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Noon Sakinah and Tanween Rules And Examples – Izhaar, Idghaam, Iqlaab, And Ikhfa

Noon Sakinah and Tanween
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Noon Sakinah and Tanween are among the easiest and the most popular tajweed rules in the Quran. Learning Noon Sakin and Tanween is very helpful for Quran and Tajweed students as it helps them correctly pronounce Quran words whenever they encounter a Noon Sakinah or Tanween. In this article, we will define Noon Sakinah and Tanween. Moreover, we will simply clarify their rules in Tajweed along with giving examples from the Quran. 

What Is Noon Sakinah In Arabic?

Noon Sakin is simply the Arabic letter Noon (ن) with sukoon (نْ), or let’s say it is the letter Noon without any Haraka. The Noon Sakinah is usually an essential letter in the word that cannot be omitted. It can also occur in the middle or the end of any word.

This Noon Sakinah is pronounced in different ways in the Quran depending on the letters following it either in the same word or the following word if linked together through recitation.

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What Is Tanween In Arabic?

Tanween is a symbol written on the final letter of the word and is recited as a Noon with Sukoon after the word’s last letter. It is an extra disguised Noon Sakinah where it is pronounced as Noon Sakinah, however, not written as a Noon.

There are three types of Tanween, which will be simplified in the following paragraphs.

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Tanween Fath With Examples

It is a type of Tanween named after the haraka ‘Fatha’. Although tanween itself is pronounced as a Noon Sakinah, Fatha denotes the haraka of the letter preceding Tanween; namely the last letter in the word.

Tanween Fath is usually symbolized as two Fathas over each other on the last letter of the word ( ً  ).  It is usually followed by a letter alif (ا).

For example: The word (رجلًا) is pronounced as ‘Rajula-n’.

The word (رسولًا) is pronounced as ‘Rasula-n’.

(i.e. note that the last letter is Mutahrarrik (has a fatha haraka) and a disguised Noon Sakinah (Tanween) is pronounced after it plus an added Alif after the Tanween Fath).

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Tanween Kasr With Examples

It is a type of Tanween that is named after the haraka ‘Kasra’. Actually Tanween itself is pronounced as a Noon Sakinah at the end of the word. However, Kasra is the haraka of the letter preceding the Tanween, which is always the final letter in the word.

Tanween Kasr is symbolized as two kasras written below the last letter of the word ( ٍ  ). It isn’t followed by any extra letter.

For example: The word ( رجلٍ ) is pronounced as ‘Rajuli-n’.

The word ( رسولٍ ) is pronounced as ‘Rasuli-n’.

(i.e. note that the words are pronounced just as previously except that the last letter of the word has a different haraka; Kasra, and with no added letter after the Tanween Kasr)

Tanween Damm With Examples

Tanween Damm is a type of Tanween that is named after the haraka ‘Dammah’. This simply denotes that the last letter of the word before Tanween would be pronounced with Dammah while the Tanween is usually a Noon Sakinah. 

Tanween Damm is symbolized by two Dammas written over the final letter in the word ( ٌ  ). It isn’t followed by any extra letter.

For example: The word ( رجلٌ ) is pronounced as ‘Rajulu-n’.

The word (رسولٌ) is pronounced as ‘Rasulu-n’.

(i.e. note that the words are pronounced just as previously except that the last letter of the word has a different haraka; Dammah, and with no added letter after the Tanween Damm)

The Difference Between Noon Sakin and Tanween In The Quran:

In the following table, we will briefly simplify the differences between the Noon Sakinah and Tanween based on the previous discussion.

  Noon Sakinah Tanween
Essential/ Extra  Essential Extra
Occurence:Type Of Words Occurs in Nouns, Verbs, and Huroof Occurs only in Nouns
Occurence: Place In The Word Occurs in the middle or in the end of the word Occurs only in the end of the word
Written As: Noon with Sukoon/ without Haraka Two Fathas or Two Kasras, or Two Dammas on the last letter in the word.
Recited As: Noon Sakinah Noon Sakinah
Tajweed Rules Izhar, Idghaam, Iqlaab, and Ikhfaa Izhar, Idghaam, Iqlaab, and Ikhfaa
Examples يَنْهَوْنَ أَنْبِئْهُمْ هُدىً لِلْمُتَّقِينَ

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The Rules of Noon Sakin And Tanween in Tajweed:

There are four common Tajweed rules for Noon Sakinah and Tanween. Since Tajweed is essentially a matter of pronunciation and Noon Sakinah and Tanween are more or less similarly pronounced, they both share the same rules.

