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Madd Al Badal in Tajweed: A Vital Rule for Correct Quranic Recitation

Madd Al Badal

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“Madd Al Badal,” often referred to as “exchange lengthening” in Tajweed, is a specific rule applied during the recitation of the Quran. This rule is invoked when there are two consecutive hamzas (ء) in a word, and the second hamza is marked with a sukoon (ـْ ), which is a non-vocalized marker in Arabic script.

The essence of Madd Al Badal lies in the substitution of the second hamza, which has a sukoon, with a madd letter. A madd letter is a long vowel in Arabic (ا, و, ي). The specific madd letter used for substitution depends on the haraka (vowel sign) of the preceding letter. The haraka can be a fatha (ـَ), a kasra (ـِ), or a damma (ـُ).

For instance:

  • If the first hamza is followed by a fatha, the second hamza is replaced by the madd letter ‘ا’ (alef).
  • If it is followed by a kasra, the second hamza is replaced by ‘ي’ (ya).
  • If it is followed by a damma, the second hamza is replaced by ‘و’ (waw).

This substitution enhances the fluidity and musicality of Quranic recitation, making it easier and more beautiful. It addresses the difficulty that might arise from pronouncing two consecutive hamzas, especially when the second is non-vocalized.

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Madd Badal Letters and Corresponding Harakas

Madd Letter Corresponding Haraka Haraka Symbol Haraka Name
ا (Alef) ـَ Fatha Open vowel, similar to ‘a’ in “cat”
و (Waw) ـُ Damma Rounded vowel, similar to ‘u’ in “put”
ي (Ya) ـِ Kasra Front vowel, similar to ‘i’ in “bit”

How to Apply Madd Al Badal?

To apply Madd Al Badal in Tajweed, a specific set of rules is followed when two hamzas occur in the same word. This rule is particularly relevant when the second hamza in the sequence is marked with a sukoon, a non-vocalized sign. Here’s a step-by-step outline of how to apply this rule:

  1. Identify the Sequence of Hamzas: First, look for a word in the Quran that contains two consecutive hamzas.
  2. Check for Sukoon: Ensure that the second hamza in the sequence is marked with a sukoon (ـْ ).
  3. Determine the Haraka of the First Hamza: Observe the vowel sign (haraka) on the first hamza. This can be a fatha (ـَ), kasra (ـِ), or damma (ـُ).
  4. Substitute with the Appropriate Madd Letter:
    • If the first hamza has a fatha, replace the second hamza (with sukoon) with ‘ا’ (alef).
    • If the first hamza has a kasra, replace the second hamza with ‘ي’ (ya).
    • If the first hamza has a damma, replace the second hamza with ‘و’ (waw).
  5. Pronounce Correctly: The substituted madd letter should be elongated for two counts during recitation, ensuring a smooth and melodious flow.

By following these steps, the reciter can apply Madd Al Badal accurately, thereby enhancing the recitation of the Quran with proper pronunciation and rhythm. This rule is essential for maintaining the integrity and beauty of Quranic recitation.

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Examples of Madd Al Badal

Original Form (With Sukoon) Transformed Form (With Madd Letter) Explanation
أُؤْتينا (U’otina) وَأُوتِينَا (wa ‘ootina) The original form has the second hamza with a sukoon. In the transformed form, this hamza is replaced with ‘و’ (waw) due to the damma on the first hamza.
إئْتاء (I’itaa) وَا۪يتَٓائِ (wa eetaae) Here, the second hamza with a sukoon is replaced by ‘ي’ (ya) as the first hamza has a kasra.
أأْدم (A’adama) ءادم (aadama) The second hamza with sukoon is replaced by ‘ا’ (alef) because the first hamza has a fatha.

The Role of Madd Al Badal in Quranic Recitation

Madd Al Badal is a notable feature in the recitation of the Quran, contributing to its rhythmic and melodic quality. This rule is applied in various verses throughout the Quran to facilitate smoother and more beautiful recitation.

  • Enhancing Fluidity: Madd Al Badal helps in creating a seamless flow in recitation, especially in verses where two hamzas occur in succession, and the second hamza has a sukoon.
  • Easing Pronunciation: The rule simplifies the pronunciation of certain words in the Quran that might otherwise be challenging to articulate due to back-to-back hamzas.
  • Preserving Rhythm: It maintains the rhythmic pattern of the verses, which is an integral aspect of Quranic recitation.

Hint: Still Curious? Enhance your Quranic recitation with Tajweed rules. Explore proper pronunciation, modulation, and unique elements.

Hint: Still Curious? Deepen your understanding of Madd Tajweed rules with detailed explanations and examples also Delve into Madd leen Article to enhance your recitation of the Quran.


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