Tajweed is the discipline that encapsulates the rules governing the pronunciation of the Quranic text during recitation. Among these rules is the concept of “Hams,” a vital aspect that affects the articulation of Arabic letters.
What is Hams?
Hams is a term derived from Arabic that means “whisper.” In the context of Tajweed, which is the set of rules for the correct pronunciation of the words in the Quran, Hams refers to the quality of certain Arabic letters that are pronounced with a noticeable flow of breath. This characteristic is the opposite of “imprisoning” the breath, which is associated with other letters and is known as Jahr. Hams imparts a softer, whisper-like sound to the pronunciation of these letters as if the breath is gently escaping during their articulation.
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Characteristics and Application
|Nature of Hams
|A whisper-like, subtle emission of breath during pronunciation.
|Influence on Pronunciation
|It results in a lighter articulation, reducing the emphasis on the letter’s point of articulation.
Key Considerations in Applying Hams
When reciting letters with the characteristics of Hams, it’s important to:
- Avoid Complete Closure: Do not fully close the articulation point of the letter to allow breath to pass.
- Moderate Pressure: Apply gentle pressure on the articulation point to enable the breath to flow.
Opposites in Tajweed: Hams vs. Jahr
In the dichotomy of Tajweed characteristics, Hams is juxtaposed with Jahr, the latter being defined by the retention of breath, which imparts a degree of strength and fullness to the letter’s pronunciation. This contrast highlights the delicate balance in Quranic recitation between breathiness and bold articulation.
Characteristics of Hams
In Tajweed, Hams is associated with a set of specific characteristics that define its application and impact on Quranic recitation.
|Whisper, the concealment of breath
|Running of breath due to weakness in the letter’s origin
|Weakens strict reliance on the articulation point
Understanding these characteristics is essential for properly applying the concept of Hams during recitation. Reciters must ensure that the airflow is present during pronunciation, which characteristically softens the delivery of the letter. This approach contrasts with the pronunciation of letters where the breath is ‘imprisoned’ or held back, resulting in a stronger, more emphatic sound.
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Letters Exhibiting Hams
The Arabic letters that exhibit the characteristic of Hams are indeed pronounced with a whisper-like, breathy quality. Here’s a table presenting these letters and the related pronunciation notes:
|Requires a flow of breath, distinct from the English ‘f’, which is pronounced with less breath flow. It should sound as if the breath is escaping alongside the formation of the sound.
|Pronounced with an airy quality, similar to the English ‘th’ in ‘think’, but with a more pronounced emission of breath.
|While this sound does not have a direct English equivalent, it is produced deep in the throat with an accompanying flow of breath.
|Similar to the Scottish ‘loch’, it has a strong breathy sound, coming from the back of the throat.
|A gentle, breathy version of the English ‘h’, as if exhaling a breath on a cold day.
|Has a deep, guttural sound from the deepest part of the tongue.
|More forceful and breathy than the English ‘h’, produced from the middle of the throat.
|Pronounced with a breathy sound, although it carries additional emphatic quality not present in English.
|Pronounced with a breathy sound, although it carries an additional emphatic quality.
|Like the ‘sh’ in ‘shy’, but with a softer, breathier quality.
These letters when pronounced correctly with Hams, give the recitation a soft and whispery texture, which is one of the beauties of Quranic recitation. Reciters must practice to achieve the right balance of breathiness without compromising the clarity of each letter.
Opposite of Hams: Al-Jahr
In Tajweed, the concept of Al-Jahr stands in contrast to Hams. While Hams involves the flow of breath, Al-Jahr is characterized by a controlled, restricted breath flow.
|Imprisonment of the running breath due to strength in its origin
|Demonstrates strength at the articulation point, contrasting the weakness indicated by Hams
Al-Jahr demands a more pronounced and forceful articulation, where the breath is held back, thus emphasizing the letter’s presence and resonance. This characteristic is essential in the precise delivery of the Quranic text, ensuring each letter’s properties are honored according to the rules of Tajweed.
Practical Application of Hams in Tajweed
Incorporating Hams into Tajweed practice involves a nuanced approach to pronunciation:
- Articulation Point: Ensure that the articulation point of the letter is not completely sealed. This allows for the characteristic whispery sound as air passes through.
- Pressure on Articulation Point: Apply a light touch at the articulation point. This moderation is what permits the breath to flow, which is essential for producing the Hams quality in the letter’s pronunciation.
Comparison with Other Tajweed Rules
Understanding Hams within the broader scope of Tajweed rules aids in grasping the complexities of Arabic phonetics.
Al-itbaq vs. Al-infitah
|The tongue adheres to the palate during pronunciation, creating a distinct sound that is more contained and focused.
|There is a deliberate space left between the tongue and the palate, allowing for a different resonance that is more open and expansive.
Al-itbaq vs. Al-infitah These contrasting characteristics highlight the precision required in Tajweed to produce the intended sounds accurately. Each rule, including Hams, plays a critical role in the proper articulation and recitation of the Quranic text.
Al-idhlaq vs. Al-ismat in Tajweed
The distinction between Al-idhlaq and Al-ismat highlights the intricacies of articulation in Tajweed, each presenting a unique way of pronouncing certain Arabic letters.
|Pronounced with ease and fluidity, allowing the sound to flow smoothly.
|Characterized by a certain heaviness and fullness in pronunciation.
Al-idhlaq involves a lighter, more effortless pronunciation where the letter’s sound is produced without tension. In contrast, Al-ismat requires a firmer pronunciation, imparting a sense of gravity and depth to the sound. These attributes contribute to the rich tapestry of Quranic recitation, ensuring each word is delivered with its full spectrum of phonetic expression.
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