The rules of Noon Sakinah and Tanween depend on the letter following them in a word. This letter defines whether the Noon Sakinah/Tanween will be pronounced as Izhar, Idghaam, Iqlaab, or Ikhfaa. 

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Noon Sakin and Tanween Izhaar Rules -Izhar Halqi?

Izhar literally means clarification or reciting clearly. In Tajweed, Izhar is the pronunciation of the Noon Sakinah/Tanween clearly from its proper origin in the mouth when preceding an Izhar letter. ‘Halqi’ refers to the throat, where the Tajweed letters of Izhaar actually originated from the throat.

(i.e. Izhaar is never accompanied by Ghunnah).

What Are The Letters Of Izhaar?

There are six letters of Izhaar Halqi. These letters are: Hamza ( ء ), Haa ( ه ), Ayn ( ع ), Haa ( ح ), Ghayn ( غ ), and Khaa ( خ ).

When any of these letters follow Noon Sakinah/Tanween, Izhaar rule applies.

Examples On Noon Sakin Izhar Halqi Rules

In the following table, we will mention some examples on Izhaar of Noon Sakinah.

Letter Noon Sakinah In The Middle Example from Quran Noon Sakinah In The End Example from Quran
Haa – ه يَنْهَوْنَ عَنْهُ (Quran 6:26) مِنْ هادٍ (Quran 13:33)
Hamza – ء ويَنْئوْنَ (Quran 7:59) مِنْ إِلهٍ (Quran 7:59)
Ayn – ع أَنْعَمْتَ (Quran 1:7) مِنْ عَلَقٍ (Quran 96:2)
Haa – ح يَنْحِتُونَ (Quran 15:82) مِنْ حَكِيمٍ (Quran 41:42)
Ghayn – غ فَسَيُنْغِضُونَ (Quran 17:51) مِّنْ غِلٍّ (Quran 15:47)
Khaa – خ وَٱلْمُنْخَنِقَةُ (Quran 4:3) مِنْ خَيْرٍۢ (Quran 2:272)

Examples On Tanween Izhar Halqi Rules

In the following table, we will mention some examples on Izhaar of Tanween.

  Tanween (Always in the end)
Hamza – ء

مِنْ ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنْثى

(Tanween in the end of the word (ذَكَرٍ ) is followed by the letter Hamza in the next word) (Quran 16:97)

Haa – ه

سَلَـٰمٌ هِىَ حَتَّىٰ مَطْلَعِ ٱلْفَجْرِ 

(Tanween in the end of the word ( سَلَـٰمٌ  ) is followed by letter Hamza in the next word) (Quran 97:5)

Ayn – ع

يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ

(Tanween in the end of the word (يَوْمٍ  ) is followed by letter Ayn in the next word)

(Quran 7:59)

Haa – ح

حَكِيمٍ حَمِيدٍ

(Tanween in the end of the noun (حَكِيمٍ  ) is followed by letter Haa in the next word)  (Quran 41:42)

Ghayn – غ

ماءٍ غَيْرِ آسِنٍ

(Tanween in the end of the noun (ماء) is followed by letter Ghayn in the next word) (Quran 47:15)

Khaa – خ يومئذ خاشعة

(Tanween in the end of the word ( يَوْمَئِذٍ) is followed by letter Ghayn in the next word) (Quran 88:2)

Noon Sakin and Tanween Idghaam Rules – What Is Idghaam?

Idgham literally means to mix together or to put something into the other. In Tajweed, it means mixing up the pronunciation of Noon Sakinah/Tanween (Sakin letter/has Sukoon) with one of the Idhaam letters (Mutaharik letter/has Harakah) so that they become one single Mushaddad letter (With Shaddah), where this Mushaddad letter is of the Mutaharrik letter’s sound. 

