Arabic Madd rules in Tajweed mean long vowels. Conventionally, it may be defined as making some specific Arabic letters long under some conditions. Learn all about the rules of Madd in Tajweed and Arabic.
Learn the types of Madd (Tabee’ee, Badal, Ewadd, ‘Ared Li- Ssukoon, Al- Leen. Wajeb Muttasil, Ja’ez Munfasil, Lazem) in Details.
Madd Letters in Arabic:
Maad Letters are easy to apply because letters of Madd only be prolonged from 2 to 6 beats depending upon their kind.
There are three letters of the Arabic Alphabet used for prolonging the short vowels:
A. Leen Letters
1- The Letter Yaa “ي” Saakin preceded by a letter with a Fatha. For example قُرَيْش
2- The Letter Waaoo “و” Saakin preceded by a letter with a Fatha. For Example: خَوْف
B. Huroof Maddiyyah
1- Letter Alif “ا” Saakin preceded by a fatha.
For example: بِحِجَارَة
2- The Letter Waaoo “و” Saakin preceded by a Dammah.
For example: جُوع
3- The Letter Yaa’ “ي” Saakin preceded by a Kasrah.
For example: دِينُكُم
What are the Madd rules in Quranic recitation?
In the context of the Quran, “Madd” refers to the elongation of vowel sounds while reciting the Quranic verses. These rules are an essential part of Tajweed, the art of Quranic recitation, aimed at ensuring that the Quran is recited in a manner similar to the way it was revealed. The Madd rules are categorized into different types, each with its own set of guidelines on how long a vowel sound should be elongated. Here are some of the primary types of Madd:
Types of Madd:
There are 8 types of Madd that are used in Tajweed. These types are:
- Madd Tabee’ee
- Madd Al- Badal
- Madd Ewadd
- Madd A’red Li- Ssukoon
- Madd Al- Leen
- Madd Wajeb Muttasil
- Madd Ja’ez Munfasil
- Madd Lazem
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Let’s Get started with the first type of Maad:
1. Madd Tabee’ee (Natural Maad)
Natural Madd is simply one type of Madd that exists when the Madd letters “ا” or “و” or “ي” (Huroof Maddiyyah), the reader should prolong the natural Madd for only two beats.
Examples of Madd Tabee’ee:
- قَالَ Madd Alif
- أَخِي Madd Yaa’
- ثَمُودُ Madd Waaoo
2. Madd Al- Badal (Due to Hamzah)
Maad Al- Badal is one of the types of madd that can be defined to refer to any letter Hamza preceding a Madd letter. When this case exists, the reader should prolong the natural Madd for only two beats.
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Examples of Madd Al- Badal:
3. Madd Ewadd (Compensation Madd)
Madd Ewadd is one of the types of madd that can be defined as “Compensation” of a Tanween Fatha present at the end of a word while stopping at it with an Alif Madd.
The reader should prolong the Madd Ewadd for two beats.
Examples of Madd Ewadd:
4. Madd ‘Ared Li- Ssukoon
Madd A’red Li- Sskoon is one of the types of madd that can be defined as “temporary Madd for stopping”. If the Maad Tabee’ee (Natural Maad in the letters ا or و or ي) is followed by a letter at the end of a word, which has been made sakin temporary because the reader has to stop at the word, the reader should prolong the Madd Tabee’ee to be Madd ‘Ared Li Ssukoon.
Maad A’red Li Ssukoon is prolonged for 2, 4, or 6 beats.
(Note: Madd A’red Li- Sskoon only exists if the reader stops on that word. If the reader doesn’t stop on it, it should be considered as a Madd Tabee’ee ‘Natural Madd’ 2 beats).
Examples of Madd ‘Ared Li- Ssukoon:
5. Madd Al-Leen (the Madd of Easiness):
Madd Al- Leen is simply can be defined as “Easy”.
What are the Leen Letters?
The Leen letters are: A Waaoo و or Yaa’ ي Sakin preceded by a letter with a fatha.
When should we apply this Madd?
