This article is among the articles discussing one of the rules of Tajweed which is Heavy And Light Letters or Tafkheem and Tarqeeq. Tajweed is a set of rules put in by Muslim scholars to help Muslims recite the Quran as was revealed to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) from Allah (SWT). This article will discuss Tajweed rules related to Tafkheem/heavy letters and Tarqeeq/light letters in brief.
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Tafkheem And Tarqeeq Rules ( Tajweed rules heavy and light letters):
Tafkheem and Tarqeeq rules are a set of rules related to the proper pronunciation of Tajweed letters in the Quran. The majority of letters are Muraqaq (Light) while the minority are Mufakham (Heavy). There are also letters that could be either Mufakham (Heavy) or Muraqaq (light) according to the position and Haraka of the letter.
To understand more about the pronunciation of Tajweed letters, you can read about the rules of Ikhfaa’ Haqiqi
What Is Tafkheem ( Tafkheem meaning)?
Tafkeem is the heaviness in the body of the Mufakham (heavy) letter, thus by pronouncing it, the mouth is filled with echo or reverberation.
The letters of Tafkheem or the heavy letters are called the letters of Isti’laa (the letters that rise up high). This means that while pronouncing these letters, the tongue is elevated creating a space between the bottom and the roof (soft palate) of the mouth. This allows the reverberation and the heaviness to occur.
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Tafkheem Letters ( heavy letters in Arabic):
Tafkeem letters are the minority of letters. There are only seven letters of the Arabic Alphabet. In the following table, we will list these letters in descending order according to their level of Tafkheem along with examples from the Quran.
|Isti’laa/Tafkheem/ Heavy letter||Example from the Quran||Number of Surah And Verse (Follow Links to Hear Pronunciation)|
|1.||Taa – ط||وَأَن لَّوِ اسْتَقَامُوا عَلَى الطَّرِيقَةِ لَأَسْقَيْنَاهُم مَّاءً غَدَقًا||Quran 72:16|
|2.||Daad – ض||وَأَقْرِضُوا اللَّهَ قَرْضًا حَسَنًا||Quran 73:20|
|3.||Saad – ص||وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاةَ||Quran 2:3|
|4.||Dhaa – ظ||وَإِنَّ لِلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا عَذَابًا دُونَ ذَلِكَ||Quran 52:47|
|5.||Qaaf – ق||إنَّ اللَّه عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ||Quran 2:20|
|6.||Ghayn – غ||صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ||Quran 1:7|
|7.||Khaa – خ||خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أُوْلَئِكَ هُمْ شَرُّ الْبَرِيَّةِ||Quran 98:6|
The Levels Of Tafkheem:
The levels of Tafkheem vary among different Tajweed schools. There is more than one school of levels of Tafkheem where one states they are three levels while the other suggests they are five.
Here we will mention the school of five levels. These levels are listed in descending order as follows:
1- A heavy letter with a Fatha followed by a lengthened Alif (Alif Maddiyya)
2- A heavy letter with a Fatha
3- A heavy letter with a Damma
4- A heavy letter with a Kasra
5- A heavy letter with a Sukoon
We would recommend you listen to the Arabic pronunciation of Tafkeem letters in different levels of Tafkheem on YouTube. Also, we would recommend you join Quran House Academy Tajweed Courses for professional and practical Tajweed learning.
صَلَاة (Salaat): The letter ص (Saad) is pronounced with Tafkheem, giving it a heavy sound.
ضَرَب (Darb): The letter ض (Dhaad) is pronounced with Tafkheem, making it sound heavy.
طَيِّب (Tayyib): The letter ط (Taa) is pronounced with Tafkheem, adding a heavy quality to it.
ظُلْم (Zulm): The letter ظ (Zaa) is pronounced with Tafkheem, making it sound heavy.
قَلَم (Qalam): The letter ق (Qaaf) is pronounced with Tafkheem, giving it a heavy sound.
غَيْر (Ghayr): The letter غ (Ghayn) is pronounced with Tafkheem, making it sound heavy.
خَيْر (Khayr): The letter خ (Khaa) is pronounced with Tafkheem, adding a heavy quality to it.
أَرْض (Ardh): In this word, the letter ر (Raa) is pronounced with Tafkheem because it is followed by a Dhaad, another Tafkheem letter.
قُرْآن (Qur’an): Here, the letter ر (Raa) is pronounced with Tafkheem because it is preceded by a Qaaf, a Tafkheem letter.
What Is Tarqeeq?
Tarqeeq is the thinning in the body of the Muraqqaq/ light letter, where the mouth is not filled with echo or reverberation.
The Light letters are called the letters of ‘Istifal’, which means ‘falling down’. That’s totally the opposite of Istila’ letters previously mentioned in Tafkheem. Where these Istifal letters let the tongue rest down at the bottom of the mouth with no echo observed.
A crucial aspect of mastering Arabic language involves understanding the usage of Hamzatul-wasl and Hamzatul-Qat. These two types of the Arabic letter “Hamza” have unique rules that dictate their pronunciation. For a comprehensive understanding, refer to our guide on Hamzatul-wasl and Hamzatul-Qat With Examples in Arabic
Tarqeeq Letters (light letters in Arabic):
Letters of Tarqeeq are the majority of the Arabic Alphabet. It is easier to consider that they are all the letters except the letters of Tafkheem (ط – ض- ص – ظ – غ – خ) and the letters that could be either light or heavy (ر- ل – ا).