(i.e. Idgham may and may not be accompanied by Ghunnah of two beats (sound originating from the nose) depending on the Idghaam letter).

What Are The Letters Of Idghaam?

There are six letters of Idghaam in the Arabic Alphabet. These letters are: Yaa (ي), Raa (ر), Meem (م), Laam (ل), Waw (و), and Noon (ن). 

These letters are Mutaharrik (has haraka), and when following the Noon Sakinah/Tanween, Idghaam occurs.

What Are The Types Of Idghaam?

There are two types of Idghaam depending on whether Ghunna applies or not. 

  • The First Type is Idghaam with Ghunna. This applies if Noon Sakinah/Tanween precedes any of these four letters: Yaa (ي), Noon (ن), Meem (م), and Waw (و).

Ghunna is a sound coming out of the nose while pronouncing the Idghaam. Ghunna amount is two beats (The time taken to fold and unfold your finger slowly).

  • The Second type is Ighaam without Ghunna. This applies to the remaining two letters of Idghaam which are Raa (ر) and Laam (ل).

Examples On Noon Sakin Idghaam Rules

First Idghaam with Ghunnah:

  Noon Sakinah
Yaa (ي)

فَمَن يَعْمَلْ 
(Noon Sakinah in the end of the Harf (مِنْ) is followed by letter Yaa in the next word)  (Quran 99:7)

Noon (ن)

مِن نُّطْفَةٍ 

(Noon Sakinah in the end of the Harf (مِنْ) is followed by letter Noon in the next word) (Quran 53:46)

Meem (م)

مِنْ مالٍ

(Noon Sakinah in the end of the Harf (مِنْ) is followed by letter Meem in the next word)  (Quran 23:55)

Waw (و) مِنْ والٍ

(Noon Sakinah in the end of the Harf (مِنْ) is followed by letter Waw in the next word)  (Quran 13:11)

Second Idghaam without Ghunnah:

  Noon Sakinah
Raa (ر)

مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ
(Noon Sakinah in the end of the Harf (مِنْ) is followed by letter Raa in the next word) (Quran 2:5)

Laam (ل) سائغًا للشاربين

(Noon Sakinah at the end of the Harf (مِنْ) is followed by letter Laam in the next word) (Quran 16:66)

Examples On Tanween Idghaam Rules

First Idghaam with Ghunnah:

  Tanween
Yaa (ي) وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ
(Tanween in the end of the noun (وُجُوهٌ ) is followed by letter Yaa in the next word)
(Quran 88:2)
Noon (ن) أَمْشاجٍ نَبْتَلِيهِ
(Tanween in the end of the noun (أَمْشاجٍ  ) is followed by letter Noon in the next word) (Quran 76:2)
Meem (م) هُدىً مِنْ
(Tanween in the end of the noun (هُدىً ) is followed by letter Meem in the next word) (Quran 2:5)
Waw (و) مالٍ وَبَنِينَ
(Tanween in the end of the noun (مالٍ ) is followed by letter Waw in the next word)  (Quran 23:55)

Second Idghaam without Ghunnah:

  Tanween
Raa (ر) ثمرةٍ رزقًا
(Tanween in the end of the word (ثمرةٍ ) is followed by letter Raa in the next word)  (Quran 2:25)
Laam (ل) هُدىً لِلْمُتَّقِينَ
(Tanween in the end of the noun (هُدىً ) is followed by letter Laam in the next word)
(Quran 2:2)

Noon Sakin and Tanween Iqlaab Rules – What Is Iqlaab?

Iqlaab literally means to convert something into another. In Tajweed, Iqlaab means converting Noon Sakinah/ Tanween into a Meem letter without Harakah ( م ) when preceding an Iqlab letter.

(i.e. Iqlaab should be always accompanied by Ghunnah of two beats).

What Are The Letters Of Iqlaab?

There is only one letter of Iqlaab which is the letter Baa ( ب ). When Baa follows Noon Sakinah/Tanween, Noon Sakinah/Tanween are converted into Meem.