We apply the Madd Al- Leen If one of these Leen letters is followed by a letter at the end of a word, which has been sakin due to stoppage.
The reader, in this case, should prolong the Leen letter. He can prolong it by 2, 4, or 6 beats.
Examples Madd Al- Leen:
6. Madd Wajeb Muttasil (Due to Hamzah)
Madd Wajeb Muttasil simply means “Mandatory Madd” and Muttasil means “Joined”.
If a Madd letter (ا or ي or و ) is followed by a Hamzah (ء) which is present in the same word, the reader should prolong it for 4-5 beats.
Madd muttasil examples:
7. Madd Ja’ez Munfasil
Madd Ja’ez Munfasil simply means “Ja’iz = Permitted”, and Munfasil means “Separated”. So, Madd Ja’ez Munfasil is a permitted separated madd.
Madd Ja’ez Munfasil happens when a Madd Letter (ا or ي or و ) present at the end of a word is followed by a Hamzah (ء) which is present at the beginning of the next word, the reader should prolong the Madd letter 4-5 beats.
Examples of Madd Ja’ez Munfasil:
- إِنَّآ أَنزَلْنَٰهُ
- ٱلَّذِىٓ أَطْعَمَهُم
- ٱلَّذِىٓ أَنقَضَ
8. Madd Lazem (necessary prolongation)
The Madd Lazem is a necessary prolongation of the letters of Madd. Madd Lazem is considered as one of the longest madd in Tajweed because it is prolonged by 6 beats.
Madd Lazem has two main types and each type of them has another 2 types. So the overall types of Madd Lazem are 4 types of necessary prolongation.
Madd Lazem Chart
The Chart of the types of Maad Lazem
Madd Lazwm Kalimee means that madd occurs in a word the madd Lazim Harfee means the madd occurs in a Letter.
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1. Madd Lazem Kalimee Muthaqqal:
Madd Lazem Kalimee Muthaqqal occurs when the Madd letter is followed by a Mushaddad letter (Letter with Shaddah).
In this case, the reader must prolong the Madd letter for 6 beats.
Examples of Madd Lazem Kalimee Muthaqqal:
2. Madd Lazem Kalimee Mukhafaf:
Madd Lazem Kalimee Mukhafaf occurs when the Madd letter is followed by a sakin letter, which is present in the same word, the reader must prolong the Madd letter for 6 beats.
Example of Madd Lazem Kalimee Mukhafaf:
This is the Only case in the Holy Quran
3. Madd Lazem Harfee Muthaqqal
Madd Lazem Harfee Muthaqqal occurs when the Maad letter is followed by a Mushaddad letter, the reader must prolong the Madd Letter for 6 beats.
Examples of Madd Lazem Harfee Muthaqqal:
4. Madd Lazem Harfee Mukhafaf
Madd Lazem Harfee Mukhafaf occurs when the Madd letter is followed by a sakin letter, both of them present in the same letter. The reader must prolong the Madd Letter for 6 beats.
Examples of Madd Lazem Harfee Mukhafaf:
Embark on a journey to master the pronunciation of Arabic letters with Tajweed. This section offers a step-by-step guide with English examples, making it easier for beginners to grasp the intricacies of Tajweed letters.
Learn the Rules of Madd with An Arabic Tutor:
Arabic Madd rules are easy to apply if the Quran learner is diligent and if he is learning with a Quran teacher and learning the ruling of reading with Tajweed as ‘Muhammad ibn Al- Jazzarae the great Quran and Hadith scholar of the 9th century says in his famous poem, explaining the rules of Tajweed:
“And Applying Tajweed is an issue of necessity, whoever is careless to learn Tajweed or doesn’t apply Tajweed to the Quran, then a sinner is he.”
So, he regarded it as an obligation and whoever neglects the Tajweed as a sin.
The Majority of Islamic scholars agree that applying the Tajweed rules of the Quran is an individual obligation upon every Muslim who has memorized or read the Quran.
Allah Subhanuh wata’alah says in the Quran Surah Al- Muzzammil:
“Or add to it and recite the Qur’an with measured recitation.”
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Written By Sister Esraa Adel.