided; but if they turn away, then they are only in opposition.

فَسَيَكْفِيكَهُمُ اللَّهُ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

So Allah will suffice for you against them. And He is the Hearer, the Knower.

صِبْغَةَ اللَّهِ وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ مِنَ اللَّهِ صِبْغَةً وَنَحْنُ لَهُ عَـبِدونَ

2:138 (Our Sibghah (religion) is) the Sibghah of Allah (Islam) and which Sibghah can be better than Allah’s And we are His worshippers.

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Next 139-141

Allah said,

فَإِنْ آمَنُواْ بِمِثْلِ مَا آمَنتُم بِهِ …

So if they believe in the like of that which you believe,

Allah said, if they, the disbelievers among the People of the Book and other disbelievers, believe in all of Allah’s Books and Messengers and do not differentiate between any of them,

… فَقَدِ اهْتَدَواْ …

then they are rightly guided,

meaning, they would acquire the truth and be directed to it.

… وَّإِن تَوَلَّوْاْ …

but if they turn away,

from truth to falsehood after proof had been presented to them,

… فَإِنَّمَا هُمْ فِي شِقَاقٍ فَسَيَكْفِيكَهُمُ اللّهُ …

then they are only in opposition. So Allah will suffice you against them,

meaning, Allah will aid the believers against them.

… وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ ﴿١٣٧﴾

And He is the Hearer, the Knower.

Allah said,

صِبْغَةَ اللّهِ وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ مِنَ اللّهِ صِبْغَةً وَنَحْنُ لَهُ عَابِدونَ ﴿١٣٨﴾

Our Sibghah (religion) is) the Sibghah of Allah (Islam) and which Sibghah can be better than Allah’s. And we are His worshippers.

Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn Abbas commented on Allah’s statement, صِبْغَةَ اللّهِ (The Sibghah of Allah),

“The religion of Allah.”

This Tafsir was also reported of Mujahid, Abu Al-`Aliyah, Ikrimah, Ibrahim, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, Abdullah bin Kathir, Atiyah Al-Awfi, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, As-Suddi and other scholars.

The Ayah, فِطْرَةَ اللَّهِ (Allah’s Fitrah (i.e. Allah’s Islamic Monotheism), (30:30) directs Muslims to, “Hold to it.”

Previous 137-138

قُلْ أَتُحَآجُّونَنَا فِى اللَّهِ وَهُوَ رَبُّنَا وَرَبُّكُمْ وَلَنَآ أَعْمَـلُنَا وَلَكُمْ أَعْمَـلُكُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُخْلِصُونَ

2:139 Say (O Muhammad to the Jews and Christians), “Dispute you with us about Allah while He is our Lord and your Lord And we are to be rewarded for our deeds and you for your deeds. And we are sincere to Him (i.e. we worship Him alone and none else, and we obey His orders).”

أَمْ تَقُولُونَ إِنَّ إِبْرَهِيمَ وَإِسْمَـعِيلَ وَإِسْحَــقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالأَسْبَاطَ كَانُواْ هُودًا أَوْ نَصَارَى

2:140 Or say you that Ibrahim, Ismail, Ishaq, Yaqub and Al-Asbat, were Jews or Christians!

قُلْ ءَأَنتُمْ أَعْلَمُ أَمِ اللَّهُ وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنْ كَتَمَ شَهَـدَةً عِندَهُ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَـفِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ

Say, “Do you know better or does Allah! And who is more unjust than he who conceals the testimony he has from Allah And Allah is not unaware of what you do.”

تِلْكَ أُمَّةٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَلَكُم مَّا كَسَبْتُم وَلاَ تُسْـَلُونَ عَمَّا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

2:141 That was a nation who has passed away. They shall receive the reward of what they earned, and you of what you earn. And you will not be asked of what they used to do.

 

Allah directed His Prophet to pre-empt the arguments with the idolators:

قُلْ أَتُحَآجُّونَنَا فِي اللّهِ …

Say (O Muhammad to the Jews and Christians), “Dispute you with us about Allah,

meaning, “Do you dispute with us regarding the Oneness of Allah, obedience and submission to Him and in avoiding His prohibitions!

… وَهُوَ رَبُّنَا وَرَبُّكُمْ …

while He is our Lord and your Lord,

meaning, He has full control over us and you, and deserves the worship alone without partners.

… وَلَنَا أَعْمَالُنَا وَلَكُمْ أَعْمَالُكُمْ …

And we are to be rewarded for our deeds and you for your deeds.

meaning, we disown you and what you worship, just as you disown us.