In the following table, we will list a few examples of Tarqeeq letters:
|Istifal/Tarqeeq/light Letters:||Example From The Quran:||The Number Of Surah And Verse:|
|1.||Taa – ت||إِنَّهُ كَانَ تَوَّابًا||Quran 110:3|
|2.||Seen – س||رَبِّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا الرَّحْمَنِ||Quran 78:37|
|3.||Meem – م||الرَّحْمَٰنُ عَلَّمَ الْقُرْآنَ||Quran 55:1|
Letters That Could be Heavy or light:
There are a few letters that have the properties of both Tafkheem and Tarqeeq. This depends on several factors; namely the Haraka of this letter and the letters before or after.
These letters are (Raa ر – Laam ل – Alif Maddiyya ا ) and also the Ghunna.
Learn More about them from this article: Tafkheem And Tarqeeq Of Letters: Raa, Laam, And Alif with Ghunna Rules
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مَكَة (Makkah): The letters م (Meem) and ك (Kaaf) are pronounced with Tarqeeq, giving them a light sound.
نُور (Noor): The letters ن (Noon) and و (Waw) are pronounced with Tarqeeq, making them sound light.
سَمَاء (Samaa): The letters س (Seen) and م (Meem) are pronounced with Tarqeeq, adding a light quality to them.
رِياح (Riyaah): In this word, the letter ر (Raa) is pronounced with Tarqeeq because it has a kasra (ـِ).
زَرَع (Zara’): Here, the letter ر (Raa) is pronounced with Tarqeeq because it is surrounded by Tarqeeq letters (ز and ع).
فِكْر (Fikr): The letters ف (Faa) and ك (Kaaf) are pronounced with Tarqeeq, making them sound light.
شِفَاء (Shifaa): The letters ش (Sheen) and ف (Faa) are pronounced with Tarqeeq, giving them a light sound.
بِسْمِ (Bismi): The letters ب (Ba) and س (Seen) are pronounced with Tarqeeq, making them sound light.
تَفَاح (Tafaah): The letters ت (Ta) and ف (Faa) are pronounced with Tarqeeq, adding a light quality to them.
Other Tafkheem and Tarqeeq examples:
- صلاة (Salah): The letter ص is pronounced with a heavy sound.
- طيب (Tayyib): The letter ط is pronounced with a heavy sound.
- قلم (Qalam): The letter ق is pronounced with a heavy sound.
- مكة (Makkah): The letters م and ك are pronounced with a light sound.
- نور (Noor): The letters ن and ر are pronounced with a light sound.
- سماء (Samaa): The letters س and م are pronounced with a light sound.
Examples of tafkheem and tarqeeq of Raa:
In Arabic phonetics, particularly in the context of Tajweed and Quranic recitation, the letter “ر” (Raa) can be pronounced with either Tafkheem (heavy) or Tarqeeq (light) depending on the surrounding letters and the presence of certain vowels. Here are some examples to illustrate:
Tafkheem of Raa (ر):
Tafkheem occurs when the Raa is accompanied by a fatha (ـَ), damma (ـُ), or shadda (ـّ), and is preceded or followed by one of the Tafkheem letters (ص, ض, ط, ظ, ق, غ, خ).
- رَقَد (Raqad): Here, Raa is heavy because it is followed by a Qaaf, which is a Tafkheem letter.
- أَرْض (Ardh): In this word, Raa is heavy because it is followed by a Dhaad, another Tafkheem letter.
- قُرْآن (Qur’an): Here, Raa is heavy because it is preceded by a Qaaf, a Tafkheem letter.
Tarqeeq of Raa (ر):
Tarqeeq occurs when the Raa is accompanied by a kasra (ـِ) or is surrounded by Tarqeeq letters.
- رِياح (Riyaah): Here, Raa is light because it has a kasra.
- مَرَر (Marar): In this word, Raa is light because it is not surrounded by any Tafkheem letters.
- زَرَع (Zara’): Here, Raa is light because it is surrounded by Tarqeeq letters.
Tafkheem and Tarqeeq are among the most important Tajweed rules. They are related to the qualities of the letters either Isti’la’ or Istifal.
The majority of letters are light, while the minority are heavy. Besides, there are some letters that bear the qualities of both Tafkheem and Tarqeeq according to its context.
In this article, we discussed the rules of Tafkheem and Tarqeeq in brief along with several examples. If you want to learn more Tajweed, join our Online Mastering Tajweed Course at Quran House Academy.
What are Tafkheem letters in Arabic ( 7 heavy letters tajweed)?
The Arabic letters that are pronounced with Tafkheem are as follows:
- ص (Saad)
- ض (Dhaad)
- ط (Taa)
- ظ (Zaa)
- ق (Qaaf)
- غ (Ghayn)
- خ (Khaa)
What are Tarqeeq letters in Arabic?
Since the Tafkheem letters are ص, ض, ط, ظ, ق, غ, and خ, all other Arabic letters are generally considered to be Tarqeeq letters. Some of these include:
أ (Alif), ب (Ba), ت (Ta), ث (Tha), ج (Jeem), ح (Haa), د (Dal), ذ (Dhal), ر (Ra), ز (Zay), س (Seen), ش (Sheen), ف (Faa), ك (Kaaf), ل (Lam), م (Meem), ن (Noon), هـ (Haa), و (Waw), ي (Yaa).
Learning Tajweed, the art of proper Quranic recitation, can be a rewarding and spiritually enriching journey. If you’re a beginner looking for a comprehensive yet easy-to-follow guide, check out our article on How to learn Tajweed of The Quran? – Beginner Fast And Easy Guide