This article is among the articles discussing one of the rules of Tajweed which is Heavy And Light Letters or Tafkheem and Tarqeeq. Tajweed is a set of rules put in by Muslim scholars to help Muslims recite the Quran as was revealed to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) from Allah (SWT). This article will discuss Tajweed rules related to Tafkheem/heavy letters and Tarqeeq/light letters in brief.
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Here we will learn the following:
Tafkheem And Tarqeeq Rules:
Tafkheem and Tarqeeq rules are a set of rules related to the proper pronunciation of Tajweed letters in the Quran. The majority of letters are Muraqaq (Light) while the minority are Mufakham (Heavy). There are also letters that could be either Mufakham (Heavy) or Muraqaq (light) according to the position and Haraka of the letter.
What Is Tafkheem?
Tafkeem is the heaviness in the body of the Mufakham (heavy) letter, thus by pronouncing it, the mouth is filled with echo or reverberation.
The letters of Tafkheem or the heavy letters are called the letters of Isti’laa (the letters that rise up high). This means that while pronouncing these letters, the tongue is elevated creating a space between the bottom and the roof (soft palate) of the mouth. This allows the reverberation and the heaviness to occur.
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Tafkeem letters are the minority of letters. They are only seven letters of the Arabic Alphabet. In the following table, we will list these letters in descending order according to their level of Tafkheem along with examples from the Quran.
|Isti’laa/Tafkheem/ Heavy letter||Example from the Quran||Number of Surah And Verse (Follow Links to Hear Pronunciation)|
|1.||Taa – ط||وَأَن لَّوِ اسْتَقَامُوا عَلَى الطَّرِيقَةِ لَأَسْقَيْنَاهُم مَّاءً غَدَقًا||Quran 72:16|
|2.||Daad – ض||وَأَقْرِضُوا اللَّهَ قَرْضًا حَسَنًا||Quran 73:20|
|3.||Saad – ص||وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاةَ||Quran 2:3|
|4.||Dhaa – ظ||وَإِنَّ لِلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا عَذَابًا دُونَ ذَلِكَ||Quran 52:47|
|5.||Qaaf – ق||إنَّ اللَّه عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ||Quran 2:20|
|6.||Ghayn – غ||صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ||Quran 1:7|
|7.||Khaa – خ||خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أُوْلَئِكَ هُمْ شَرُّ الْبَرِيَّةِ||Quran 98:6|
The Levels Of Tafkheem:
The levels of Tafkheem vary among different Tajweed schools. There is more than one school of levels of Tafkheem where one states they are three levels while the other suggests they are five.
Here we will mention the school of five levels. These levels are listed in descending order as follows:
1- A heavy letter with a Fatha followed by a lengthened Alif (Alif Maddiyya)
2- A heavy letter with a Fatha
3- A heavy letter with a Damma
4- A heavy letter with a Kasra
5- A heavy letter with a Sukoon
Learn More About Noon Sakin And Tanween.
We would recommend you listen to the Arabic pronunciation of Tafkeem letters in different levels of Tafkheem on YouTube. Also, we would recommend you join Quran House Academy Tajweed Courses for professional and practical Tajweed learning.
What Is Tarqeeq?
Tarqeeq is the thinning in the body of the Muraqqaq/ light letter, where the mouth is not filled with echo or reverberation.
The Light letters are called the letters of ‘Istifal’, which means ‘falling down’. That’s totally the opposite of Istila’ letters previously mentioned in Tafkheem. Where these Istifal letters let the tongue rest down at the bottom of the mouth with no echo observed.
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Letters of Tarqeeq are the majority of the Arabic Alphabet. It is easier to consider that they are all the letters except the letters of Tafkheem (ط – ض- ص – ظ – غ – خ) and the letters that could be either light or heavy (ر- ل – ا).
In the following table, we will list a few examples of Tarqeeq letters:
|Istifal/Tarqeeq/light Letters:||Example From The Quran:||The Number Of Surah And Verse:|
|1.||Taa – ت||إِنَّهُ كَانَ تَوَّابًا||Quran 110:3|
|2.||Seen – س||رَبِّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا الرَّحْمَنِ||Quran 78:37|
|3.||Meem – م||الرَّحْمَٰنُ عَلَّمَ الْقُرْآنَ||Quran 55:1|
Learn more about Lam Shamsiyah and Lam Qamariya.
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Letters That Could be Heavy or light:
There are a few letters that have the properties of both Tafkheem and Tarqeeq. This depends on several factors; namely the Haraka of this letter and the letters before or after.
These letters are (Raa ر – Laam ل – Alif Maddiyya ا ) and also the Ghunna.
Learn More about them from this article: Tafkheem And Tarqeeq Of Letters: Raa, Laam, And Alif with Ghunna Rules
Conclusion | A Summarized Tafkheem And Tarqeeq Chart
Tafkheem and Tarqeeq are among the most important Tajweed rules. They are related to the qualities of the letters either Isti’la’ or Istifal.
The majority of letters are light, while the minority are heavy. Besides, there are some letters that bear the qualities of both Tafkheem and Tarqeeq according to its context.
In this article, we discussed the rules of Tafkheem and Tarqeeq in brief along with several examples. If you want to learn more Tajweed, join our Online Mastering Tajweed Course at Quran House Academy.
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