Examples On Noon Sakin Iqlaab Rules

  Noon Sakinah
Baa ( ب ) أَنْبِئْهُمْ
(Noon Sakinah in the end of the verb (أَنْبِئْهُمْ) is followed by letter Baa in the same word)  (Quran 2:33)

Examples On Tanween Iqlaab Rules 

  Tanween
Baa ( ب ) لَنَسْفَعًا بِالنَّاصِيَةِ
(Tanween in the end of the verb (لَنَسْفَعًا ) is followed by letter Baa in the next word)
I.e. This word is an exception of the verbs with Tanween.
(Quran 96:15)

Noon Sakin And Tanween Ikhfaa Rules – What Is Ikhfaa?

Ikhfaa literally means to hide something or prevent it from appearing. In Tajweed. Ikhfaa means to hide the Noon Sakinah/Tanween from clear pronunciation when preceded by Ikhfaa letters. 

Ikhfaa is actually an intermediate phase between Izhaar and Idghaam, where Noon Sakinah/Tanween is not clearly pronounced nor totally mixed up into the following letter.

(i.e. Ikhfaa is always accompanied by Ghunnah of two beats).

What Are The Letters Of Ikhfaa?

The letters of Ikhfaa are the rest of the Arabic Alphabet letters other than the six letters of Izhaar, the six letters of Idghaam, and the letter of Iqlaab.

When one of these letters follows Noon Sakinah/Tanween, Ikhfaaa rules apply.

Examples On Noon Sakin Ikhfaa Rules

  Noon Sakinah
Saad (ص ) وَالْأَنْصارِ
(Noon Sakinah in the end of the noun (وَالْأَنْصارِ) is followed by letter Saad in the same word)
(Quran 9:100)
Taa ( ت ) أَنْ تَعْتَدُوا
(Noon Sakinah in the end of the harf (أَنْ) is followed by letter Taa in the next word)
(Quran 5:2)
Dhaal ( ذ ) وأنذرهم
(Noon Sakinah in the end of the verb (أنذرهم) is followed by letter Dhaal in the same word)
(Quran 19:39)

Examples On Tanween Ikhfaa Rules

  Tanween
Thaa ( ث ) قَوْلًا ثَقِيلًا
(Tanween in the end of the noun (قَوْلًا ) is followed by letter Thaa in the next word) (Quran 73:5)
Dhaal ( ذ ) بسلامٍ ذلك
(Tanween in the end of the noun (بسلامٍ ) is followed by letter Dhaal in the next word) (Quran 50:34)
Zaa ( ز ) نفساً زكية
(Tanween in the end of the noun (نفساً ) is followed by letter Zaa in the next word)
(Quran 18:74)

Table Of Comparison Between Izhaar, Idghaam, Iqlaab, and Ikhfaa 

In this table, we will summarize the rules of Noon Sakinah and Tanween.

  Izhaar Idghaam Iqlaab Ikhfaa
Meaning Izhaar is the clear pronounciation of Noon Sakinah and Tanween when followed by Izhar letter. Idghaam is mixing Noon Sakinah/Tanween with the Idghaam letter to become one single Mushaddad letter. Iqlaab is turning Noon Sakinah/Tanween into Meem when followed by a Baa letter. Ikhfaa is hiding the Noon Sakinah/Tanween when followed by Ikhfaa letter.
Letters Hamza ( ء ), Haa ( ه ), Ayn ( ع ), Haa ( ح ), Ghayn ( غ ), and Khaa ( خ) Yaa (ي), Raa (ر), Meem (م), Laam (ل), Waw (و), and Noon (ن).  Baa ( ب ) The Rest of The Arabic Alphabet
Ghunnah Without Ghunnah With/Without Ghunnah With Ghunnah With Ghunnah

Conclusion | Noon Sakinaah And Tanween In Tajweed

Noon Sakinah and Tanween rules are one of the most popular and easiest Tajweed rules. They are four rules: Izhaar, Idghaam, Iqlaab, and Ikhfaa.

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Delve into the intriguing concept of Lam Shamsiyya and Lam Qamariyya, the two groups of Arabic letters that play a significant role in proper pronunciation. Discover how Lam Shamsiyya letters, also known as Sun Letters, and Lam Qamariyya letters, also known as Moon Letters, affect the pronunciation of words and how they are used in the Quran.

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