Makki And Madani Surahs: Characteristics Of Makki And Madani Surahs

Makki And Madani Surahs Characteristics Of Makki And Madani Surahs

Learn the concept of Makki and Madani Surahs in the Quran. Understanding the difference between Makki and Madani Surahs is crucial in understanding the context, themes, and historical background of the Quranic revelation.

The Makki Surahs focus on the fundamental teachings of Islam and highlights the struggles of early Muslims, while the Madani Surahs provide guidance on specific issues related to the establishment of an Islamic state.

What Are makki and Madani Surahs?

The Quran contains 114 Surahs in total (one hundred and fourteen). 89 surahs are Makki and 25 surahs are madani.

The surahs of the Quran are categorized into two types: Makki and Madani. In this article, we’ll explore the characteristics, differences, and lists of Makki and Madani surahs.

The name “Quran” means recitation. The verses within each surah are referred to as Ayats. Some are Makki surah and some are Madani surah in Quran. There is some disagreement about the exact number of Makki and Madani Surahs.

What are Makki Surahs?

Makki surahs are the chapters that were revealed to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) before the migration to Medina. 

They focus on the basic teachings of Islam and highlight the struggles of the early Muslims against the persecution and oppression of the pagan Meccan leaders. 

Makki surahs have strong poetic and rhetorical characteristics, using repetition, metaphor, and vivid imagery to convey their message.

What are mandani Surahs?

Madani Surahs are surahs revealed after the migration of Prophet Muhammad (saw) to the Madinah City from Makkah. They usually teach the believers the Islamic rulings and the rules that should govern their state in Madinah.

Characteristics of Makki and Madani Surahs:

1. The Way of Addressing the Listeners:

In Makki Surahs, generally, the form of address used is يا أيها الناس (O people), and in Madani Surahs, it is يا أيها الذين آمنوا (O believers).

2. Short and Long Verses:

The Makki Ayat (Verses) and Surahs are generally short and brief while the Madani verses and chapters are long and detailed.

3. Types of Teachings:

The Makki Surahs mostly consist of subjects such as the Oneness of Allah, Prophethood, affirmation of the Hereafter, the panorama of the Resurrection, words of comfort for the Holy Prophet (PBUH), and events relating to the past communities.

The number of injunctions and laws taken up is much less as compared with the Madani Surahs where family and social laws, the injunctions of jihad, and expositions of limits and duties appear frequently.

4. Types of Enemies:

4. In Makki Surahs, most of the confrontation is against idolaters while in Madani Surahs it is against the people of the Book and the hypocrites.

5. The Writing Style:

The style of Makki Surahs is more majestic. It has a profusion of metaphors, similes and allegories, and the vocabulary used is extensive. Contrary to this, the style of the Madani Surahs is comparatively simple.

Makki Surah list:

Out of the 114 surahs in the Quran, 86 are Makki surahs, and 28 are Madani surahs. Here’s a list of Makki surahs that you can refer to:

  1. Al-Fatiha (The Opening) .
  2. Al-Baqarah (The Cow).
  3. Al-Imran (The Family of Imran).
  4. An-Nisa’ (The Women).
  5. Al-Ma’idah (The Table Spread).
  6. Al-An’am (The Cattle).
  7. Al-A’raf (The Heights).
  8. Al-Anfal (The Spoils of War).
  9. At-Tawbah (The Repentance).
  10. Yunus (Jonah).
  11. Hud.
  12. Yusuf (Joseph).
  13. Ar-Ra’d (The Thunder).
  14. Ibrahim (Abraham).
  15. Al-Hijr (The Rocky Tract).
  16. An-Nahl (The Bees).
  17. Al-Isra’ (The Night Journey).
  18. Al-Kahf (The Cave).
  19. Maryam (Mary).
  20. Ta-Ha.
  21. Al-Anbiya’ (The Prophets).
  22. Al-Hajj (The Pilgrimage).
  23. Al-Mu’minun (The Believers).
  24. An-Nur (The Light).
  25. Al-Furqan (The Criterion).
  26. Ash-Shu’ara’ (The Poets).
  27. An-Naml (The Ants).
  28. Al-Qasas (The Narrations).
  29. Al-‘Ankabut (The Spider).
  30. Ar-Rum (The Romans).

The Rest of the Surahs are the Madani Ones.

Longest Makki surah in Quran:

The seventh chapter of the Quran, Surah Araf, has 206 verses. It is the longest Makki surah. And it was revealed at Mecca. In the Surah Araf, God and humanity made a covenant. 

In which all people bore witness to God’s unity, His lordship, and the afterlife. Surah Araf recitation will increase sustenance and act as a defense against Shatan on the Day of Resurrection.

The Revelation of the Quran in Makkah and Madinah

During the month of Ramadan, the Quran was revealed to the Holy Prophet PBUH for the first time. The first revelation consists of the first five ayahs of Surah Alaq or Iqra, the 96th Surah. 

After a brief pause, angel Jibrail arrived and recited to the Holy Prophet PBUH the first few ayahs of the 74th Surah (Surah Al-Mudassir). For the next twenty-three years, revelations continued in Makkah and Madinah.

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Written By Nidhal Ahmed.


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