Allah said in another Ayah,

وَإِن كَذَّبُوكَ فَقُل لِّى عَمَلِى وَلَكُمْ عَمَلُكُمْ أَنتُمْ بَرِيئُونَ مِمَّآ أَعْمَلُ وَأَنَاْ بَرِىءٌ مِّمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ

And if they belie you, say: “For me are my deeds and for you are your deeds! You are innocent of what I do, and I am innocent of what you do!” (10:41)

and,

فَإنْ حَآجُّوكَ فَقُلْ أَسْلَمْتُ وَجْهِىَ للَّهِ وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَنِ

So if they dispute with you (Muhammad) say: “I have submitted myself to Allah (in Islam), and (so have) those who follow me.” (3:20)

Allah said about Ibrahim,

وَحَآجَّهُ قَوْمُهُ قَالَ أَتُحَاجُّونِّى فِى اللَّهِ

His people disputed with him. He said: “Do you dispute with me concerning Allah.” (6:80)

and,

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِى حَآجَّ إِبْرَهِيمَ فِى رِبِّهِ

Have you not looked at him who disputed with Ibrahim about his Lord (Allah). (2:258)

He said in this honorable Ayah,

… وَلَنَا أَعْمَالُنَا وَلَكُمْ أَعْمَالُكُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُخْلِصُونَ ﴿١٣٩﴾

And we are to be rewarded for our deeds and you for your deeds. And we are sincere to Him.

meaning, “We disown you just as you disown us,”

… وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُخْلِصُونَ

And we are sincere to Him,

in worship and submission.

Allah said,

أَمْ تَقُولُونَ إِنَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَـقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالأسْبَاطَ كَانُواْ هُودًا أَوْ نَصَارَى …

Or say you that Ibrahim, Ismail, Ishaq, Yaqub and Al-Asbat, were Jews or Christians!

Allah criticized them in the claim that Ibrahim, the Prophets who came after him and the Asbat were following their religion, whether Judaism or Christianity.

Allah said,

… قُلْ أَأَنتُمْ أَعْلَمُ أَمِ اللّهُ …

Say, “Do you know better or does Allah!”

meaning, Allah has the best knowledge and He stated that they were neither Jews, nor Christians.

Similarly, Allah said in the Ayah,

مَا كَانَ إِبْرَهِيمُ يَهُودِيًّا وَلاَ نَصْرَانِيًّا وَلَكِن كَانَ حَنِيفًا مُّسْلِمًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

Ibrahim was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was a true Muslim Hanifa (to worship none but Allah alone) and he was not of Al-Mushrikin. (3:67) and the following Ayat.

Allah also said,

… وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّن كَتَمَ شَهَادَةً عِندَهُ مِنَ اللّهِ …

And who is more unjust than he who conceals the testimony he has from Allah,

Al-Hasan Al-Basri said,

They used to recite the Book of Allah He sent to them that stated that the true religion is Islam and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. Their Book also stated that Ibrahim, Ismail, Ishaq, Yaqub and the tribes were neither Jews, nor Christians. They testified to these facts, yet hid them from the people.

Allah’s statement,

… وَمَا اللّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ ﴿١٤٠﴾

And Allah is not unaware of what you do.

is a threat and a warning that His knowledge encompasses every one’s deeds, and He shall award each accordingly.

Allah then said,

تِلْكَ أُمَّةٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ …

That was a nation who has passed away.

meaning, existed before you.

… لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَلَكُم مَّا كَسَبْتُمْ …

They shall receive the reward of what they earned, and you of what you earn.

meaning, they bear their deeds while you bear yours.

… وَلاَ تُسْأَلُونَ عَمَّا كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُونَ ﴿١٤١﴾

And you will not be asked of what they used to do.

meaning, the fact that you are their relatives will not suffice, unless you imitate their good deeds.

Further, do not be deceived by the fact that you are their descendants, unless you imitate them in obeying Allah’s orders and following His Messengers who were sent as warners and bearers of good news.

Indeed, whoever disbelieves in even one Prophet, will have disbelieved in all the Messengers, especially if one disbelieves in the master and Final Messenger from Allah, the Lord of the worlds, to all mankind and the Jinns. May Allah’s peace and blessings be on Muhammad and the rest of Allah’s Prophets.

Previous 139-141

سَيَقُولُ السُّفَهَآءُ مِنَ النَّاسِ مَا وَلَّـهُمْ عَن قِبْلَتِهِمُ الَّتِى كَانُواْ عَلَيْهَا

2:142 The fools (idolators, hypocrites, and Jews) among the people will say: “What has turned them (Muslims) from their Qiblah (prayer direction (towards Jerusalem)) to which they used to face in prayer.”

قُل لّلَّهِ الْمَشْرِقُ وَالْم