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Hamzatul-wasl and Hamzatul-Qat With Examples in Arabic, Quran, And Tajweed Rules

Hamzatul-wasl and Hamzatul-Qat With Examples in Arabic, Quran, And Tajweed Rules

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What is Hamza?

Hamza is not one of the 28 complete Arabic alphabets. Hamza can be written by itself, as a letter, or it can be written with a carrier, in which case it becomes a diacritical mark:( ء   أ  إ  ئ   ؤ)

There are two types of Hamza: Hamzatul-wasl and Hamzatul Qut. They have comparable appearances but different traits and regulations. To read the Holy Quran accurately, Hamzatul-wasl and Hamzatul-qat must be used and spoken correctly. 

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What Is Hamzatul-wasl?

A Hamzah that joins or links is known as Hamzatul Wasl. It is a non-phonemic glottal stop that is only created at the start of a word; otherwise, it is assimilated.

What Is Hamzatul-qat?

A little letter hamza (ء) is placed above the word’s first letter to indicate that Hamzatul-qat is a non-connecting Hamza. A glottal stop is used to pronounce Hamzatul-qat when a word begins with a letter that has sukon or hamza. Hamzatul-qat interrupts, stops, or ends the utterance in contrast to hamzatul wasl.

Difference Between Hamzatul-wasl and Hamzatul-qat:

Hamzatul-wasl and Hamzatul-qat are not the same because both Arabic hamzas have specific rules and qualities. They are read and treated differently. Here are a few key distinctions between Hamzatul-wasl and Hamzatul-qat.

In contrast to hamzatul wasl, which is only heard at the beginning of the word, Hamzatul-qat can be said at the start, middle, or finish. In contrast to Hamzatul-qat, which can have both a diacritical mark and sukon, Hamzatul-wasl does not appear with a diacritical mark.
In contrast to hamzatul wasl, which only manifests in one form, Hamzatul-qat can take many various shapes.  Hamzatul-wasl is a connecting letter while Hamzatul-qat is a cutting letter. 

To distinguish between hazmat-wasl and hazmat-qat, a conjunction, such as waw (و), can be added in front of the word that begins with the hamza. If it disappears in the pronunciation, then it is a connecting hamzah, but if it remains clear in its pronunciation, then it is a severing hamzah, and it must be proven when writing the spelling of the word.

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Hamzatul-wasl In Arabic:

in Arabic, the word’s first letter clearly indicates the presence of Hamzatul Wasl. It is employed in a variety of sentence constructions, such as the conjunction of various verbs, following the definite article, and in the case of some pronouns.  

Hamzatul-wasl In The Quran:

Hamzatul-wasl is also known as Aliful-wasl or Connecting Hamza. It is pronounced as a typical vowel sound in the Quran. It appears as only One form(ٱ). When a word starts with an alif or vowel letter, it can be recognized. Hamzatul wasl, also known as a connecting hamza, connects the word to the preceding word in speech and recitation but does not end the sentence or break it.  

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Hamzatul-wasl Rules:

There are many rules for writing and reading hamzatul wasl, including:

  • Hamzatul-wasl in Tajweed is an extra hamza at the beginning of the word.
  • Hamzatul-wasl is found in verbs, nouns, and letters.
  • It consonantly comes after it.
  • Hamzatul-wasl in Tajweed is given to start with the word that begins with a consonant, as the Arabs do not begin with a consonant.
  • Hamzatul-wasl is fixed at the beginning of the word and is omitted if a vowel letter precedes or when connecting the word to the one before it, due to the dependence of the consonant letter after it on the spoken letter that preceded it
  • The sign set in the Holy Qur’an is to put a half s صــ above the Alif (ٱ).
  • Hamzatul-wasl in Tajweed is written in a manner like a letter alif (ا). In the Holy Qur’an, it has a little saad (صــ) drawn on top, making it easy to differentiate between it and the letter alif. 
  • When the reciter starts with a term that contains hamzatul wasl, it is audibly sounded.
  • hazmat-tariff (definite article اَلْ) is considered a hamzatul-wasl and is not written even though it is pronounced clearly as if it is a hamzatul-qat.

