There are a few letters that have the properties of both Tafkheem and Tarqeeq. This depends on several factors; namely the Haraka of this letter and the letters before or after.
These letters are (Raa ر – Laam ل – Alif Maddiyya ا ) and also the Ghunna.
Tafkheem And Tarqeeq Of Letter Raa
Letter Raa would be heavy if any of these conditions occur:
- If the Raa has a fatha.
- If the Raa has a dhamma.
- If the Raa with a permanent sukoon and follows a letter with fatha or a damma in the same word.
- If the Raa carries a permanent sukoon, and it follows a permanent kasra in the same word, BUT it precedes a heavy letter.
- If the Raa carries a permanent sukoon, however, the preceding kasra lies in the previous word.
- If the Raa carries a permanent sukoon, but it follows a temporary kasra.
- If the Raa carries a temporary sukoon, but it follows a fatha or a damma, or an alif, or wow madiyyah.
- If the Raa carries a sukoon and is preceded by another letter with sukoon, we will look at the letter before them both. If that letter carries a fatha or damma, the Raa would be heavy.
Letter Raa would be light If any of these conditions are met:
- If Raa carries a kasra.
- If Raa carries a permanent sukoon, and follows a kasra in the same word, AND no heavy letter comes after it in the same word.
- If Raa carries a temporary sukoon, and follows a kasra in the same word or Ya Sakinah.
- If Raa carries a sukoon and follows another letter with sukoon, we will look at the letter before that. If that letter has a kasra, the Raa will be light.
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In the following chart, there is a brief summary of Tafkheem and Tarqeeq of letter Raa with some exceptions of the rule:
|The Rule of Raa: Light / Heavy
|إِۦلَـٰفِهِمْ رِحْلَةَ ٱلشِّتَآءِ وَٱلصَّيْفِ (Quran 106:2)
|أَلَمْ تَرَ كَيْفَ (Quran 105:1)
|وَٱلْمُرْسَلَـٰتِ عُرْفًۭا (Quran 77:1)
|Both Raa are Heavy
|فِرْعَوْنَ وَثَمُودَ (Quran 85:18)
|الرَّحْمَٰنُ عَلَّمَ الْقُرْآنَ (Quran 55:1-2(
|Both are Heavy
Tafkheem And Tarqeeq Of Letter Laam
The Lam is always light. However, when it comes to the name ‘Allah’ it could sometimes be heavy. The Lam in Allah could be heavy in either of these two cases:
- If the letter just before the word ‘Allah’ carries a Fatha or a Damma.
- If the Qari’ starts reciting by the name of ‘Allah’.
|The Laam Rule: Light / Heavy
|قَالَ إِنِّي عَبْدُ الـلَّهِ
|بِسْمِ الـلَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ
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This chart simplifies the rule of Lam Tafkheem and Tarqeeq:
Tafkheem And Tarqeeq Of Lengthened Alif (Alif Maddiyyah)
The Tafkheem and Tarqeeq of Alif Maddiyyah depend on the letter preceding it. If the letter preceding it is heavy, it will be heavy. Likewise, if the letter before it is light, it would be light.
|Alif Rule: Light / Heavy
|وَلَآ أُقْسِمُ بِٱلنَّفْسِ ٱللَّوَّامَةِ (Quran 75:2)
|هُوَ ٱلْأَوَّلُ وَٱلْـَٔاخِرُ وَٱلظَّـٰهِرُ (Quran 57:3)
|ٱهْدِنَا ٱلصِّرَٰطَ ٱلْمُسْتَقِيمَ (Quran 1:6)
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Tafkeem And Tarqeeq Of Ghunna
The Ghunna is not a typical letter of the Arabic Alphabet. However, it is a sound that comes out of the nose and accompanies some letters in certain Tajweed rules.
The Tafkheem and Tarqeeq of Ghunna depend on the letter that follows it. If the letter following it is heavy, it would be heavy, and vice versa.
|Ghunna Rule: Light/Heavy
|فَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ (Quran 99:7)
|مِن قَبْلُ هُدًۭى لِّلنَّاسِ (Quran 3:4)
Delve deeper into the proper pronunciation of specific Arabic letters, such as Raa, Laam, and Alif, with the rules of Tafkheem and Tarqeeq. Explore the concept of Ghunna, the nasal sound, and understand how it affects the sound of these letters in recitation.
Embark on a journey to master the pronunciation of Arabic letters with Tajweed. This section offers a step-by-step guide with English examples, making it easier for beginners to grasp the intricacies of Tajweed letters.