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Hamzatul-wasl Examples in Quran:

Here are some examples about Hamzatul-wasl in the Holy Quran:

Example 1

وَقُلِ ٱلْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ ٱلَّذِى لَمْ يَتَّخِذْ وَلَدًۭ
Wa qulil hamdu lillaahil adhia lam yatakhidh waladanۭ

The phrase (Wa qulil hamdu lillaahil وَقُلِ ٱلْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ) indicates its presence as a constructive letter in the previous verse. Here Hamzatul-wasl is employed to form the phrase even though it is silent and cannot be read. If this hamza appears at the start of the word, it is pronounced. For instance, the word will now be recited as) Alhamdu lillaahil (الْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ if you omit the “Wa quill” and only wish to read.

Example 2

فَمَنِ اعْتَدَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ فَاعْتَدُوا عَلَيْهِ بِمِثْلِ مَا اعْتَدَىٰ عَلَيْكُم
faman aetadaa ealaykum faetaduu ealayh bimithl ma etadaa ealaykum

In Arabic, there are four different categories of verbs, each of which differs in the number of letters that make up the verb’s core. Arabic has three-letter, four-letter, five-letter, and six-letter fundamental verbs. The previous Quranic verse demonstrates how Hamzatul-wasl can start past verbs with five or six letters so the word will now be recited as (ma etadaa مَا اعْتَدَى) because Hamzatul-wasl is silent and cannot be read.

Hamzatul-wasl Exceptions:

Hamzatul-wasl is always read with a Kasrah in the following words regardless of what is on the third letter. Only the following verbs in the Qur’an where the third letter carrying a dammah but a kasrah is set and pronounced to the hamzatul wasl.

  •  ابْنُوا Ibnuu 
  •  امْشُوا  Imshuu 
  •  اقْضُوا Iq’dhuu 
  •  ائتوا I’tuu 
  •  امضوا  Imdhuu

Hamzatul-wasl After Tanween:

If Hamzatul-wasl is preceded in the pronunciation of tanween, then the nun of tanween must be pronounced with the kasrah to get rid of the consonants coming together: The first consonant is the pronounced nun of tanween, and the second consonant is the letter that follows Hamzatul Wasl, because Hamzatul-wasl is not pronounced during the speech, as we indicated previously.

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Hamzatul-qat Rules:

There are many rules for writing and reading hamzatul wasl, including:

  • It is an original hamza in the word.
  • It comes at the beginning, middle and last word.
  • It is found in verbs, nouns, and letters.
  • It is followed by a consonant or a vowel.
  • It has four different appearances: As its own form and with three vowels letter (ء   أ  إ  ئ   ؤ)
  • Its pronunciation is constant in speech and recitation. It is pronounced as a Hamza, even whether it has a Sukon or it is sitting on another letter. 

Hamzatul-qat Examples:

Hamzatul-qat appears at the start, middle, and conclusion of sentences multiple times in the Holy Quran:  

Example 1:

It may read as follows at the beginning of the word. 

إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ مُنتَهَىٰهَآ
‘iilaa rabik muntahaaha

Example 2:

It may read as follows in the middle of the word: 

يَسْـَٔلُونَكَ عَنِ ٱلسَّاعَةِ أَيَّانَ مُرْسَىٰهَا
Yas’alunak ean alsaaeat ‘ayaan mursaaha

Example 3:

It may read as follows at the end of the word 

وَٱلسَّمَآءِ وَمَا بَنَىٰهَا
walsama’ wama banaaha

Learn Hamzatul Wasl and Hamzat al-Qat in Tajweed:

It is essential to prioritize How to Learn Tajweed Rules, including hamzatul-wasl and hamzatul-qat, and invest the appropriate time and effort in it.

Understanding our responsibilities is one of our most important duties so that we can receive Allah’s kindness. Therefore, one should always use Tajweed as a springboard and learn hamzatul-wasl and hamzatul-qat as well as be familiar with their applications in order to recite verses from the Qur’an, consider their meanings, comprehend them, and embellish their recitation in order to stand out from other textual readings.

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